This file documents the use of the GNU compilers.

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Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with the Invariant Sections being “Funding Free Software”, the Front-Cover Texts being (a) (see below), and with the Back-Cover Texts being (b) (see below). A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”.

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A GNU Manual

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Introduction

This manual documents how to use the GNU compilers, as well as their features and incompatibilities, and how to report bugs. It corresponds to the compilers (Ubuntu/Linaro 4.7.3-2ubuntu1~12.04) version 4.7.3. The internals of the GNU compilers, including how to port them to new targets and some information about how to write front ends for new languages, are documented in a separate manual. See Introduction.


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1 Programming Languages Supported by GCC

GCC stands for “GNU Compiler Collection”. GCC is an integrated distribution of compilers for several major programming languages. These languages currently include C, C++, Objective-C, Objective-C++, Java, Fortran, Ada, and Go.

The abbreviation GCC has multiple meanings in common use. The current official meaning is “GNU Compiler Collection”, which refers generically to the complete suite of tools. The name historically stood for “GNU C Compiler”, and this usage is still common when the emphasis is on compiling C programs. Finally, the name is also used when speaking of the language-independent component of GCC: code shared among the compilers for all supported languages.

The language-independent component of GCC includes the majority of the optimizers, as well as the “back ends” that generate machine code for various processors.

The part of a compiler that is specific to a particular language is called the “front end”. In addition to the front ends that are integrated components of GCC, there are several other front ends that are maintained separately. These support languages such as Pascal, Mercury, and COBOL. To use these, they must be built together with GCC proper.

Most of the compilers for languages other than C have their own names. The C++ compiler is G++, the Ada compiler is GNAT, and so on. When we talk about compiling one of those languages, we might refer to that compiler by its own name, or as GCC. Either is correct.

Historically, compilers for many languages, including C++ and Fortran, have been implemented as “preprocessors” which emit another high level language such as C. None of the compilers included in GCC are implemented this way; they all generate machine code directly. This sort of preprocessor should not be confused with the C preprocessor, which is an integral feature of the C, C++, Objective-C and Objective-C++ languages.


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2 Language Standards Supported by GCC

For each language compiled by GCC for which there is a standard, GCC attempts to follow one or more versions of that standard, possibly with some exceptions, and possibly with some extensions.

2.1 C language

GCC supports three versions of the C standard, although support for the most recent version is not yet complete.

The original ANSI C standard (X3.159-1989) was ratified in 1989 and published in 1990. This standard was ratified as an ISO standard (ISO/IEC 9899:1990) later in 1990. There were no technical differences between these publications, although the sections of the ANSI standard were renumbered and became clauses in the ISO standard. This standard, in both its forms, is commonly known as C89, or occasionally as C90, from the dates of ratification. The ANSI standard, but not the ISO standard, also came with a Rationale document. To select this standard in GCC, use one of the options -ansi, -std=c90 or -std=iso9899:1990; to obtain all the diagnostics required by the standard, you should also specify -pedantic (or -pedantic-errors if you want them to be errors rather than warnings). See Options Controlling C Dialect.

Errors in the 1990 ISO C standard were corrected in two Technical Corrigenda published in 1994 and 1996. GCC does not support the uncorrected version.

An amendment to the 1990 standard was published in 1995. This amendment added digraphs and __STDC_VERSION__ to the language, but otherwise concerned the library. This amendment is commonly known as AMD1; the amended standard is sometimes known as C94 or C95. To select this standard in GCC, use the option -std=iso9899:199409 (with, as for other standard versions, -pedantic to receive all required diagnostics).

A new edition of the ISO C standard was published in 1999 as ISO/IEC 9899:1999, and is commonly known as C99. GCC has incomplete support for this standard version; see http://gcc.gnu.org/gcc-4.7/c99status.html for details. To select this standard, use -std=c99 or -std=iso9899:1999. (While in development, drafts of this standard version were referred to as C9X.)

Errors in the 1999 ISO C standard were corrected in three Technical Corrigenda published in 2001, 2004 and 2007. GCC does not support the uncorrected version.

A fourth version of the C standard, known as C11, was published in 2011 as ISO/IEC 9899:2011. GCC has limited incomplete support for parts of this standard, enabled with -std=c11 or -std=iso9899:2011. (While in development, drafts of this standard version were referred to as C1X.)

By default, GCC provides some extensions to the C language that on rare occasions conflict with the C standard. See Extensions to the C Language Family. Use of the -std options listed above will disable these extensions where they conflict with the C standard version selected. You may also select an extended version of the C language explicitly with -std=gnu90 (for C90 with GNU extensions), -std=gnu99 (for C99 with GNU extensions) or -std=gnu11 (for C11 with GNU extensions). The default, if no C language dialect options are given, is -std=gnu90; this will change to -std=gnu99 or -std=gnu11 in some future release when the C99 or C11 support is complete. Some features that are part of the C99 standard are accepted as extensions in C90 mode, and some features that are part of the C11 standard are accepted as extensions in C90 and C99 modes.

The ISO C standard defines (in clause 4) two classes of conforming implementation. A conforming hosted implementation supports the whole standard including all the library facilities; a conforming freestanding implementation is only required to provide certain library facilities: those in <float.h>, <limits.h>, <stdarg.h>, and <stddef.h>; since AMD1, also those in <iso646.h>; since C99, also those in <stdbool.h> and <stdint.h>; and since C11, also those in <stdalign.h> and <stdnoreturn.h>. In addition, complex types, added in C99, are not required for freestanding implementations. The standard also defines two environments for programs, a freestanding environment, required of all implementations and which may not have library facilities beyond those required of freestanding implementations, where the handling of program startup and termination are implementation-defined, and a hosted environment, which is not required, in which all the library facilities are provided and startup is through a function int main (void) or int main (int, char *[]). An OS kernel would be a freestanding environment; a program using the facilities of an operating system would normally be in a hosted implementation.

GCC aims towards being usable as a conforming freestanding implementation, or as the compiler for a conforming hosted implementation. By default, it will act as the compiler for a hosted implementation, defining __STDC_HOSTED__ as 1 and presuming that when the names of ISO C functions are used, they have the semantics defined in the standard. To make it act as a conforming freestanding implementation for a freestanding environment, use the option -ffreestanding; it will then define __STDC_HOSTED__ to 0 and not make assumptions about the meanings of function names from the standard library, with exceptions noted below. To build an OS kernel, you may well still need to make your own arrangements for linking and startup. See Options Controlling C Dialect.

GCC does not provide the library facilities required only of hosted implementations, nor yet all the facilities required by C99 of freestanding implementations; to use the facilities of a hosted environment, you will need to find them elsewhere (for example, in the GNU C library). See Standard Libraries.

Most of the compiler support routines used by GCC are present in libgcc, but there are a few exceptions. GCC requires the freestanding environment provide memcpy, memmove, memset and memcmp. Finally, if __builtin_trap is used, and the target does not implement the trap pattern, then GCC will emit a call to abort.

For references to Technical Corrigenda, Rationale documents and information concerning the history of C that is available online, see http://gcc.gnu.org/readings.html

2.2 C++ language

GCC supports the original ISO C++ standard (1998) and contains experimental support for the second ISO C++ standard (2011).

The original ISO C++ standard was published as the ISO standard (ISO/IEC 14882:1998) and amended by a Technical Corrigenda published in 2003 (ISO/IEC 14882:2003). These standards are referred to as C++98 and C++03, respectively. GCC implements the majority of C++98 (export is a notable exception) and most of the changes in C++03. To select this standard in GCC, use one of the options -ansi, -std=c++98, or -std=c++03; to obtain all the diagnostics required by the standard, you should also specify -pedantic (or -pedantic-errors if you want them to be errors rather than warnings).

A revised ISO C++ standard was published in 2011 as ISO/IEC 14882:2011, and is referred to as C++11; before its publication it was commonly referred to as C++0x. C++11 contains several changes to the C++ language, most of which have been implemented in an experimental C++11 mode in GCC. For information regarding the C++11 features available in the experimental C++11 mode, see http://gcc.gnu.org/projects/cxx0x.html. To select this standard in GCC, use the option -std=c++11; to obtain all the diagnostics required by the standard, you should also specify -pedantic (or -pedantic-errors if you want them to be errors rather than warnings).

More information about the C++ standards is available on the ISO C++ committee's web site at http://www.open-std.org/jtc1/sc22/wg21/.

By default, GCC provides some extensions to the C++ language; See Options Controlling C++ Dialect. Use of the -std option listed above will disable these extensions. You may also select an extended version of the C++ language explicitly with -std=gnu++98 (for C++98 with GNU extensions) or -std=gnu++11 (for C++11 with GNU extensions). The default, if no C++ language dialect options are given, is -std=gnu++98.

2.3 Objective-C and Objective-C++ languages

GCC supports “traditional” Objective-C (also known as “Objective-C 1.0”) and contains support for the Objective-C exception and synchronization syntax. It has also support for a number of “Objective-C 2.0” language extensions, including properties, fast enumeration (only for Objective-C), method attributes and the @optional and @required keywords in protocols. GCC supports Objective-C++ and features available in Objective-C are also available in Objective-C++.

GCC by default uses the GNU Objective-C runtime library, which is part of GCC and is not the same as the Apple/NeXT Objective-C runtime library used on Apple systems. There are a number of differences documented in this manual. The options -fgnu-runtime and -fnext-runtime allow you to switch between producing output that works with the GNU Objective-C runtime library and output that works with the Apple/NeXT Objective-C runtime library.

There is no formal written standard for Objective-C or Objective-C++. The authoritative manual on traditional Objective-C (1.0) is “Object-Oriented Programming and the Objective-C Language”, available at a number of web sites:

The Objective-C exception and synchronization syntax (that is, the keywords @try, @throw, @catch, @finally and @synchronized) is supported by GCC and is enabled with the option -fobjc-exceptions. The syntax is briefly documented in this manual and in the Objective-C 2.0 manuals from Apple.

The Objective-C 2.0 language extensions and features are automatically enabled; they include properties (via the @property, @synthesize and @dynamic keywords), fast enumeration (not available in Objective-C++), attributes for methods (such as deprecated, noreturn, sentinel, format), the unused attribute for method arguments, the @package keyword for instance variables and the @optional and @required keywords in protocols. You can disable all these Objective-C 2.0 language extensions with the option -fobjc-std=objc1, which causes the compiler to recognize the same Objective-C language syntax recognized by GCC 4.0, and to produce an error if one of the new features is used.

GCC has currently no support for non-fragile instance variables.

The authoritative manual on Objective-C 2.0 is available from Apple:

For more information concerning the history of Objective-C that is available online, see http://gcc.gnu.org/readings.html

2.4 Go language

The Go language continues to evolve as of this writing; see the current language specifications. At present there are no specific versions of Go, and there is no way to describe the language supported by GCC in terms of a specific version. In general GCC tracks the evolving specification closely, and any given release will support the language as of the date that the release was frozen.

2.5 References for other languages

See GNAT Reference Manual, for information on standard conformance and compatibility of the Ada compiler.

See Standards, for details of standards supported by GNU Fortran.

See Compatibility with the Java Platform, for details of compatibility between gcj and the Java Platform.


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3 GCC Command Options

When you invoke GCC, it normally does preprocessing, compilation, assembly and linking. The “overall options” allow you to stop this process at an intermediate stage. For example, the -c option says not to run the linker. Then the output consists of object files output by the assembler.

Other options are passed on to one stage of processing. Some options control the preprocessor and others the compiler itself. Yet other options control the assembler and linker; most of these are not documented here, since you rarely need to use any of them.

Most of the command-line options that you can use with GCC are useful for C programs; when an option is only useful with another language (usually C++), the explanation says so explicitly. If the description for a particular option does not mention a source language, you can use that option with all supported languages.

See Compiling C++ Programs, for a summary of special options for compiling C++ programs.

The gcc program accepts options and file names as operands. Many options have multi-letter names; therefore multiple single-letter options may not be grouped: -dv is very different from ‘-d -v.

You can mix options and other arguments. For the most part, the order you use doesn't matter. Order does matter when you use several options of the same kind; for example, if you specify -L more than once, the directories are searched in the order specified. Also, the placement of the -l option is significant.

Many options have long names starting with ‘-f’ or with ‘-W’—for example, -fmove-loop-invariants, -Wformat and so on. Most of these have both positive and negative forms; the negative form of -ffoo would be -fno-foo. This manual documents only one of these two forms, whichever one is not the default.

See Option Index, for an index to GCC's options.


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3.1 Option Summary

Here is a summary of all the options, grouped by type. Explanations are in the following sections.

Overall Options
See Options Controlling the Kind of Output.
          -c  -S  -E  -o file  -no-canonical-prefixes  
          -pipe  -pass-exit-codes  
          -x language  -v  -###  --help[=class[,...]]  --target-help  
          --version -wrapper @file -fplugin=file -fplugin-arg-name=arg  
          -fdump-ada-spec[-slim] -fdump-go-spec=file

C Language Options
See Options Controlling C Dialect.
          -ansi  -std=standard  -fgnu89-inline 
          -aux-info filename -fallow-parameterless-variadic-functions 
          -fno-asm  -fno-builtin  -fno-builtin-function 
          -fhosted  -ffreestanding -fopenmp -fms-extensions -fplan9-extensions 
          -trigraphs  -no-integrated-cpp  -traditional  -traditional-cpp 
          -fallow-single-precision  -fcond-mismatch -flax-vector-conversions 
          -fsigned-bitfields  -fsigned-char 
          -funsigned-bitfields  -funsigned-char

C++ Language Options
See Options Controlling C++ Dialect.
          -fabi-version=n  -fno-access-control  -fcheck-new 
          -fconserve-space  -fconstexpr-depth=n  -ffriend-injection 
          -fno-elide-constructors 
          -fno-enforce-eh-specs 
          -ffor-scope  -fno-for-scope  -fno-gnu-keywords 
          -fno-implicit-templates 
          -fno-implicit-inline-templates 
          -fno-implement-inlines  -fms-extensions 
          -fno-nonansi-builtins  -fnothrow-opt  -fno-operator-names 
          -fno-optional-diags  -fpermissive 
          -fno-pretty-templates 
          -frepo  -fno-rtti  -fstats  -ftemplate-depth=n 
          -fno-threadsafe-statics -fuse-cxa-atexit  -fno-weak  -nostdinc++ 
          -fno-default-inline  -fvisibility-inlines-hidden 
          -fvisibility-ms-compat 
          -Wabi  -Wconversion-null  -Wctor-dtor-privacy 
          -Wdelete-non-virtual-dtor -Wnarrowing -Wnoexcept 
          -Wnon-virtual-dtor  -Wreorder 
          -Weffc++  -Wstrict-null-sentinel 
          -Wno-non-template-friend  -Wold-style-cast 
          -Woverloaded-virtual  -Wno-pmf-conversions 
          -Wsign-promo

Objective-C and Objective-C++ Language Options
See Options Controlling Objective-C and Objective-C++ Dialects.
          -fconstant-string-class=class-name 
          -fgnu-runtime  -fnext-runtime 
          -fno-nil-receivers 
          -fobjc-abi-version=n 
          -fobjc-call-cxx-cdtors 
          -fobjc-direct-dispatch 
          -fobjc-exceptions 
          -fobjc-gc 
          -fobjc-nilcheck 
          -fobjc-std=objc1 
          -freplace-objc-classes 
          -fzero-link 
          -gen-decls 
          -Wassign-intercept 
          -Wno-protocol  -Wselector 
          -Wstrict-selector-match 
          -Wundeclared-selector

Language Independent Options
See Options to Control Diagnostic Messages Formatting.
          -fmessage-length=n  
          -fdiagnostics-show-location=[once|every-line]  
          -fno-diagnostics-show-option

Warning Options
See Options to Request or Suppress Warnings.
          -fsyntax-only  -fmax-errors=n  -pedantic 
          -pedantic-errors 
          -w  -Wextra  -Wall  -Waddress  -Waggregate-return  -Warray-bounds 
          -Wno-attributes -Wno-builtin-macro-redefined 
          -Wc++-compat -Wc++11-compat -Wcast-align  -Wcast-qual  
          -Wchar-subscripts -Wclobbered  -Wcomment 
          -Wconversion  -Wcoverage-mismatch  -Wno-cpp  -Wno-deprecated  
          -Wno-deprecated-declarations -Wdisabled-optimization  
          -Wno-div-by-zero -Wdouble-promotion -Wempty-body  -Wenum-compare 
          -Wno-endif-labels -Werror  -Werror=* 
          -Wfatal-errors  -Wfloat-equal  -Wformat  -Wformat=2 
          -Wno-format-contains-nul -Wno-format-extra-args -Wformat-nonliteral 
          -Wformat-security  -Wformat-y2k 
          -Wframe-larger-than=len -Wno-free-nonheap-object -Wjump-misses-init 
          -Wignored-qualifiers 
          -Wimplicit  -Wimplicit-function-declaration  -Wimplicit-int 
          -Winit-self  -Winline -Wmaybe-uninitialized 
          -Wno-int-to-pointer-cast -Wno-invalid-offsetof 
          -Winvalid-pch -Wlarger-than=len  -Wunsafe-loop-optimizations 
          -Wlogical-op -Wlong-long 
          -Wmain -Wmaybe-uninitialized -Wmissing-braces  -Wmissing-field-initializers 
          -Wmissing-format-attribute  -Wmissing-include-dirs 
          -Wno-mudflap 
          -Wno-multichar  -Wnonnull  -Wno-overflow 
          -Woverlength-strings  -Wpacked  -Wpacked-bitfield-compat  -Wpadded 
          -Wparentheses  -Wpedantic-ms-format -Wno-pedantic-ms-format 
          -Wpointer-arith  -Wno-pointer-to-int-cast 
          -Wredundant-decls 
          -Wreturn-type  -Wsequence-point  -Wshadow 
          -Wsign-compare  -Wsign-conversion  -Wstack-protector 
          -Wstack-usage=len -Wstrict-aliasing -Wstrict-aliasing=n 
          -Wstrict-overflow -Wstrict-overflow=n 
          -Wsuggest-attribute=[pure|const|noreturn] 
          -Wswitch  -Wswitch-default  -Wswitch-enum -Wsync-nand 
          -Wsystem-headers  -Wtrampolines  -Wtrigraphs  -Wtype-limits  -Wundef 
          -Wuninitialized  -Wunknown-pragmas  -Wno-pragmas 
          -Wunsuffixed-float-constants  -Wunused  -Wunused-function 
          -Wunused-label  -Wunused-local-typedefs -Wunused-parameter 
          -Wno-unused-result -Wunused-value  -Wunused-variable 
          -Wunused-but-set-parameter -Wunused-but-set-variable 
          -Wvariadic-macros -Wvector-operation-performance -Wvla
          -Wvolatile-register-var  -Wwrite-strings -Wzero-as-null-pointer-constant

C and Objective-C-only Warning Options
          -Wbad-function-cast  -Wmissing-declarations 
          -Wmissing-parameter-type  -Wmissing-prototypes  -Wnested-externs 
          -Wold-style-declaration  -Wold-style-definition 
          -Wstrict-prototypes  -Wtraditional  -Wtraditional-conversion 
          -Wdeclaration-after-statement -Wpointer-sign

Debugging Options
See Options for Debugging Your Program or GCC.
          -dletters  -dumpspecs  -dumpmachine  -dumpversion 
          -fdbg-cnt-list -fdbg-cnt=counter-value-list 
          -fdisable-ipa-pass_name 
          -fdisable-rtl-pass_name 
          -fdisable-rtl-pass-name=range-list 
          -fdisable-tree-pass_name 
          -fdisable-tree-pass-name=range-list 
          -fdump-noaddr -fdump-unnumbered -fdump-unnumbered-links 
          -fdump-translation-unit[-n] 
          -fdump-class-hierarchy[-n] 
          -fdump-ipa-all -fdump-ipa-cgraph -fdump-ipa-inline 
          -fdump-passes 
          -fdump-statistics 
          -fdump-tree-all 
          -fdump-tree-original[-n]  
          -fdump-tree-optimized[-n] 
          -fdump-tree-cfg -fdump-tree-vcg -fdump-tree-alias 
          -fdump-tree-ch 
          -fdump-tree-ssa[-n] -fdump-tree-pre[-n] 
          -fdump-tree-ccp[-n] -fdump-tree-dce[-n] 
          -fdump-tree-gimple[-raw] -fdump-tree-mudflap[-n] 
          -fdump-tree-dom[-n] 
          -fdump-tree-dse[-n] 
          -fdump-tree-phiprop[-n] 
          -fdump-tree-phiopt[-n] 
          -fdump-tree-forwprop[-n] 
          -fdump-tree-copyrename[-n] 
          -fdump-tree-nrv -fdump-tree-vect 
          -fdump-tree-sink 
          -fdump-tree-sra[-n] 
          -fdump-tree-forwprop[-n] 
          -fdump-tree-fre[-n] 
          -fdump-tree-vrp[-n] 
          -ftree-vectorizer-verbose=n 
          -fdump-tree-storeccp[-n] 
          -fdump-final-insns=file 
          -fcompare-debug[=opts]  -fcompare-debug-second 
          -feliminate-dwarf2-dups -feliminate-unused-debug-types 
          -feliminate-unused-debug-symbols -femit-class-debug-always 
          -fenable-kind-pass 
          -fenable-kind-pass=range-list 
          -fdebug-types-section 
          -fmem-report -fpre-ipa-mem-report -fpost-ipa-mem-report -fprofile-arcs 
          -frandom-seed=string -fsched-verbose=n 
          -fsel-sched-verbose -fsel-sched-dump-cfg -fsel-sched-pipelining-verbose 
          -fstack-usage  -ftest-coverage  -ftime-report -fvar-tracking 
          -fvar-tracking-assignments  -fvar-tracking-assignments-toggle 
          -g  -glevel  -gtoggle  -gcoff  -gdwarf-version 
          -ggdb  -grecord-gcc-switches  -gno-record-gcc-switches 
          -gstabs  -gstabs+  -gstrict-dwarf  -gno-strict-dwarf 
          -gvms  -gxcoff  -gxcoff+ 
          -fno-merge-debug-strings -fno-dwarf2-cfi-asm 
          -fdebug-prefix-map=old=new 
          -femit-struct-debug-baseonly -femit-struct-debug-reduced 
          -femit-struct-debug-detailed[=spec-list] 
          -p  -pg  -print-file-name=library  -print-libgcc-file-name 
          -print-multi-directory  -print-multi-lib  -print-multi-os-directory 
          -print-prog-name=program  -print-search-dirs  -Q 
          -print-sysroot -print-sysroot-headers-suffix 
          -save-temps -save-temps=cwd -save-temps=obj -time[=file]

Optimization Options
See Options that Control Optimization.
          -falign-functions[=n] -falign-jumps[=n] 
          -falign-labels[=n] -falign-loops[=n] -fassociative-math 
          -fauto-inc-dec -fbranch-probabilities -fbranch-target-load-optimize 
          -fbranch-target-load-optimize2 -fbtr-bb-exclusive -fcaller-saves 
          -fcheck-data-deps -fcombine-stack-adjustments -fconserve-stack 
          -fcompare-elim -fcprop-registers -fcrossjumping 
          -fcse-follow-jumps -fcse-skip-blocks -fcx-fortran-rules 
          -fcx-limited-range 
          -fdata-sections -fdce -fdelayed-branch 
          -fdelete-null-pointer-checks -fdevirtualize -fdse 
          -fearly-inlining -fipa-sra -fexpensive-optimizations -ffat-lto-objects 
          -ffast-math -ffinite-math-only -ffloat-store -fexcess-precision=style 
          -fforward-propagate -ffp-contract=style -ffunction-sections 
          -fgcse -fgcse-after-reload -fgcse-las -fgcse-lm -fgraphite-identity 
          -fgcse-sm -fif-conversion -fif-conversion2 -findirect-inlining 
          -finline-functions -finline-functions-called-once -finline-limit=n 
          -finline-small-functions -fipa-cp -fipa-cp-clone -fipa-matrix-reorg 
          -fipa-pta -fipa-profile -fipa-pure-const -fipa-reference 
          -fira-algorithm=algorithm 
          -fira-region=region 
          -fira-loop-pressure -fno-ira-share-save-slots 
          -fno-ira-share-spill-slots -fira-verbose=n 
          -fivopts -fkeep-inline-functions -fkeep-static-consts 
          -floop-block -floop-flatten -floop-interchange -floop-strip-mine 
          -floop-parallelize-all -flto -flto-compression-level 
          -flto-partition=alg -flto-report -fmerge-all-constants 
          -fmerge-constants -fmodulo-sched -fmodulo-sched-allow-regmoves 
          -fmove-loop-invariants fmudflap -fmudflapir -fmudflapth -fno-branch-count-reg 
          -fno-default-inline 
          -fno-defer-pop -fno-function-cse -fno-guess-branch-probability 
          -fno-inline -fno-math-errno -fno-peephole -fno-peephole2 
          -fno-sched-interblock -fno-sched-spec -fno-signed-zeros 
          -fno-toplevel-reorder -fno-trapping-math -fno-zero-initialized-in-bss 
          -fomit-frame-pointer -foptimize-register-move -foptimize-sibling-calls 
          -fpartial-inlining -fpeel-loops -fpredictive-commoning 
          -fprefetch-loop-arrays 
          -fprofile-correction -fprofile-dir=path -fprofile-generate 
          -fprofile-generate=path 
          -fprofile-use -fprofile-use=path -fprofile-values 
          -freciprocal-math -free -fregmove -frename-registers -freorder-blocks 
          -freorder-blocks-and-partition -freorder-functions 
          -frerun-cse-after-loop -freschedule-modulo-scheduled-loops 
          -frounding-math -fsched2-use-superblocks -fsched-pressure 
          -fsched-spec-load -fsched-spec-load-dangerous 
          -fsched-stalled-insns-dep[=n] -fsched-stalled-insns[=n] 
          -fsched-group-heuristic -fsched-critical-path-heuristic 
          -fsched-spec-insn-heuristic -fsched-rank-heuristic 
          -fsched-last-insn-heuristic -fsched-dep-count-heuristic 
          -fschedule-insns -fschedule-insns2 -fsection-anchors 
          -fselective-scheduling -fselective-scheduling2 
          -fsel-sched-pipelining -fsel-sched-pipelining-outer-loops 
          -fshrink-wrap -fsignaling-nans -fsingle-precision-constant 
          -fsplit-ivs-in-unroller -fsplit-wide-types -fstack-protector 
          -fstack-protector-all -fstrict-aliasing -fstrict-overflow 
          -fthread-jumps -ftracer -ftree-bit-ccp 
          -ftree-builtin-call-dce -ftree-ccp -ftree-ch 
          -ftree-coalesce-inline-vars -ftree-coalesce-vars -ftree-copy-prop 
          -ftree-copyrename -ftree-dce -ftree-dominator-opts -ftree-dse 
          -ftree-forwprop -ftree-fre -ftree-loop-if-convert 
          -ftree-loop-if-convert-stores -ftree-loop-im 
          -ftree-phiprop -ftree-loop-distribution -ftree-loop-distribute-patterns 
          -ftree-loop-ivcanon -ftree-loop-linear -ftree-loop-optimize 
          -ftree-parallelize-loops=n -ftree-pre -ftree-partial-pre -ftree-pta 
          -ftree-reassoc 
          -ftree-sink -ftree-sra -ftree-switch-conversion -ftree-tail-merge 
          -ftree-ter -ftree-vect-loop-version -ftree-vectorize -ftree-vrp 
          -funit-at-a-time -funroll-all-loops -funroll-loops 
          -funsafe-loop-optimizations -funsafe-math-optimizations -funswitch-loops 
          -fvariable-expansion-in-unroller -fvect-cost-model -fvpt -fweb 
          -fwhole-program -fwpa -fuse-ld=linker -fuse-linker-plugin 
          --param name=value
          -O  -O0  -O1  -O2  -O3  -Os -Ofast

Preprocessor Options
See Options Controlling the Preprocessor.
          -Aquestion=answer 
          -A-question[=answer] 
          -C  -dD  -dI  -dM  -dN 
          -Dmacro[=defn]  -E  -H 
          -idirafter dir 
          -include file  -imacros file 
          -iprefix file  -iwithprefix dir 
          -iwithprefixbefore dir  -isystem dir 
          -imultilib dir -isysroot dir 
          -M  -MM  -MF  -MG  -MP  -MQ  -MT  -nostdinc  
          -P  -fdebug-cpp -ftrack-macro-expansion -fworking-directory 
          -remap -trigraphs  -undef  -Umacro  
          -Wp,option -Xpreprocessor option

Assembler Option
See Passing Options to the Assembler.
          -Wa,option  -Xassembler option

Linker Options
See Options for Linking.
          object-file-name  -llibrary 
          -nostartfiles  -nodefaultlibs  -nostdlib -pie -rdynamic 
          -s  -static  -static-libgcc  -static-libstdc++ -shared  
          -shared-libgcc  -symbolic 
          -T script  -Wl,option  -Xlinker option 
          -u symbol

Directory Options
See Options for Directory Search.
          -Bprefix -Idir -iplugindir=dir 
          -iquotedir -Ldir -specs=file -I- 
          --sysroot=dir

Machine Dependent Options
See Hardware Models and Configurations.

AArch64 Options

          -mbig-endian  -mlittle-endian 
          -mgeneral-regs-only 
          -mcmodel=tiny  -mcmodel=small  -mcmodel=large 
          -mstrict-align 
          -momit-leaf-frame-pointer  -mno-omit-leaf-frame-pointer 
          -mtls-dialect=desc  -mtls-dialect=traditional 
          -march=name  -mcpu=name  -mtune=name

Adapteva Epiphany Options

          -mhalf-reg-file -mprefer-short-insn-regs 
          -mbranch-cost=num -mcmove -mnops=num -msoft-cmpsf 
          -msplit-lohi -mpost-inc -mpost-modify -mstack-offset=num 
          -mround-nearest -mlong-calls -mshort-calls -msmall16 
          -mfp-mode=mode -mvect-double -max-vect-align=num 
          -msplit-vecmove-early -m1reg-reg

ARM Options

          -mapcs-frame  -mno-apcs-frame 
          -mabi=name 
          -mapcs-stack-check  -mno-apcs-stack-check 
          -mapcs-float  -mno-apcs-float 
          -mapcs-reentrant  -mno-apcs-reentrant 
          -msched-prolog  -mno-sched-prolog 
          -mlittle-endian  -mbig-endian  -mwords-little-endian 
          -mfloat-abi=name  -mfpe 
          -mfp16-format=name
          -mthumb-interwork  -mno-thumb-interwork 
          -mcpu=name  -march=name  -mfpu=name  
          -mstructure-size-boundary=n 
          -mabort-on-noreturn 
          -mlong-calls  -mno-long-calls 
          -msingle-pic-base  -mno-single-pic-base 
          -mpic-register=reg 
          -mnop-fun-dllimport 
          -mcirrus-fix-invalid-insns -mno-cirrus-fix-invalid-insns 
          -mpoke-function-name 
          -mthumb  -marm 
          -mtpcs-frame  -mtpcs-leaf-frame 
          -mcaller-super-interworking  -mcallee-super-interworking 
          -mtp=name -mtls-dialect=dialect 
          -mword-relocations 
          -mfix-cortex-m3-ldrd 
          -munaligned-access 
          -mneon-for-64bits

AVR Options

          -mmcu=mcu -maccumulate-args -mbranch-cost=cost 
          -mcall-prologues -mint8 -mno-interrupts -mrelax -mshort-calls 
          -mstrict-X -mtiny-stack

Blackfin Options

          -mcpu=cpu[-sirevision] 
          -msim -momit-leaf-frame-pointer  -mno-omit-leaf-frame-pointer 
          -mspecld-anomaly  -mno-specld-anomaly  -mcsync-anomaly  -mno-csync-anomaly 
          -mlow-64k -mno-low64k  -mstack-check-l1  -mid-shared-library 
          -mno-id-shared-library  -mshared-library-id=n 
          -mleaf-id-shared-library  -mno-leaf-id-shared-library 
          -msep-data  -mno-sep-data  -mlong-calls  -mno-long-calls 
          -mfast-fp -minline-plt -mmulticore  -mcorea  -mcoreb  -msdram 
          -micplb

C6X Options

          -mbig-endian  -mlittle-endian -march=cpu 
          -msim -msdata=sdata-type

CRIS Options

          -mcpu=cpu  -march=cpu  -mtune=cpu 
          -mmax-stack-frame=n  -melinux-stacksize=n 
          -metrax4  -metrax100  -mpdebug  -mcc-init  -mno-side-effects 
          -mstack-align  -mdata-align  -mconst-align 
          -m32-bit  -m16-bit  -m8-bit  -mno-prologue-epilogue  -mno-gotplt 
          -melf  -maout  -melinux  -mlinux  -sim  -sim2 
          -mmul-bug-workaround  -mno-mul-bug-workaround

CR16 Options

          -mmac 
          -mcr16cplus -mcr16c 
          -msim -mint32 -mbit-ops
          -mdata-model=model

Darwin Options

          -all_load  -allowable_client  -arch  -arch_errors_fatal 
          -arch_only  -bind_at_load  -bundle  -bundle_loader 
          -client_name  -compatibility_version  -current_version 
          -dead_strip 
          -dependency-file  -dylib_file  -dylinker_install_name 
          -dynamic  -dynamiclib  -exported_symbols_list 
          -filelist  -flat_namespace  -force_cpusubtype_ALL 
          -force_flat_namespace  -headerpad_max_install_names 
          -iframework 
          -image_base  -init  -install_name  -keep_private_externs 
          -multi_module  -multiply_defined  -multiply_defined_unused 
          -noall_load   -no_dead_strip_inits_and_terms 
          -nofixprebinding -nomultidefs  -noprebind  -noseglinkedit 
          -pagezero_size  -prebind  -prebind_all_twolevel_modules 
          -private_bundle  -read_only_relocs  -sectalign 
          -sectobjectsymbols  -whyload  -seg1addr 
          -sectcreate  -sectobjectsymbols  -sectorder 
          -segaddr -segs_read_only_addr -segs_read_write_addr 
          -seg_addr_table  -seg_addr_table_filename  -seglinkedit 
          -segprot  -segs_read_only_addr  -segs_read_write_addr 
          -single_module  -static  -sub_library  -sub_umbrella 
          -twolevel_namespace  -umbrella  -undefined 
          -unexported_symbols_list  -weak_reference_mismatches 
          -whatsloaded -F -gused -gfull -mmacosx-version-min=version 
          -mkernel -mone-byte-bool

DEC Alpha Options

          -mno-fp-regs  -msoft-float  -malpha-as  -mgas 
          -mieee  -mieee-with-inexact  -mieee-conformant 
          -mfp-trap-mode=mode  -mfp-rounding-mode=mode 
          -mtrap-precision=mode  -mbuild-constants 
          -mcpu=cpu-type  -mtune=cpu-type 
          -mbwx  -mmax  -mfix  -mcix 
          -mfloat-vax  -mfloat-ieee 
          -mexplicit-relocs  -msmall-data  -mlarge-data 
          -msmall-text  -mlarge-text 
          -mmemory-latency=time

DEC Alpha/VMS Options

          -mvms-return-codes -mdebug-main=prefix -mmalloc64

FR30 Options

          -msmall-model -mno-lsim

FRV Options

          -mgpr-32  -mgpr-64  -mfpr-32  -mfpr-64 
          -mhard-float  -msoft-float 
          -malloc-cc  -mfixed-cc  -mdword  -mno-dword 
          -mdouble  -mno-double 
          -mmedia  -mno-media  -mmuladd  -mno-muladd 
          -mfdpic  -minline-plt -mgprel-ro  -multilib-library-pic 
          -mlinked-fp  -mlong-calls  -malign-labels 
          -mlibrary-pic  -macc-4  -macc-8 
          -mpack  -mno-pack  -mno-eflags  -mcond-move  -mno-cond-move 
          -moptimize-membar -mno-optimize-membar 
          -mscc  -mno-scc  -mcond-exec  -mno-cond-exec 
          -mvliw-branch  -mno-vliw-branch 
          -mmulti-cond-exec  -mno-multi-cond-exec  -mnested-cond-exec 
          -mno-nested-cond-exec  -mtomcat-stats 
          -mTLS -mtls 
          -mcpu=cpu

GNU/Linux Options

          -mglibc -muclibc -mbionic -mandroid 
          -tno-android-cc -tno-android-ld

H8/300 Options

          -mrelax  -mh  -ms  -mn  -mint32  -malign-300

HPPA Options

          -march=architecture-type 
          -mbig-switch  -mdisable-fpregs  -mdisable-indexing 
          -mfast-indirect-calls  -mgas  -mgnu-ld   -mhp-ld 
          -mfixed-range=register-range 
          -mjump-in-delay -mlinker-opt -mlong-calls 
          -mlong-load-store  -mno-big-switch  -mno-disable-fpregs 
          -mno-disable-indexing  -mno-fast-indirect-calls  -mno-gas 
          -mno-jump-in-delay  -mno-long-load-store 
          -mno-portable-runtime  -mno-soft-float 
          -mno-space-regs  -msoft-float  -mpa-risc-1-0 
          -mpa-risc-1-1  -mpa-risc-2-0  -mportable-runtime 
          -mschedule=cpu-type  -mspace-regs  -msio  -mwsio 
          -munix=unix-std  -nolibdld  -static  -threads

i386 and x86-64 Options

          -mtune=cpu-type  -march=cpu-type 
          -mfpmath=unit 
          -masm=dialect  -mno-fancy-math-387 
          -mno-fp-ret-in-387  -msoft-float 
          -mno-wide-multiply  -mrtd  -malign-double 
          -mpreferred-stack-boundary=num 
          -mincoming-stack-boundary=num 
          -mcld -mcx16 -msahf -mmovbe -mcrc32 
          -mrecip -mrecip=opt 
          -mvzeroupper -mprefer-avx128 
          -mmmx  -msse  -msse2 -msse3 -mssse3 -msse4.1 -msse4.2 -msse4 -mavx 
          -mavx2 -maes -mpclmul -mfsgsbase -mrdrnd -mf16c -mfma 
          -msse4a -m3dnow -mpopcnt -mabm -mbmi -mtbm -mfma4 -mxop -mlzcnt 
          -mbmi2 -mlwp -mthreads  -mno-align-stringops  -minline-all-stringops 
          -minline-stringops-dynamically -mstringop-strategy=alg 
          -mpush-args  -maccumulate-outgoing-args  -m128bit-long-double 
          -m96bit-long-double  -mregparm=num  -msseregparm 
          -mveclibabi=type -mvect8-ret-in-mem 
          -mpc32 -mpc64 -mpc80 -mstackrealign 
          -momit-leaf-frame-pointer  -mno-red-zone -mno-tls-direct-seg-refs 
          -mcmodel=code-model -mabi=name -maddress-mode=mode 
          -m32 -m64 -mx32 -mlarge-data-threshold=num 
          -msse2avx -mfentry -m8bit-idiv 
          -mavx256-split-unaligned-load -mavx256-split-unaligned-store

i386 and x86-64 Windows Options

          -mconsole -mcygwin -mno-cygwin -mdll 
          -mnop-fun-dllimport -mthread 
          -municode -mwin32 -mwindows -fno-set-stack-executable

IA-64 Options

          -mbig-endian  -mlittle-endian  -mgnu-as  -mgnu-ld  -mno-pic 
          -mvolatile-asm-stop  -mregister-names  -msdata -mno-sdata 
          -mconstant-gp  -mauto-pic  -mfused-madd 
          -minline-float-divide-min-latency 
          -minline-float-divide-max-throughput 
          -mno-inline-float-divide 
          -minline-int-divide-min-latency 
          -minline-int-divide-max-throughput  
          -mno-inline-int-divide 
          -minline-sqrt-min-latency -minline-sqrt-max-throughput 
          -mno-inline-sqrt 
          -mdwarf2-asm -mearly-stop-bits 
          -mfixed-range=register-range -mtls-size=tls-size 
          -mtune=cpu-type -milp32 -mlp64 
          -msched-br-data-spec -msched-ar-data-spec -msched-control-spec 
          -msched-br-in-data-spec -msched-ar-in-data-spec -msched-in-control-spec 
          -msched-spec-ldc -msched-spec-control-ldc 
          -msched-prefer-non-data-spec-insns -msched-prefer-non-control-spec-insns 
          -msched-stop-bits-after-every-cycle -msched-count-spec-in-critical-path 
          -msel-sched-dont-check-control-spec -msched-fp-mem-deps-zero-cost 
          -msched-max-memory-insns-hard-limit -msched-max-memory-insns=max-insns

IA-64/VMS Options

          -mvms-return-codes -mdebug-main=prefix -mmalloc64

LM32 Options

          -mbarrel-shift-enabled -mdivide-enabled -mmultiply-enabled 
          -msign-extend-enabled -muser-enabled

M32R/D Options

          -m32r2 -m32rx -m32r 
          -mdebug 
          -malign-loops -mno-align-loops 
          -missue-rate=number 
          -mbranch-cost=number 
          -mmodel=code-size-model-type 
          -msdata=sdata-type 
          -mno-flush-func -mflush-func=name 
          -mno-flush-trap -mflush-trap=number 
          -G num

M32C Options

          -mcpu=cpu -msim -memregs=number

M680x0 Options

          -march=arch  -mcpu=cpu  -mtune=tune
          -m68000  -m68020  -m68020-40  -m68020-60  -m68030  -m68040 
          -m68060  -mcpu32  -m5200  -m5206e  -m528x  -m5307  -m5407 
          -mcfv4e  -mbitfield  -mno-bitfield  -mc68000  -mc68020 
          -mnobitfield  -mrtd  -mno-rtd  -mdiv  -mno-div  -mshort 
          -mno-short  -mhard-float  -m68881  -msoft-float  -mpcrel 
          -malign-int  -mstrict-align  -msep-data  -mno-sep-data 
          -mshared-library-id=n  -mid-shared-library  -mno-id-shared-library 
          -mxgot -mno-xgot

MCore Options

          -mhardlit  -mno-hardlit  -mdiv  -mno-div  -mrelax-immediates 
          -mno-relax-immediates  -mwide-bitfields  -mno-wide-bitfields 
          -m4byte-functions  -mno-4byte-functions  -mcallgraph-data 
          -mno-callgraph-data  -mslow-bytes  -mno-slow-bytes  -mno-lsim 
          -mlittle-endian  -mbig-endian  -m210  -m340  -mstack-increment

MeP Options

          -mabsdiff -mall-opts -maverage -mbased=n -mbitops 
          -mc=n -mclip -mconfig=name -mcop -mcop32 -mcop64 -mivc2 
          -mdc -mdiv -meb -mel -mio-volatile -ml -mleadz -mm -mminmax 
          -mmult -mno-opts -mrepeat -ms -msatur -msdram -msim -msimnovec -mtf 
          -mtiny=n

MicroBlaze Options

          -msoft-float -mhard-float -msmall-divides -mcpu=cpu 
          -mmemcpy -mxl-soft-mul -mxl-soft-div -mxl-barrel-shift 
          -mxl-pattern-compare -mxl-stack-check -mxl-gp-opt -mno-clearbss 
          -mxl-multiply-high -mxl-float-convert -mxl-float-sqrt 
          -mxl-mode-app-model

MIPS Options

          -EL  -EB  -march=arch  -mtune=arch 
          -mips1  -mips2  -mips3  -mips4  -mips32  -mips32r2 
          -mips64  -mips64r2 
          -mips16  -mno-mips16  -mflip-mips16 
          -minterlink-mips16  -mno-interlink-mips16 
          -mabi=abi  -mabicalls  -mno-abicalls 
          -mshared  -mno-shared  -mplt  -mno-plt  -mxgot  -mno-xgot 
          -mgp32  -mgp64  -mfp32  -mfp64  -mhard-float  -msoft-float 
          -msingle-float  -mdouble-float  -mdsp  -mno-dsp  -mdspr2  -mno-dspr2 
          -mfpu=fpu-type 
          -msmartmips  -mno-smartmips 
          -mpaired-single  -mno-paired-single  -mdmx  -mno-mdmx 
          -mips3d  -mno-mips3d  -mmt  -mno-mt  -mllsc  -mno-llsc 
          -mlong64  -mlong32  -msym32  -mno-sym32 
          -Gnum  -mlocal-sdata  -mno-local-sdata 
          -mextern-sdata  -mno-extern-sdata  -mgpopt  -mno-gopt 
          -membedded-data  -mno-embedded-data 
          -muninit-const-in-rodata  -mno-uninit-const-in-rodata 
          -mcode-readable=setting 
          -msplit-addresses  -mno-split-addresses 
          -mexplicit-relocs  -mno-explicit-relocs 
          -mcheck-zero-division  -mno-check-zero-division 
          -mdivide-traps  -mdivide-breaks 
          -mmemcpy  -mno-memcpy  -mlong-calls  -mno-long-calls 
          -mmad  -mno-mad  -mfused-madd  -mno-fused-madd  -nocpp 
          -mfix-24k -mno-fix-24k 
          -mfix-r4000  -mno-fix-r4000  -mfix-r4400  -mno-fix-r4400 
          -mfix-r10000 -mno-fix-r10000  -mfix-vr4120  -mno-fix-vr4120 
          -mfix-vr4130  -mno-fix-vr4130  -mfix-sb1  -mno-fix-sb1 
          -mflush-func=func  -mno-flush-func 
          -mbranch-cost=num  -mbranch-likely  -mno-branch-likely 
          -mfp-exceptions -mno-fp-exceptions 
          -mvr4130-align -mno-vr4130-align -msynci -mno-synci 
          -mrelax-pic-calls -mno-relax-pic-calls -mmcount-ra-address

MMIX Options

          -mlibfuncs  -mno-libfuncs  -mepsilon  -mno-epsilon  -mabi=gnu 
          -mabi=mmixware  -mzero-extend  -mknuthdiv  -mtoplevel-symbols 
          -melf  -mbranch-predict  -mno-branch-predict  -mbase-addresses 
          -mno-base-addresses  -msingle-exit  -mno-single-exit

MN10300 Options

          -mmult-bug  -mno-mult-bug 
          -mno-am33 -mam33 -mam33-2 -mam34 
          -mtune=cpu-type 
          -mreturn-pointer-on-d0 
          -mno-crt0  -mrelax -mliw -msetlb

PDP-11 Options

          -mfpu  -msoft-float  -mac0  -mno-ac0  -m40  -m45  -m10 
          -mbcopy  -mbcopy-builtin  -mint32  -mno-int16 
          -mint16  -mno-int32  -mfloat32  -mno-float64 
          -mfloat64  -mno-float32  -mabshi  -mno-abshi 
          -mbranch-expensive  -mbranch-cheap 
          -munix-asm  -mdec-asm

picoChip Options

          -mae=ae_type -mvliw-lookahead=N 
          -msymbol-as-address -mno-inefficient-warnings

PowerPC Options See RS/6000 and PowerPC Options.

RL78 Options

          -msim -mmul=none -mmul=g13 -mmul=rl78

RS/6000 and PowerPC Options

          -mcpu=cpu-type 
          -mtune=cpu-type 
          -mcmodel=code-model 
          -mpower  -mno-power  -mpower2  -mno-power2 
          -mpowerpc  -mpowerpc64  -mno-powerpc 
          -maltivec  -mno-altivec 
          -mpowerpc-gpopt  -mno-powerpc-gpopt 
          -mpowerpc-gfxopt  -mno-powerpc-gfxopt 
          -mmfcrf  -mno-mfcrf  -mpopcntb  -mno-popcntb -mpopcntd -mno-popcntd 
          -mfprnd  -mno-fprnd 
          -mcmpb -mno-cmpb -mmfpgpr -mno-mfpgpr -mhard-dfp -mno-hard-dfp 
          -mnew-mnemonics  -mold-mnemonics 
          -mfull-toc   -mminimal-toc  -mno-fp-in-toc  -mno-sum-in-toc 
          -m64  -m32  -mxl-compat  -mno-xl-compat  -mpe 
          -malign-power  -malign-natural 
          -msoft-float  -mhard-float  -mmultiple  -mno-multiple 
          -msingle-float -mdouble-float -msimple-fpu 
          -mstring  -mno-string  -mupdate  -mno-update 
          -mavoid-indexed-addresses  -mno-avoid-indexed-addresses 
          -mfused-madd  -mno-fused-madd  -mbit-align  -mno-bit-align 
          -mstrict-align  -mno-strict-align  -mrelocatable 
          -mno-relocatable  -mrelocatable-lib  -mno-relocatable-lib 
          -mtoc  -mno-toc  -mlittle  -mlittle-endian  -mbig  -mbig-endian 
          -mdynamic-no-pic  -maltivec -mswdiv  -msingle-pic-base 
          -mprioritize-restricted-insns=priority 
          -msched-costly-dep=dependence_type 
          -minsert-sched-nops=scheme 
          -mcall-sysv  -mcall-netbsd 
          -maix-struct-return  -msvr4-struct-return 
          -mabi=abi-type -msecure-plt -mbss-plt 
          -mblock-move-inline-limit=num 
          -misel -mno-isel 
          -misel=yes  -misel=no 
          -mspe -mno-spe 
          -mspe=yes  -mspe=no 
          -mpaired 
          -mgen-cell-microcode -mwarn-cell-microcode 
          -mvrsave -mno-vrsave 
          -mmulhw -mno-mulhw 
          -mdlmzb -mno-dlmzb 
          -mfloat-gprs=yes  -mfloat-gprs=no -mfloat-gprs=single -mfloat-gprs=double 
          -mprototype  -mno-prototype 
          -msim  -mmvme  -mads  -myellowknife  -memb  -msdata 
          -msdata=opt  -mvxworks  -G num  -pthread 
          -mrecip -mrecip=opt -mno-recip -mrecip-precision 
          -mno-recip-precision 
          -mveclibabi=type -mfriz -mno-friz 
          -mpointers-to-nested-functions -mno-pointers-to-nested-functions 
          -msave-toc-indirect -mno-save-toc-indirect

RX Options

          -m64bit-doubles  -m32bit-doubles  -fpu  -nofpu
          -mcpu=
          -mbig-endian-data -mlittle-endian-data 
          -msmall-data 
          -msim  -mno-sim
          -mas100-syntax -mno-as100-syntax
          -mrelax
          -mmax-constant-size=
          -mint-register=
          -mpid
          -msave-acc-in-interrupts

S/390 and zSeries Options

          -mtune=cpu-type  -march=cpu-type 
          -mhard-float  -msoft-float  -mhard-dfp -mno-hard-dfp 
          -mlong-double-64 -mlong-double-128 
          -mbackchain  -mno-backchain -mpacked-stack  -mno-packed-stack 
          -msmall-exec  -mno-small-exec  -mmvcle -mno-mvcle 
          -m64  -m31  -mdebug  -mno-debug  -mesa  -mzarch 
          -mtpf-trace -mno-tpf-trace  -mfused-madd  -mno-fused-madd 
          -mwarn-framesize  -mwarn-dynamicstack  -mstack-size -mstack-guard

Score Options

          -meb -mel 
          -mnhwloop 
          -muls 
          -mmac 
          -mscore5 -mscore5u -mscore7 -mscore7d

SH Options

          -m1  -m2  -m2e 
          -m2a-nofpu -m2a-single-only -m2a-single -m2a 
          -m3  -m3e 
          -m4-nofpu  -m4-single-only  -m4-single  -m4 
          -m4a-nofpu -m4a-single-only -m4a-single -m4a -m4al 
          -m5-64media  -m5-64media-nofpu 
          -m5-32media  -m5-32media-nofpu 
          -m5-compact  -m5-compact-nofpu 
          -mb  -ml  -mdalign  -mrelax 
          -mbigtable -mfmovd -mhitachi -mrenesas -mno-renesas -mnomacsave 
          -mieee -mno-ieee -mbitops  -misize  -minline-ic_invalidate -mpadstruct 
          -mspace -mprefergot  -musermode -multcost=number -mdiv=strategy 
          -mdivsi3_libfunc=name -mfixed-range=register-range 
          -madjust-unroll -mindexed-addressing -mgettrcost=number -mpt-fixed 
          -maccumulate-outgoing-args -minvalid-symbols -msoft-atomic 
          -mbranch-cost=num -mcbranchdi -mcmpeqdi -mfused-madd -mpretend-cmove

Solaris 2 Options

          -mimpure-text  -mno-impure-text 
          -pthreads -pthread

SPARC Options

          -mcpu=cpu-type 
          -mtune=cpu-type 
          -mcmodel=code-model 
          -mmemory-model=mem-model 
          -m32  -m64  -mapp-regs  -mno-app-regs 
          -mfaster-structs  -mno-faster-structs  -mflat  -mno-flat 
          -mfpu  -mno-fpu  -mhard-float  -msoft-float 
          -mhard-quad-float  -msoft-quad-float 
          -mstack-bias  -mno-stack-bias 
          -munaligned-doubles  -mno-unaligned-doubles 
          -mv8plus  -mno-v8plus  -mvis  -mno-vis 
          -mvis2  -mno-vis2  -mvis3  -mno-vis3 
          -mfmaf  -mno-fmaf  -mpopc  -mno-popc 
          -mfix-at697f

SPU Options

          -mwarn-reloc -merror-reloc 
          -msafe-dma -munsafe-dma 
          -mbranch-hints 
          -msmall-mem -mlarge-mem -mstdmain 
          -mfixed-range=register-range 
          -mea32 -mea64 
          -maddress-space-conversion -mno-address-space-conversion 
          -mcache-size=cache-size 
          -matomic-updates -mno-atomic-updates

System V Options

          -Qy  -Qn  -YP,paths  -Ym,dir

TILE-Gx Options

          -mcpu=cpu -m32 -m64

TILEPro Options

          -mcpu=cpu -m32

V850 Options

          -mlong-calls  -mno-long-calls  -mep  -mno-ep 
          -mprolog-function  -mno-prolog-function  -mspace 
          -mtda=n  -msda=n  -mzda=n 
          -mapp-regs  -mno-app-regs 
          -mdisable-callt  -mno-disable-callt 
          -mv850e2v3 
          -mv850e2 
          -mv850e1 -mv850es 
          -mv850e 
          -mv850  -mbig-switch

VAX Options

          -mg  -mgnu  -munix

VxWorks Options

          -mrtp  -non-static  -Bstatic  -Bdynamic 
          -Xbind-lazy  -Xbind-now

x86-64 Options See i386 and x86-64 Options.

Xstormy16 Options

          -msim

Xtensa Options

          -mconst16 -mno-const16 
          -mfused-madd  -mno-fused-madd 
          -mforce-no-pic 
          -mserialize-volatile  -mno-serialize-volatile 
          -mtext-section-literals  -mno-text-section-literals 
          -mtarget-align  -mno-target-align 
          -mlongcalls  -mno-longcalls

zSeries Options See S/390 and zSeries Options.

Code Generation Options
See Options for Code Generation Conventions.
          -fcall-saved-reg  -fcall-used-reg 
          -ffixed-reg  -fexceptions 
          -fnon-call-exceptions  -funwind-tables 
          -fasynchronous-unwind-tables 
          -finhibit-size-directive  -finstrument-functions 
          -finstrument-functions-exclude-function-list=sym,sym,... 
          -finstrument-functions-exclude-file-list=file,file,... 
          -fno-common  -fno-ident 
          -fpcc-struct-return  -fpic  -fPIC -fpie -fPIE 
          -fno-jump-tables 
          -frecord-gcc-switches 
          -freg-struct-return  -fshort-enums 
          -fshort-double  -fshort-wchar 
          -fverbose-asm  -fpack-struct[=n]  -fstack-check 
          -fstack-limit-register=reg  -fstack-limit-symbol=sym 
          -fno-stack-limit -fsplit-stack 
          -fleading-underscore  -ftls-model=model 
          -ftrapv  -fwrapv  -fbounds-check 
          -fvisibility -fstrict-volatile-bitfields


Next: , Previous: Option Summary, Up: Invoking GCC

3.2 Options Controlling the Kind of Output

Compilation can involve up to four stages: preprocessing, compilation proper, assembly and linking, always in that order. GCC is capable of preprocessing and compiling several files either into several assembler input files, or into one assembler input file; then each assembler input file produces an object file, and linking combines all the object files (those newly compiled, and those specified as input) into an executable file.

For any given input file, the file name suffix determines what kind of compilation is done:

file.c
C source code that must be preprocessed.
file.i
C source code that should not be preprocessed.
file.ii
C++ source code that should not be preprocessed.
file.m
Objective-C source code. Note that you must link with the libobjc library to make an Objective-C program work.
file.mi
Objective-C source code that should not be preprocessed.
file.mm
file.M
Objective-C++ source code. Note that you must link with the libobjc library to make an Objective-C++ program work. Note that ‘.M’ refers to a literal capital M.
file.mii
Objective-C++ source code that should not be preprocessed.
file.h
C, C++, Objective-C or Objective-C++ header file to be turned into a precompiled header (default), or C, C++ header file to be turned into an Ada spec (via the -fdump-ada-spec switch).
file.cc
file.cp
file.cxx
file.cpp
file.CPP
file.c++
file.C
C++ source code that must be preprocessed. Note that in ‘.cxx’, the last two letters must both be literally ‘x’. Likewise, ‘.C’ refers to a literal capital C.
file.mm
file.M
Objective-C++ source code that must be preprocessed.
file.mii
Objective-C++ source code that should not be preprocessed.
file.hh
file.H
file.hp
file.hxx
file.hpp
file.HPP
file.h++
file.tcc
C++ header file to be turned into a precompiled header or Ada spec.
file.f
file.for
file.ftn
Fixed form Fortran source code that should not be preprocessed.
file.F
file.FOR
file.fpp
file.FPP
file.FTN
Fixed form Fortran source code that must be preprocessed (with the traditional preprocessor).
file.f90
file.f95
file.f03
file.f08
Free form Fortran source code that should not be preprocessed.
file.F90
file.F95
file.F03
file.F08
Free form Fortran source code that must be preprocessed (with the traditional preprocessor).
file.go
Go source code.
file.ads
Ada source code file that contains a library unit declaration (a declaration of a package, subprogram, or generic, or a generic instantiation), or a library unit renaming declaration (a package, generic, or subprogram renaming declaration). Such files are also called specs.
file.adb
Ada source code file containing a library unit body (a subprogram or package body). Such files are also called bodies.
file.s
Assembler code.
file.S
file.sx
Assembler code that must be preprocessed.
other
An object file to be fed straight into linking. Any file name with no recognized suffix is treated this way.

You can specify the input language explicitly with the -x option:

-x language
Specify explicitly the language for the following input files (rather than letting the compiler choose a default based on the file name suffix). This option applies to all following input files until the next -x option. Possible values for language are:
          c  c-header  cpp-output
          c++  c++-header  c++-cpp-output
          objective-c  objective-c-header  objective-c-cpp-output
          objective-c++ objective-c++-header objective-c++-cpp-output
          assembler  assembler-with-cpp
          ada
          f77  f77-cpp-input f95  f95-cpp-input
          go
          java

-x none
Turn off any specification of a language, so that subsequent files are handled according to their file name suffixes (as they are if -x has not been used at all).
-pass-exit-codes
Normally the gcc program will exit with the code of 1 if any phase of the compiler returns a non-success return code. If you specify -pass-exit-codes, the gcc program will instead return with numerically highest error produced by any phase that returned an error indication. The C, C++, and Fortran frontends return 4, if an internal compiler error is encountered.

If you only want some of the stages of compilation, you can use -x (or filename suffixes) to tell gcc where to start, and one of the options -c, -S, or -E to say where gcc is to stop. Note that some combinations (for example, ‘-x cpp-output -E’) instruct gcc to do nothing at all.

-c
Compile or assemble the source files, but do not link. The linking stage simply is not done. The ultimate output is in the form of an object file for each source file.

By default, the object file name for a source file is made by replacing the suffix ‘.c’, ‘.i’, ‘.s’, etc., with ‘.o’.

Unrecognized input files, not requiring compilation or assembly, are ignored.

-S
Stop after the stage of compilation proper; do not assemble. The output is in the form of an assembler code file for each non-assembler input file specified.

By default, the assembler file name for a source file is made by replacing the suffix ‘.c’, ‘.i’, etc., with ‘.s’.

Input files that don't require compilation are ignored.

-E
Stop after the preprocessing stage; do not run the compiler proper. The output is in the form of preprocessed source code, which is sent to the standard output.

Input files that don't require preprocessing are ignored.


-o file
Place output in file file. This applies regardless to whatever sort of output is being produced, whether it be an executable file, an object file, an assembler file or preprocessed C code.

If -o is not specified, the default is to put an executable file in a.out, the object file for source.suffix in source.o, its assembler file in source.s, a precompiled header file in source.suffix.gch, and all preprocessed C source on standard output.

-v
Print (on standard error output) the commands executed to run the stages of compilation. Also print the version number of the compiler driver program and of the preprocessor and the compiler proper.
-###
Like -v except the commands are not executed and arguments are quoted unless they contain only alphanumeric characters or ./-_. This is useful for shell scripts to capture the driver-generated command lines.
-pipe
Use pipes rather than temporary files for communication between the various stages of compilation. This fails to work on some systems where the assembler is unable to read from a pipe; but the GNU assembler has no trouble.
--help
Print (on the standard output) a description of the command-line options understood by gcc. If the -v option is also specified then --help will also be passed on to the various processes invoked by gcc, so that they can display the command-line options they accept. If the -Wextra option has also been specified (prior to the --help option), then command-line options that have no documentation associated with them will also be displayed.
--target-help
Print (on the standard output) a description of target-specific command-line options for each tool. For some targets extra target-specific information may also be printed.
--help={class|[^]qualifier}[,...]
Print (on the standard output) a description of the command-line options understood by the compiler that fit into all specified classes and qualifiers. These are the supported classes:
optimizers
This will display all of the optimization options supported by the compiler.
warnings
This will display all of the options controlling warning messages produced by the compiler.
target
This will display target-specific options. Unlike the --target-help option however, target-specific options of the linker and assembler will not be displayed. This is because those tools do not currently support the extended --help= syntax.
params
This will display the values recognized by the --param option.
language
This will display the options supported for language, where language is the name of one of the languages supported in this version of GCC.
common
This will display the options that are common to all languages.

These are the supported qualifiers:

undocumented
Display only those options that are undocumented.
joined
Display options taking an argument that appears after an equal sign in the same continuous piece of text, such as: ‘--help=target’.
separate
Display options taking an argument that appears as a separate word following the original option, such as: ‘-o output-file’.

Thus for example to display all the undocumented target-specific switches supported by the compiler the following can be used:

          --help=target,undocumented

The sense of a qualifier can be inverted by prefixing it with the ‘^’ character, so for example to display all binary warning options (i.e., ones that are either on or off and that do not take an argument) that have a description, use:

          --help=warnings,^joined,^undocumented

The argument to --help= should not consist solely of inverted qualifiers.

Combining several classes is possible, although this usually restricts the output by so much that there is nothing to display. One case where it does work however is when one of the classes is target. So for example to display all the target-specific optimization options the following can be used:

          --help=target,optimizers

The --help= option can be repeated on the command line. Each successive use will display its requested class of options, skipping those that have already been displayed.

If the -Q option appears on the command line before the --help= option, then the descriptive text displayed by --help= is changed. Instead of describing the displayed options, an indication is given as to whether the option is enabled, disabled or set to a specific value (assuming that the compiler knows this at the point where the --help= option is used).

Here is a truncated example from the ARM port of gcc:

            % gcc -Q -mabi=2 --help=target -c
            The following options are target specific:
            -mabi=                                2
            -mabort-on-noreturn                   [disabled]
            -mapcs                                [disabled]

The output is sensitive to the effects of previous command-line options, so for example it is possible to find out which optimizations are enabled at -O2 by using:

          -Q -O2 --help=optimizers

Alternatively you can discover which binary optimizations are enabled by -O3 by using:

          gcc -c -Q -O3 --help=optimizers > /tmp/O3-opts
          gcc -c -Q -O2 --help=optimizers > /tmp/O2-opts
          diff /tmp/O2-opts /tmp/O3-opts | grep enabled

-no-canonical-prefixes
Do not expand any symbolic links, resolve references to ‘/../’ or ‘/./’, or make the path absolute when generating a relative prefix.
--version
Display the version number and copyrights of the invoked GCC.
-wrapper
Invoke all subcommands under a wrapper program. The name of the wrapper program and its parameters are passed as a comma separated list.
          gcc -c t.c -wrapper gdb,--args

This will invoke all subprograms of gcc under ‘gdb --args’, thus the invocation of cc1 will be ‘gdb --args cc1 ...’.

-fplugin=name.so
Load the plugin code in file name.so, assumed to be a shared object to be dlopen'd by the compiler. The base name of the shared object file is used to identify the plugin for the purposes of argument parsing (See -fplugin-arg-name-key=value below). Each plugin should define the callback functions specified in the Plugins API.
-fplugin-arg-name-key=value
Define an argument called key with a value of value for the plugin called name.
-fdump-ada-spec[-slim]
For C and C++ source and include files, generate corresponding Ada specs. See Generating Ada Bindings for C and C++ headers, which provides detailed documentation on this feature.
-fdump-go-spec=file
For input files in any language, generate corresponding Go declarations in file. This generates Go const, type, var, and func declarations which may be a useful way to start writing a Go interface to code written in some other language.
@file
Read command-line options from file. The options read are inserted in place of the original @file option. If file does not exist, or cannot be read, then the option will be treated literally, and not removed.

Options in file are separated by whitespace. A whitespace character may be included in an option by surrounding the entire option in either single or double quotes. Any character (including a backslash) may be included by prefixing the character to be included with a backslash. The file may itself contain additional @file options; any such options will be processed recursively.


Next: , Previous: Overall Options, Up: Invoking GCC

3.3 Compiling C++ Programs

C++ source files conventionally use one of the suffixes ‘.C’, ‘.cc’, ‘.cpp’, ‘.CPP’, ‘.c++’, ‘.cp’, or ‘.cxx’; C++ header files often use ‘.hh’, ‘.hpp’, ‘.H’, or (for shared template code) ‘.tcc’; and preprocessed C++ files use the suffix ‘.ii’. GCC recognizes files with these names and compiles them as C++ programs even if you call the compiler the same way as for compiling C programs (usually with the name gcc).

However, the use of gcc does not add the C++ library. g++ is a program that calls GCC and treats ‘.c’, ‘.h’ and ‘.i’ files as C++ source files instead of C source files unless -x is used, and automatically specifies linking against the C++ library. This program is also useful when precompiling a C header file with a ‘.h’ extension for use in C++ compilations. On many systems, g++ is also installed with the name c++.

When you compile C++ programs, you may specify many of the same command-line options that you use for compiling programs in any language; or command-line options meaningful for C and related languages; or options that are meaningful only for C++ programs. See Options Controlling C Dialect, for explanations of options for languages related to C. See Options Controlling C++ Dialect, for explanations of options that are meaningful only for C++ programs.


Next: , Previous: Invoking G++, Up: Invoking GCC

3.4 Options Controlling C Dialect

The following options control the dialect of C (or languages derived from C, such as C++, Objective-C and Objective-C++) that the compiler accepts:

-ansi
In C mode, this is equivalent to ‘-std=c90’. In C++ mode, it is equivalent to ‘-std=c++98’.

This turns off certain features of GCC that are incompatible with ISO C90 (when compiling C code), or of standard C++ (when compiling C++ code), such as the asm and typeof keywords, and predefined macros such as unix and vax that identify the type of system you are using. It also enables the undesirable and rarely used ISO trigraph feature. For the C compiler, it disables recognition of C++ style ‘//’ comments as well as the inline keyword.

The alternate keywords __asm__, __extension__, __inline__ and __typeof__ continue to work despite -ansi. You would not want to use them in an ISO C program, of course, but it is useful to put them in header files that might be included in compilations done with -ansi. Alternate predefined macros such as __unix__ and __vax__ are also available, with or without -ansi.

The -ansi option does not cause non-ISO programs to be rejected gratuitously. For that, -pedantic is required in addition to -ansi. See Warning Options.

The macro __STRICT_ANSI__ is predefined when the -ansi option is used. Some header files may notice this macro and refrain from declaring certain functions or defining certain macros that the ISO standard doesn't call for; this is to avoid interfering with any programs that might use these names for other things.

Functions that would normally be built in but do not have semantics defined by ISO C (such as alloca and ffs) are not built-in functions when -ansi is used. See Other built-in functions provided by GCC, for details of the functions affected.

-std=
Determine the language standard. See Language Standards Supported by GCC, for details of these standard versions. This option is currently only supported when compiling C or C++.

The compiler can accept several base standards, such as ‘c90’ or ‘c++98’, and GNU dialects of those standards, such as ‘gnu90’ or ‘gnu++98’. By specifying a base standard, the compiler will accept all programs following that standard and those using GNU extensions that do not contradict it. For example, ‘-std=c90’ turns off certain features of GCC that are incompatible with ISO C90, such as the asm and typeof keywords, but not other GNU extensions that do not have a meaning in ISO C90, such as omitting the middle term of a ?: expression. On the other hand, by specifying a GNU dialect of a standard, all features the compiler support are enabled, even when those features change the meaning of the base standard and some strict-conforming programs may be rejected. The particular standard is used by -pedantic to identify which features are GNU extensions given that version of the standard. For example ‘-std=gnu90 -pedantic’ would warn about C++ style ‘//’ comments, while ‘-std=gnu99 -pedantic’ would not.

A value for this option must be provided; possible values are

c90
c89
iso9899:1990
Support all ISO C90 programs (certain GNU extensions that conflict with ISO C90 are disabled). Same as -ansi for C code.
iso9899:199409
ISO C90 as modified in amendment 1.
c99
c9x
iso9899:1999
iso9899:199x
ISO C99. Note that this standard is not yet fully supported; see http://gcc.gnu.org/gcc-4.7/c99status.html for more information. The names ‘c9x’ and ‘iso9899:199x’ are deprecated.
c11
c1x
iso9899:2011
ISO C11, the 2011 revision of the ISO C standard. Support is incomplete and experimental. The name ‘c1x’ is deprecated.
gnu90
gnu89
GNU dialect of ISO C90 (including some C99 features). This is the default for C code.
gnu99
gnu9x
GNU dialect of ISO C99. When ISO C99 is fully implemented in GCC, this will become the default. The name ‘gnu9x’ is deprecated.
gnu11
gnu1x
GNU dialect of ISO C11. Support is incomplete and experimental. The name ‘gnu1x’ is deprecated.
c++98
The 1998 ISO C++ standard plus amendments. Same as -ansi for C++ code.
gnu++98
GNU dialect of -std=c++98. This is the default for C++ code.
c++11
The 2011 ISO C++ standard plus amendments. Support for C++11 is still experimental, and may change in incompatible ways in future releases.
gnu++11
GNU dialect of -std=c++11. Support for C++11 is still experimental, and may change in incompatible ways in future releases.

-fgnu89-inline
The option -fgnu89-inline tells GCC to use the traditional GNU semantics for inline functions when in C99 mode. See An Inline Function is As Fast As a Macro. This option is accepted and ignored by GCC versions 4.1.3 up to but not including 4.3. In GCC versions 4.3 and later it changes the behavior of GCC in C99 mode. Using this option is roughly equivalent to adding the gnu_inline function attribute to all inline functions (see Function Attributes).

The option -fno-gnu89-inline explicitly tells GCC to use the C99 semantics for inline when in C99 or gnu99 mode (i.e., it specifies the default behavior). This option was first supported in GCC 4.3. This option is not supported in -std=c90 or -std=gnu90 mode.

The preprocessor macros __GNUC_GNU_INLINE__ and __GNUC_STDC_INLINE__ may be used to check which semantics are in effect for inline functions. See Common Predefined Macros.

-aux-info filename
Output to the given filename prototyped declarations for all functions declared and/or defined in a translation unit, including those in header files. This option is silently ignored in any language other than C.

Besides declarations, the file indicates, in comments, the origin of each declaration (source file and line), whether the declaration was implicit, prototyped or unprototyped (‘I’, ‘N’ for new or ‘O’ for old, respectively, in the first character after the line number and the colon), and whether it came from a declaration or a definition (‘C’ or ‘F’, respectively, in the following character). In the case of function definitions, a K&R-style list of arguments followed by their declarations is also provided, inside comments, after the declaration.

-fallow-parameterless-variadic-functions
Accept variadic functions without named parameters.

Although it is possible to define such a function, this is not very useful as it is not possible to read the arguments. This is only supported for C as this construct is allowed by C++.

-fno-asm
Do not recognize asm, inline or typeof as a keyword, so that code can use these words as identifiers. You can use the keywords __asm__, __inline__ and __typeof__ instead. -ansi implies -fno-asm.

In C++, this switch only affects the typeof keyword, since asm and inline are standard keywords. You may want to use the -fno-gnu-keywords flag instead, which has the same effect. In C99 mode (-std=c99 or -std=gnu99), this switch only affects the asm and typeof keywords, since inline is a standard keyword in ISO C99.

-fno-builtin
-fno-builtin-function
Don't recognize built-in functions that do not begin with ‘__builtin_’ as prefix. See Other built-in functions provided by GCC, for details of the functions affected, including those which are not built-in functions when -ansi or -std options for strict ISO C conformance are used because they do not have an ISO standard meaning.

GCC normally generates special code to handle certain built-in functions more efficiently; for instance, calls to alloca may become single instructions which adjust the stack directly, and calls to memcpy may become inline copy loops. The resulting code is often both smaller and faster, but since the function calls no longer appear as such, you cannot set a breakpoint on those calls, nor can you change the behavior of the functions by linking with a different library. In addition, when a function is recognized as a built-in function, GCC may use information about that function to warn about problems with calls to that function, or to generate more efficient code, even if the resulting code still contains calls to that function. For example, warnings are given with -Wformat for bad calls to printf, when printf is built in, and strlen is known not to modify global memory.

With the -fno-builtin-function option only the built-in function function is disabled. function must not begin with ‘__builtin_’. If a function is named that is not built-in in this version of GCC, this option is ignored. There is no corresponding -fbuiltin-function option; if you wish to enable built-in functions selectively when using -fno-builtin or -ffreestanding, you may define macros such as:

          #define abs(n)          __builtin_abs ((n))
          #define strcpy(d, s)    __builtin_strcpy ((d), (s))

-fhosted
Assert that compilation takes place in a hosted environment. This implies -fbuiltin. A hosted environment is one in which the entire standard library is available, and in which main has a return type of int. Examples are nearly everything except a kernel. This is equivalent to -fno-freestanding.
-ffreestanding
Assert that compilation takes place in a freestanding environment. This implies -fno-builtin. A freestanding environment is one in which the standard library may not exist, and program startup may not necessarily be at main. The most obvious example is an OS kernel. This is equivalent to -fno-hosted.

See Language Standards Supported by GCC, for details of freestanding and hosted environments.

-fopenmp
Enable handling of OpenMP directives #pragma omp in C/C++ and !$omp in Fortran. When -fopenmp is specified, the compiler generates parallel code according to the OpenMP Application Program Interface v3.0 http://www.openmp.org/. This option implies -pthread, and thus is only supported on targets that have support for -pthread.
-fgnu-tm
When the option -fgnu-tm is specified, the compiler will generate code for the Linux variant of Intel's current Transactional Memory ABI specification document (Revision 1.1, May 6 2009). This is an experimental feature whose interface may change in future versions of GCC, as the official specification changes. Please note that not all architectures are supported for this feature.

For more information on GCC's support for transactional memory, See The GNU Transactional Memory Library.

Note that the transactional memory feature is not supported with non-call exceptions (-fnon-call-exceptions).

-fms-extensions
Accept some non-standard constructs used in Microsoft header files.

In C++ code, this allows member names in structures to be similar to previous types declarations.

          typedef int UOW;
          struct ABC {
            UOW UOW;
          };

Some cases of unnamed fields in structures and unions are only accepted with this option. See Unnamed struct/union fields within structs/unions, for details.

-fplan9-extensions
Accept some non-standard constructs used in Plan 9 code.

This enables -fms-extensions, permits passing pointers to structures with anonymous fields to functions that expect pointers to elements of the type of the field, and permits referring to anonymous fields declared using a typedef. See Unnamed struct/union fields within structs/unions, for details. This is only supported for C, not C++.

-trigraphs
Support ISO C trigraphs. The -ansi option (and -std options for strict ISO C conformance) implies -trigraphs.
-no-integrated-cpp
Performs a compilation in two passes: preprocessing and compiling. This option allows a user supplied "cc1", "cc1plus", or "cc1obj" via the -B option. The user supplied compilation step can then add in an additional preprocessing step after normal preprocessing but before compiling. The default is to use the integrated cpp (internal cpp)

The semantics of this option will change if "cc1", "cc1plus", and "cc1obj" are merged.


-traditional
-traditional-cpp
Formerly, these options caused GCC to attempt to emulate a pre-standard C compiler. They are now only supported with the -E switch. The preprocessor continues to support a pre-standard mode. See the GNU CPP manual for details.
-fcond-mismatch
Allow conditional expressions with mismatched types in the second and third arguments. The value of such an expression is void. This option is not supported for C++.
-flax-vector-conversions
Allow implicit conversions between vectors with differing numbers of elements and/or incompatible element types. This option should not be used for new code.
-funsigned-char
Let the type char be unsigned, like unsigned char.

Each kind of machine has a default for what char should be. It is either like unsigned char by default or like signed char by default.

Ideally, a portable program should always use signed char or unsigned char when it depends on the signedness of an object. But many programs have been written to use plain char and expect it to be signed, or expect it to be unsigned, depending on the machines they were written for. This option, and its inverse, let you make such a program work with the opposite default.

The type char is always a distinct type from each of signed char or unsigned char, even though its behavior is always just like one of those two.

-fsigned-char
Let the type char be signed, like signed char.

Note that this is equivalent to -fno-unsigned-char, which is the negative form of -funsigned-char. Likewise, the option -fno-signed-char is equivalent to -funsigned-char.

-fsigned-bitfields
-funsigned-bitfields
-fno-signed-bitfields
-fno-unsigned-bitfields
These options control whether a bit-field is signed or unsigned, when the declaration does not use either signed or unsigned. By default, such a bit-field is signed, because this is consistent: the basic integer types such as int are signed types.


Next: , Previous: C Dialect Options, Up: Invoking GCC

3.5 Options Controlling C++ Dialect

This section describes the command-line options that are only meaningful for C++ programs; but you can also use most of the GNU compiler options regardless of what language your program is in. For example, you might compile a file firstClass.C like this:

     g++ -g -frepo -O -c firstClass.C

In this example, only -frepo is an option meant only for C++ programs; you can use the other options with any language supported by GCC.

Here is a list of options that are only for compiling C++ programs:

-fabi-version=n
Use version n of the C++ ABI. Version 2 is the version of the C++ ABI that first appeared in G++ 3.4. Version 1 is the version of the C++ ABI that first appeared in G++ 3.2. Version 0 will always be the version that conforms most closely to the C++ ABI specification. Therefore, the ABI obtained using version 0 will change as ABI bugs are fixed.

The default is version 2.

Version 3 corrects an error in mangling a constant address as a template argument.

Version 4, which first appeared in G++ 4.5, implements a standard mangling for vector types.

Version 5, which first appeared in G++ 4.6, corrects the mangling of attribute const/volatile on function pointer types, decltype of a plain decl, and use of a function parameter in the declaration of another parameter.

Version 6, which first appeared in G++ 4.7, corrects the promotion behavior of C++11 scoped enums and the mangling of template argument packs, const/static_cast, prefix ++ and –, and a class scope function used as a template argument.

See also -Wabi.

-fno-access-control
Turn off all access checking. This switch is mainly useful for working around bugs in the access control code.
-fcheck-new
Check that the pointer returned by operator new is non-null before attempting to modify the storage allocated. This check is normally unnecessary because the C++ standard specifies that operator new will only return 0 if it is declared ‘throw()’, in which case the compiler will always check the return value even without this option. In all other cases, when operator new has a non-empty exception specification, memory exhaustion is signalled by throwing std::bad_alloc. See also ‘new (nothrow)’.
-fconserve-space
Put uninitialized or run-time-initialized global variables into the common segment, as C does. This saves space in the executable at the cost of not diagnosing duplicate definitions. If you compile with this flag and your program mysteriously crashes after main() has completed, you may have an object that is being destroyed twice because two definitions were merged.

This option is no longer useful on most targets, now that support has been added for putting variables into BSS without making them common.

-fconstexpr-depth=n
Set the maximum nested evaluation depth for C++11 constexpr functions to n. A limit is needed to detect endless recursion during constant expression evaluation. The minimum specified by the standard is 512.
-fdeduce-init-list
Enable deduction of a template type parameter as std::initializer_list from a brace-enclosed initializer list, i.e.
          template <class T> auto forward(T t) -> decltype (realfn (t))
          {
            return realfn (t);
          }
          
          void f()
          {
            forward({1,2}); // call forward<std::initializer_list<int>>
          }

This deduction was implemented as a possible extension to the originally proposed semantics for the C++11 standard, but was not part of the final standard, so it is disabled by default. This option is deprecated, and may be removed in a future version of G++.

-ffriend-injection
Inject friend functions into the enclosing namespace, so that they are visible outside the scope of the class in which they are declared. Friend functions were documented to work this way in the old Annotated C++ Reference Manual, and versions of G++ before 4.1 always worked that way. However, in ISO C++ a friend function that is not declared in an enclosing scope can only be found using argument dependent lookup. This option causes friends to be injected as they were in earlier releases.

This option is for compatibility, and may be removed in a future release of G++.

-fno-elide-constructors
The C++ standard allows an implementation to omit creating a temporary that is only used to initialize another object of the same type. Specifying this option disables that optimization, and forces G++ to call the copy constructor in all cases.
-fno-enforce-eh-specs
Don't generate code to check for violation of exception specifications at run time. This option violates the C++ standard, but may be useful for reducing code size in production builds, much like defining ‘NDEBUG’. This does not give user code permission to throw exceptions in violation of the exception specifications; the compiler will still optimize based on the specifications, so throwing an unexpected exception will result in undefined behavior.
-ffor-scope
-fno-for-scope
If -ffor-scope is specified, the scope of variables declared in a for-init-statement is limited to the ‘for’ loop itself, as specified by the C++ standard. If -fno-for-scope is specified, the scope of variables declared in a for-init-statement extends to the end of the enclosing scope, as was the case in old versions of G++, and other (traditional) implementations of C++.

The default if neither flag is given to follow the standard, but to allow and give a warning for old-style code that would otherwise be invalid, or have different behavior.

-fno-gnu-keywords
Do not recognize typeof as a keyword, so that code can use this word as an identifier. You can use the keyword __typeof__ instead. -ansi implies -fno-gnu-keywords.
-fno-implicit-templates
Never emit code for non-inline templates that are instantiated implicitly (i.e. by use); only emit code for explicit instantiations. See Template Instantiation, for more information.
-fno-implicit-inline-templates
Don't emit code for implicit instantiations of inline templates, either. The default is to handle inlines differently so that compiles with and without optimization will need the same set of explicit instantiations.
-fno-implement-inlines
To save space, do not emit out-of-line copies of inline functions controlled by ‘#pragma implementation’. This will cause linker errors if these functions are not inlined everywhere they are called.
-fms-extensions
Disable pedantic warnings about constructs used in MFC, such as implicit int and getting a pointer to member function via non-standard syntax.
-fno-nonansi-builtins
Disable built-in declarations of functions that are not mandated by ANSI/ISO C. These include ffs, alloca, _exit, index, bzero, conjf, and other related functions.
-fnothrow-opt
Treat a throw() exception specification as though it were a noexcept specification to reduce or eliminate the text size overhead relative to a function with no exception specification. If the function has local variables of types with non-trivial destructors, the exception specification will actually make the function smaller because the EH cleanups for those variables can be optimized away. The semantic effect is that an exception thrown out of a function with such an exception specification will result in a call to terminate rather than unexpected.
-fno-operator-names
Do not treat the operator name keywords and, bitand, bitor, compl, not, or and xor as synonyms as keywords.
-fno-optional-diags
Disable diagnostics that the standard says a compiler does not need to issue. Currently, the only such diagnostic issued by G++ is the one for a name having multiple meanings within a class.
-fpermissive
Downgrade some diagnostics about nonconformant code from errors to warnings. Thus, using -fpermissive will allow some nonconforming code to compile.
-fno-pretty-templates
When an error message refers to a specialization of a function template, the compiler will normally print the signature of the template followed by the template arguments and any typedefs or typenames in the signature (e.g. void f(T) [with T = int] rather than void f(int)) so that it's clear which template is involved. When an error message refers to a specialization of a class template, the compiler will omit any template arguments that match the default template arguments for that template. If either of these behaviors make it harder to understand the error message rather than easier, using -fno-pretty-templates will disable them.
-frepo
Enable automatic template instantiation at link time. This option also implies -fno-implicit-templates. See Template Instantiation, for more information.
-fno-rtti
Disable generation of information about every class with virtual functions for use by the C++ run-time type identification features (‘dynamic_cast’ and ‘typeid’). If you don't use those parts of the language, you can save some space by using this flag. Note that exception handling uses the same information, but it will generate it as needed. The ‘dynamic_cast’ operator can still be used for casts that do not require run-time type information, i.e. casts to void * or to unambiguous base classes.
-fstats
Emit statistics about front-end processing at the end of the compilation. This information is generally only useful to the G++ development team.
-fstrict-enums
Allow the compiler to optimize using the assumption that a value of enumerated type can only be one of the values of the enumeration (as defined in the C++ standard; basically, a value that can be represented in the minimum number of bits needed to represent all the enumerators). This assumption may not be valid if the program uses a cast to convert an arbitrary integer value to the enumerated type.
-ftemplate-depth=n
Set the maximum instantiation depth for template classes to n. A limit on the template instantiation depth is needed to detect endless recursions during template class instantiation. ANSI/ISO C++ conforming programs must not rely on a maximum depth greater than 17 (changed to 1024 in C++11). The default value is 900, as the compiler can run out of stack space before hitting 1024 in some situations.
-fno-threadsafe-statics
Do not emit the extra code to use the routines specified in the C++ ABI for thread-safe initialization of local statics. You can use this option to reduce code size slightly in code that doesn't need to be thread-safe.
-fuse-cxa-atexit
Register destructors for objects with static storage duration with the __cxa_atexit function rather than the atexit function. This option is required for fully standards-compliant handling of static destructors, but will only work if your C library supports __cxa_atexit.
-fno-use-cxa-get-exception-ptr
Don't use the __cxa_get_exception_ptr runtime routine. This will cause std::uncaught_exception to be incorrect, but is necessary if the runtime routine is not available.
-fvisibility-inlines-hidden
This switch declares that the user does not attempt to compare pointers to inline functions or methods where the addresses of the two functions were taken in different shared objects.

The effect of this is that GCC may, effectively, mark inline methods with __attribute__ ((visibility ("hidden"))) so that they do not appear in the export table of a DSO and do not require a PLT indirection when used within the DSO. Enabling this option can have a dramatic effect on load and link times of a DSO as it massively reduces the size of the dynamic export table when the library makes heavy use of templates.

The behavior of this switch is not quite the same as marking the methods as hidden directly, because it does not affect static variables local to the function or cause the compiler to deduce that the function is defined in only one shared object.

You may mark a method as having a visibility explicitly to negate the effect of the switch for that method. For example, if you do want to compare pointers to a particular inline method, you might mark it as having default visibility. Marking the enclosing class with explicit visibility will have no effect.

Explicitly instantiated inline methods are unaffected by this option as their linkage might otherwise cross a shared library boundary. See Template Instantiation.

-fvisibility-ms-compat
This flag attempts to use visibility settings to make GCC's C++ linkage model compatible with that of Microsoft Visual Studio.

The flag makes these changes to GCC's linkage model:

  1. It sets the default visibility to hidden, like -fvisibility=hidden.
  2. Types, but not their members, are not hidden by default.
  3. The One Definition Rule is relaxed for types without explicit visibility specifications that are defined in more than one different shared object: those declarations are permitted if they would have been permitted when this option was not used.

In new code it is better to use -fvisibility=hidden and export those classes that are intended to be externally visible. Unfortunately it is possible for code to rely, perhaps accidentally, on the Visual Studio behavior.

Among the consequences of these changes are that static data members of the same type with the same name but defined in different shared objects will be different, so changing one will not change the other; and that pointers to function members defined in different shared objects may not compare equal. When this flag is given, it is a violation of the ODR to define types with the same name differently.

-fno-weak
Do not use weak symbol support, even if it is provided by the linker. By default, G++ will use weak symbols if they are available. This option exists only for testing, and should not be used by end-users; it will result in inferior code and has no benefits. This option may be removed in a future release of G++.
-nostdinc++
Do not search for header files in the standard directories specific to C++, but do still search the other standard directories. (This option is used when building the C++ library.)

In addition, these optimization, warning, and code generation options have meanings only for C++ programs:

-fno-default-inline
Do not assume ‘inline’ for functions defined inside a class scope. See Options That Control Optimization. Note that these functions will have linkage like inline functions; they just won't be inlined by default.
-Wabi (C, Objective-C, C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when G++ generates code that is probably not compatible with the vendor-neutral C++ ABI. Although an effort has been made to warn about all such cases, there are probably some cases that are not warned about, even though G++ is generating incompatible code. There may also be cases where warnings are emitted even though the code that is generated will be compatible.

You should rewrite your code to avoid these warnings if you are concerned about the fact that code generated by G++ may not be binary compatible with code generated by other compilers.

The known incompatibilities in -fabi-version=2 (the default) include:

The known incompatibilities in -fabi-version=1 include:

It also warns psABI related changes. The known psABI changes at this point include:


-Wctor-dtor-privacy (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when a class seems unusable because all the constructors or destructors in that class are private, and it has neither friends nor public static member functions.
-Wdelete-non-virtual-dtor (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when ‘delete’ is used to destroy an instance of a class that has virtual functions and non-virtual destructor. It is unsafe to delete an instance of a derived class through a pointer to a base class if the base class does not have a virtual destructor. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wnarrowing (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when a narrowing conversion prohibited by C++11 occurs within ‘{ }’, e.g.
          int i = { 2.2 }; // error: narrowing from double to int

This flag is included in -Wall and -Wc++11-compat.

With -std=c++11, -Wno-narrowing suppresses the diagnostic required by the standard. Note that this does not affect the meaning of well-formed code; narrowing conversions are still considered ill-formed in SFINAE context.

-Wnoexcept (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when a noexcept-expression evaluates to false because of a call to a function that does not have a non-throwing exception specification (i.e. ‘throw()’ or ‘noexcept’) but is known by the compiler to never throw an exception.
-Wnon-virtual-dtor (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when a class has virtual functions and accessible non-virtual destructor, in which case it would be possible but unsafe to delete an instance of a derived class through a pointer to the base class. This warning is also enabled if -Weffc++ is specified.
-Wreorder (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when the order of member initializers given in the code does not match the order in which they must be executed. For instance:
          struct A {
            int i;
            int j;
            A(): j (0), i (1) { }
          };

The compiler will rearrange the member initializers for ‘i’ and ‘j’ to match the declaration order of the members, emitting a warning to that effect. This warning is enabled by -Wall.

The following -W... options are not affected by -Wall.

-Weffc++ (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn about violations of the following style guidelines from Scott Meyers' Effective C++, Second Edition book:

Also warn about violations of the following style guidelines from Scott Meyers' More Effective C++ book:

When selecting this option, be aware that the standard library headers do not obey all of these guidelines; use ‘grep -v’ to filter out those warnings.

-Wstrict-null-sentinel (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn also about the use of an uncasted NULL as sentinel. When compiling only with GCC this is a valid sentinel, as NULL is defined to __null. Although it is a null pointer constant not a null pointer, it is guaranteed to be of the same size as a pointer. But this use is not portable across different compilers.
-Wno-non-template-friend (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Disable warnings when non-templatized friend functions are declared within a template. Since the advent of explicit template specification support in G++, if the name of the friend is an unqualified-id (i.e., ‘friend foo(int)’), the C++ language specification demands that the friend declare or define an ordinary, nontemplate function. (Section 14.5.3). Before G++ implemented explicit specification, unqualified-ids could be interpreted as a particular specialization of a templatized function. Because this non-conforming behavior is no longer the default behavior for G++, -Wnon-template-friend allows the compiler to check existing code for potential trouble spots and is on by default. This new compiler behavior can be turned off with -Wno-non-template-friend, which keeps the conformant compiler code but disables the helpful warning.
-Wold-style-cast (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn if an old-style (C-style) cast to a non-void type is used within a C++ program. The new-style casts (‘dynamic_cast’, ‘static_cast’, ‘reinterpret_cast’, and ‘const_cast’) are less vulnerable to unintended effects and much easier to search for.
-Woverloaded-virtual (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when a function declaration hides virtual functions from a base class. For example, in:
          struct A {
            virtual void f();
          };
          
          struct B: public A {
            void f(int);
          };

the A class version of f is hidden in B, and code like:

          B* b;
          b->f();

will fail to compile.

-Wno-pmf-conversions (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Disable the diagnostic for converting a bound pointer to member function to a plain pointer.
-Wsign-promo (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when overload resolution chooses a promotion from unsigned or enumerated type to a signed type, over a conversion to an unsigned type of the same size. Previous versions of G++ would try to preserve unsignedness, but the standard mandates the current behavior.
          struct A {
            operator int ();
            A& operator = (int);
          };
          
          main ()
          {
            A a,b;
            a = b;
          }

In this example, G++ will synthesize a default ‘A& operator = (const A&);’, while cfront will use the user-defined ‘operator =’.


Next: , Previous: C++ Dialect Options, Up: Invoking GCC

3.6 Options Controlling Objective-C and Objective-C++ Dialects

(NOTE: This manual does not describe the Objective-C and Objective-C++ languages themselves. See Language Standards Supported by GCC, for references.)

This section describes the command-line options that are only meaningful for Objective-C and Objective-C++ programs, but you can also use most of the language-independent GNU compiler options. For example, you might compile a file some_class.m like this:

     gcc -g -fgnu-runtime -O -c some_class.m

In this example, -fgnu-runtime is an option meant only for Objective-C and Objective-C++ programs; you can use the other options with any language supported by GCC.

Note that since Objective-C is an extension of the C language, Objective-C compilations may also use options specific to the C front-end (e.g., -Wtraditional). Similarly, Objective-C++ compilations may use C++-specific options (e.g., -Wabi).

Here is a list of options that are only for compiling Objective-C and Objective-C++ programs:

-fconstant-string-class=class-name
Use class-name as the name of the class to instantiate for each literal string specified with the syntax @"...". The default class name is NXConstantString if the GNU runtime is being used, and NSConstantString if the NeXT runtime is being used (see below). The -fconstant-cfstrings option, if also present, will override the -fconstant-string-class setting and cause @"..." literals to be laid out as constant CoreFoundation strings.
-fgnu-runtime
Generate object code compatible with the standard GNU Objective-C runtime. This is the default for most types of systems.
-fnext-runtime
Generate output compatible with the NeXT runtime. This is the default for NeXT-based systems, including Darwin and Mac OS X. The macro __NEXT_RUNTIME__ is predefined if (and only if) this option is used.
-fno-nil-receivers
Assume that all Objective-C message dispatches ([receiver message:arg]) in this translation unit ensure that the receiver is not nil. This allows for more efficient entry points in the runtime to be used. This option is only available in conjunction with the NeXT runtime and ABI version 0 or 1.
-fobjc-abi-version=n
Use version n of the Objective-C ABI for the selected runtime. This option is currently supported only for the NeXT runtime. In that case, Version 0 is the traditional (32-bit) ABI without support for properties and other Objective-C 2.0 additions. Version 1 is the traditional (32-bit) ABI with support for properties and other Objective-C 2.0 additions. Version 2 is the modern (64-bit) ABI. If nothing is specified, the default is Version 0 on 32-bit target machines, and Version 2 on 64-bit target machines.
-fobjc-call-cxx-cdtors
For each Objective-C class, check if any of its instance variables is a C++ object with a non-trivial default constructor. If so, synthesize a special - (id) .cxx_construct instance method which will run non-trivial default constructors on any such instance variables, in order, and then return self. Similarly, check if any instance variable is a C++ object with a non-trivial destructor, and if so, synthesize a special - (void) .cxx_destruct method which will run all such default destructors, in reverse order.

The - (id) .cxx_construct and - (void) .cxx_destruct methods thusly generated will only operate on instance variables declared in the current Objective-C class, and not those inherited from superclasses. It is the responsibility of the Objective-C runtime to invoke all such methods in an object's inheritance hierarchy. The - (id) .cxx_construct methods will be invoked by the runtime immediately after a new object instance is allocated; the - (void) .cxx_destruct methods will be invoked immediately before the runtime deallocates an object instance.

As of this writing, only the NeXT runtime on Mac OS X 10.4 and later has support for invoking the - (id) .cxx_construct and - (void) .cxx_destruct methods.

-fobjc-direct-dispatch
Allow fast jumps to the message dispatcher. On Darwin this is accomplished via the comm page.
-fobjc-exceptions
Enable syntactic support for structured exception handling in Objective-C, similar to what is offered by C++ and Java. This option is required to use the Objective-C keywords @try, @throw, @catch, @finally and @synchronized. This option is available with both the GNU runtime and the NeXT runtime (but not available in conjunction with the NeXT runtime on Mac OS X 10.2 and earlier).
-fobjc-gc
Enable garbage collection (GC) in Objective-C and Objective-C++ programs. This option is only available with the NeXT runtime; the GNU runtime has a different garbage collection implementation that does not require special compiler flags.
-fobjc-nilcheck
For the NeXT runtime with version 2 of the ABI, check for a nil receiver in method invocations before doing the actual method call. This is the default and can be disabled using -fno-objc-nilcheck. Class methods and super calls are never checked for nil in this way no matter what this flag is set to. Currently this flag does nothing when the GNU runtime, or an older version of the NeXT runtime ABI, is used.
-fobjc-std=objc1
Conform to the language syntax of Objective-C 1.0, the language recognized by GCC 4.0. This only affects the Objective-C additions to the C/C++ language; it does not affect conformance to C/C++ standards, which is controlled by the separate C/C++ dialect option flags. When this option is used with the Objective-C or Objective-C++ compiler, any Objective-C syntax that is not recognized by GCC 4.0 is rejected. This is useful if you need to make sure that your Objective-C code can be compiled with older versions of GCC.
-freplace-objc-classes
Emit a special marker instructing ld(1) not to statically link in the resulting object file, and allow dyld(1) to load it in at run time instead. This is used in conjunction with the Fix-and-Continue debugging mode, where the object file in question may be recompiled and dynamically reloaded in the course of program execution, without the need to restart the program itself. Currently, Fix-and-Continue functionality is only available in conjunction with the NeXT runtime on Mac OS X 10.3 and later.
-fzero-link
When compiling for the NeXT runtime, the compiler ordinarily replaces calls to objc_getClass("...") (when the name of the class is known at compile time) with static class references that get initialized at load time, which improves run-time performance. Specifying the -fzero-link flag suppresses this behavior and causes calls to objc_getClass("...") to be retained. This is useful in Zero-Link debugging mode, since it allows for individual class implementations to be modified during program execution. The GNU runtime currently always retains calls to objc_get_class("...") regardless of command-line options.
-gen-decls
Dump interface declarations for all classes seen in the source file to a file named sourcename.decl.
-Wassign-intercept (Objective-C and Objective-C++ only)
Warn whenever an Objective-C assignment is being intercepted by the garbage collector.
-Wno-protocol (Objective-C and Objective-C++ only)
If a class is declared to implement a protocol, a warning is issued for every method in the protocol that is not implemented by the class. The default behavior is to issue a warning for every method not explicitly implemented in the class, even if a method implementation is inherited from the superclass. If you use the -Wno-protocol option, then methods inherited from the superclass are considered to be implemented, and no warning is issued for them.
-Wselector (Objective-C and Objective-C++ only)
Warn if multiple methods of different types for the same selector are found during compilation. The check is performed on the list of methods in the final stage of compilation. Additionally, a check is performed for each selector appearing in a @selector(...) expression, and a corresponding method for that selector has been found during compilation. Because these checks scan the method table only at the end of compilation, these warnings are not produced if the final stage of compilation is not reached, for example because an error is found during compilation, or because the -fsyntax-only option is being used.
-Wstrict-selector-match (Objective-C and Objective-C++ only)
Warn if multiple methods with differing argument and/or return types are found for a given selector when attempting to send a message using this selector to a receiver of type id or Class. When this flag is off (which is the default behavior), the compiler will omit such warnings if any differences found are confined to types that share the same size and alignment.
-Wundeclared-selector (Objective-C and Objective-C++ only)
Warn if a @selector(...) expression referring to an undeclared selector is found. A selector is considered undeclared if no method with that name has been declared before the @selector(...) expression, either explicitly in an @interface or @protocol declaration, or implicitly in an @implementation section. This option always performs its checks as soon as a @selector(...) expression is found, while -Wselector only performs its checks in the final stage of compilation. This also enforces the coding style convention that methods and selectors must be declared before being used.
-print-objc-runtime-info
Generate C header describing the largest structure that is passed by value, if any.


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3.7 Options to Control Diagnostic Messages Formatting

Traditionally, diagnostic messages have been formatted irrespective of the output device's aspect (e.g. its width, ...). The options described below can be used to control the diagnostic messages formatting algorithm, e.g. how many characters per line, how often source location information should be reported. Right now, only the C++ front end can honor these options. However it is expected, in the near future, that the remaining front ends would be able to digest them correctly.

-fmessage-length=n
Try to format error messages so that they fit on lines of about n characters. The default is 72 characters for g++ and 0 for the rest of the front ends supported by GCC. If n is zero, then no line-wrapping will be done; each error message will appear on a single line.


-fdiagnostics-show-location=once
Only meaningful in line-wrapping mode. Instructs the diagnostic messages reporter to emit once source location information; that is, in case the message is too long to fit on a single physical line and has to be wrapped, the source location won't be emitted (as prefix) again, over and over, in subsequent continuation lines. This is the default behavior.
-fdiagnostics-show-location=every-line
Only meaningful in line-wrapping mode. Instructs the diagnostic messages reporter to emit the same source location information (as prefix) for physical lines that result from the process of breaking a message which is too long to fit on a single line.
-fno-diagnostics-show-option
By default, each diagnostic emitted includes text indicating the command-line option that directly controls the diagnostic (if such an option is known to the diagnostic machinery). Specifying the -fno-diagnostics-show-option flag suppresses that behavior.


Next: , Previous: Language Independent Options, Up: Invoking GCC

3.8 Options to Request or Suppress Warnings

Warnings are diagnostic messages that report constructions that are not inherently erroneous but that are risky or suggest there may have been an error.

The following language-independent options do not enable specific warnings but control the kinds of diagnostics produced by GCC.

-fsyntax-only
Check the code for syntax errors, but don't do anything beyond that.
-fmax-errors=n
Limits the maximum number of error messages to n, at which point GCC bails out rather than attempting to continue processing the source code. If n is 0 (the default), there is no limit on the number of error messages produced. If -Wfatal-errors is also specified, then -Wfatal-errors takes precedence over this option.
-w
Inhibit all warning messages.
-Werror
Make all warnings into errors.
-Werror=
Make the specified warning into an error. The specifier for a warning is appended, for example -Werror=switch turns the warnings controlled by -Wswitch into errors. This switch takes a negative form, to be used to negate -Werror for specific warnings, for example -Wno-error=switch makes -Wswitch warnings not be errors, even when -Werror is in effect.

The warning message for each controllable warning includes the option that controls the warning. That option can then be used with -Werror= and -Wno-error= as described above. (Printing of the option in the warning message can be disabled using the -fno-diagnostics-show-option flag.)

Note that specifying -Werror=foo automatically implies -Wfoo. However, -Wno-error=foo does not imply anything.

-Wfatal-errors
This option causes the compiler to abort compilation on the first error occurred rather than trying to keep going and printing further error messages.

You can request many specific warnings with options beginning ‘-W’, for example -Wimplicit to request warnings on implicit declarations. Each of these specific warning options also has a negative form beginning ‘-Wno-’ to turn off warnings; for example, -Wno-implicit. This manual lists only one of the two forms, whichever is not the default. For further, language-specific options also refer to C++ Dialect Options and Objective-C and Objective-C++ Dialect Options.

When an unrecognized warning option is requested (e.g., -Wunknown-warning), GCC will emit a diagnostic stating that the option is not recognized. However, if the -Wno- form is used, the behavior is slightly different: No diagnostic will be produced for -Wno-unknown-warning unless other diagnostics are being produced. This allows the use of new -Wno- options with old compilers, but if something goes wrong, the compiler will warn that an unrecognized option was used.

-pedantic
Issue all the warnings demanded by strict ISO C and ISO C++; reject all programs that use forbidden extensions, and some other programs that do not follow ISO C and ISO C++. For ISO C, follows the version of the ISO C standard specified by any -std option used.

Valid ISO C and ISO C++ programs should compile properly with or without this option (though a rare few will require -ansi or a -std option specifying the required version of ISO C). However, without this option, certain GNU extensions and traditional C and C++ features are supported as well. With this option, they are rejected.

-pedantic does not cause warning messages for use of the alternate keywords whose names begin and end with ‘__’. Pedantic warnings are also disabled in the expression that follows __extension__. However, only system header files should use these escape routes; application programs should avoid them. See Alternate Keywords.

Some users try to use -pedantic to check programs for strict ISO C conformance. They soon find that it does not do quite what they want: it finds some non-ISO practices, but not all—only those for which ISO C requires a diagnostic, and some others for which diagnostics have been added.

A feature to report any failure to conform to ISO C might be useful in some instances, but would require considerable additional work and would be quite different from -pedantic. We don't have plans to support such a feature in the near future.

Where the standard specified with -std represents a GNU extended dialect of C, such as ‘gnu90’ or ‘gnu99’, there is a corresponding base standard, the version of ISO C on which the GNU extended dialect is based. Warnings from -pedantic are given where they are required by the base standard. (It would not make sense for such warnings to be given only for features not in the specified GNU C dialect, since by definition the GNU dialects of C include all features the compiler supports with the given option, and there would be nothing to warn about.)

-pedantic-errors
Like -pedantic, except that errors are produced rather than warnings.
-Wall
This enables all the warnings about constructions that some users consider questionable, and that are easy to avoid (or modify to prevent the warning), even in conjunction with macros. This also enables some language-specific warnings described in C++ Dialect Options and Objective-C and Objective-C++ Dialect Options.

-Wall turns on the following warning flags:

          -Waddress   
          -Warray-bounds (only with -O2)  
          -Wc++11-compat  
          -Wchar-subscripts  
          -Wenum-compare (in C/Objc; this is on by default in C++) 
          -Wimplicit-int (C and Objective-C only) 
          -Wimplicit-function-declaration (C and Objective-C only) 
          -Wcomment  
          -Wformat   
          -Wmain (only for C/ObjC and unless -ffreestanding)  
          -Wmaybe-uninitialized 
          -Wmissing-braces  
          -Wnonnull  
          -Wparentheses  
          -Wpointer-sign  
          -Wreorder   
          -Wreturn-type  
          -Wsequence-point  
          -Wsign-compare (only in C++)  
          -Wstrict-aliasing  
          -Wstrict-overflow=1  
          -Wswitch  
          -Wtrigraphs  
          -Wuninitialized  
          -Wunknown-pragmas  
          -Wunused-function  
          -Wunused-label     
          -Wunused-value     
          -Wunused-variable  
          -Wvolatile-register-var 
          

Note that some warning flags are not implied by -Wall. Some of them warn about constructions that users generally do not consider questionable, but which occasionally you might wish to check for; others warn about constructions that are necessary or hard to avoid in some cases, and there is no simple way to modify the code to suppress the warning. Some of them are enabled by -Wextra but many of them must be enabled individually.

-Wextra
This enables some extra warning flags that are not enabled by -Wall. (This option used to be called -W. The older name is still supported, but the newer name is more descriptive.)
          -Wclobbered  
          -Wempty-body  
          -Wignored-qualifiers 
          -Wmissing-field-initializers  
          -Wmissing-parameter-type (C only)  
          -Wold-style-declaration (C only)  
          -Woverride-init  
          -Wsign-compare  
          -Wtype-limits  
          -Wuninitialized  
          -Wunused-parameter (only with -Wunused or -Wall) 
          -Wunused-but-set-parameter (only with -Wunused or -Wall)  
          

The option -Wextra also prints warning messages for the following cases:


-Wchar-subscripts
Warn if an array subscript has type char. This is a common cause of error, as programmers often forget that this type is signed on some machines. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wcomment
Warn whenever a comment-start sequence ‘/*’ appears in a ‘/*’ comment, or whenever a Backslash-Newline appears in a ‘//’ comment. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wno-coverage-mismatch
Warn if feedback profiles do not match when using the -fprofile-use option. If a source file was changed between -fprofile-gen and -fprofile-use, the files with the profile feedback can fail to match the source file and GCC cannot use the profile feedback information. By default, this warning is enabled and is treated as an error. -Wno-coverage-mismatch can be used to disable the warning or -Wno-error=coverage-mismatch can be used to disable the error. Disabling the error for this warning can result in poorly optimized code and is useful only in the case of very minor changes such as bug fixes to an existing code-base. Completely disabling the warning is not recommended.
-Wno-cpp
(C, Objective-C, C++, Objective-C++ and Fortran only)

Suppress warning messages emitted by #warning directives.

-Wdouble-promotion (C, C++, Objective-C and Objective-C++ only)
Give a warning when a value of type float is implicitly promoted to double. CPUs with a 32-bit “single-precision” floating-point unit implement float in hardware, but emulate double in software. On such a machine, doing computations using double values is much more expensive because of the overhead required for software emulation.

It is easy to accidentally do computations with double because floating-point literals are implicitly of type double. For example, in:

          float area(float radius)
          {
             return 3.14159 * radius * radius;
          }

the compiler will perform the entire computation with double because the floating-point literal is a double.

-Wformat
Check calls to printf and scanf, etc., to make sure that the arguments supplied have types appropriate to the format string specified, and that the conversions specified in the format string make sense. This includes standard functions, and others specified by format attributes (see Function Attributes), in the printf, scanf, strftime and strfmon (an X/Open extension, not in the C standard) families (or other target-specific families). Which functions are checked without format attributes having been specified depends on the standard version selected, and such checks of functions without the attribute specified are disabled by -ffreestanding or -fno-builtin.

The formats are checked against the format features supported by GNU libc version 2.2. These include all ISO C90 and C99 features, as well as features from the Single Unix Specification and some BSD and GNU extensions. Other library implementations may not support all these features; GCC does not support warning about features that go beyond a particular library's limitations. However, if -pedantic is used with -Wformat, warnings will be given about format features not in the selected standard version (but not for strfmon formats, since those are not in any version of the C standard). See Options Controlling C Dialect.

Since -Wformat also checks for null format arguments for several functions, -Wformat also implies -Wnonnull.

-Wformat is included in -Wall. For more control over some aspects of format checking, the options -Wformat-y2k, -Wno-format-extra-args, -Wno-format-zero-length, -Wformat-nonliteral, -Wformat-security, and -Wformat=2 are available, but are not included in -Wall.

NOTE: In Ubuntu 8.10 and later versions this option is enabled by default for C, C++, ObjC, ObjC++. To disable, use -Wformat=0.

-Wformat-y2k
If -Wformat is specified, also warn about strftime formats that may yield only a two-digit year.
-Wno-format-contains-nul
If -Wformat is specified, do not warn about format strings that contain NUL bytes.
-Wno-format-extra-args
If -Wformat is specified, do not warn about excess arguments to a printf or scanf format function. The C standard specifies that such arguments are ignored.

Where the unused arguments lie between used arguments that are specified with ‘$’ operand number specifications, normally warnings are still given, since the implementation could not know what type to pass to va_arg to skip the unused arguments. However, in the case of scanf formats, this option will suppress the warning if the unused arguments are all pointers, since the Single Unix Specification says that such unused arguments are allowed.

-Wno-format-zero-length
If -Wformat is specified, do not warn about zero-length formats. The C standard specifies that zero-length formats are allowed.
-Wformat-nonliteral
If -Wformat is specified, also warn if the format string is not a string literal and so cannot be checked, unless the format function takes its format arguments as a va_list.
-Wformat-security
If -Wformat is specified, also warn about uses of format functions that represent possible security problems. At present, this warns about calls to printf and scanf functions where the format string is not a string literal and there are no format arguments, as in printf (foo);. This may be a security hole if the format string came from untrusted input and contains ‘%n’. (This is currently a subset of what -Wformat-nonliteral warns about, but in future warnings may be added to -Wformat-security that are not included in -Wformat-nonliteral.)

NOTE: In Ubuntu 8.10 and later versions this option is enabled by default for C, C++, ObjC, ObjC++. To disable, use -Wno-format-security, or disable all format warnings with -Wformat=0. To make format security warnings fatal, specify -Werror=format-security.

-Wformat=2
Enable -Wformat plus format checks not included in -Wformat. Currently equivalent to ‘-Wformat -Wformat-nonliteral -Wformat-security -Wformat-y2k’.
-Wnonnull
Warn about passing a null pointer for arguments marked as requiring a non-null value by the nonnull function attribute.

-Wnonnull is included in -Wall and -Wformat. It can be disabled with the -Wno-nonnull option.

-Winit-self (C, C++, Objective-C and Objective-C++ only)
Warn about uninitialized variables that are initialized with themselves. Note this option can only be used with the -Wuninitialized option.

For example, GCC will warn about i being uninitialized in the following snippet only when -Winit-self has been specified:

          int f()
          {
            int i = i;
            return i;
          }

-Wimplicit-int (C and Objective-C only)
Warn when a declaration does not specify a type. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wimplicit-function-declaration (C and Objective-C only)
Give a warning whenever a function is used before being declared. In C99 mode (-std=c99 or -std=gnu99), this warning is enabled by default and it is made into an error by -pedantic-errors. This warning is also enabled by -Wall.
-Wimplicit (C and Objective-C only)
Same as -Wimplicit-int and -Wimplicit-function-declaration. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wignored-qualifiers (C and C++ only)
Warn if the return type of a function has a type qualifier such as const. For ISO C such a type qualifier has no effect, since the value returned by a function is not an lvalue. For C++, the warning is only emitted for scalar types or void. ISO C prohibits qualified void return types on function definitions, so such return types always receive a warning even without this option.

This warning is also enabled by -Wextra.

-Wmain
Warn if the type of ‘main’ is suspicious. ‘main’ should be a function with external linkage, returning int, taking either zero arguments, two, or three arguments of appropriate types. This warning is enabled by default in C++ and is enabled by either -Wall or -pedantic.
-Wmissing-braces
Warn if an aggregate or union initializer is not fully bracketed. In the following example, the initializer for ‘a’ is not fully bracketed, but that for ‘b’ is fully bracketed.
          int a[2][2] = { 0, 1, 2, 3 };
          int b[2][2] = { { 0, 1 }, { 2, 3 } };

This warning is enabled by -Wall.

-Wmissing-include-dirs (C, C++, Objective-C and Objective-C++ only)
Warn if a user-supplied include directory does not exist.
-Wparentheses
Warn if parentheses are omitted in certain contexts, such as when there is an assignment in a context where a truth value is expected, or when operators are nested whose precedence people often get confused about.

Also warn if a comparison like ‘x<=y<=z’ appears; this is equivalent to ‘(x<=y ? 1 : 0) <= z’, which is a different interpretation from that of ordinary mathematical notation.

Also warn about constructions where there may be confusion to which if statement an else branch belongs. Here is an example of such a case:

          {
            if (a)
              if (b)
                foo ();
            else
              bar ();
          }

In C/C++, every else branch belongs to the innermost possible if statement, which in this example is if (b). This is often not what the programmer expected, as illustrated in the above example by indentation the programmer chose. When there is the potential for this confusion, GCC will issue a warning when this flag is specified. To eliminate the warning, add explicit braces around the innermost if statement so there is no way the else could belong to the enclosing if. The resulting code would look like this:

          {
            if (a)
              {
                if (b)
                  foo ();
                else
                  bar ();
              }
          }

Also warn for dangerous uses of the ?: with omitted middle operand GNU extension. When the condition in the ?: operator is a boolean expression the omitted value will be always 1. Often the user expects it to be a value computed inside the conditional expression instead.

This warning is enabled by -Wall.

-Wsequence-point
Warn about code that may have undefined semantics because of violations of sequence point rules in the C and C++ standards.

The C and C++ standards defines the order in which expressions in a C/C++ program are evaluated in terms of sequence points, which represent a partial ordering between the execution of parts of the program: those executed before the sequence point, and those executed after it. These occur after the evaluation of a full expression (one which is not part of a larger expression), after the evaluation of the first operand of a &&, ||, ? : or , (comma) operator, before a function is called (but after the evaluation of its arguments and the expression denoting the called function), and in certain other places. Other than as expressed by the sequence point rules, the order of evaluation of subexpressions of an expression is not specified. All these rules describe only a partial order rather than a total order, since, for example, if two functions are called within one expression with no sequence point between them, the order in which the functions are called is not specified. However, the standards committee have ruled that function calls do not overlap.

It is not specified when between sequence points modifications to the values of objects take effect. Programs whose behavior depends on this have undefined behavior; the C and C++ standards specify that “Between the previous and next sequence point an object shall have its stored value modified at most once by the evaluation of an expression. Furthermore, the prior value shall be read only to determine the value to be stored.”. If a program breaks these rules, the results on any particular implementation are entirely unpredictable.

Examples of code with undefined behavior are a = a++;, a[n] = b[n++] and a[i++] = i;. Some more complicated cases are not diagnosed by this option, and it may give an occasional false positive result, but in general it has been found fairly effective at detecting this sort of problem in programs.

The standard is worded confusingly, therefore there is some debate over the precise meaning of the sequence point rules in subtle cases. Links to discussions of the problem, including proposed formal definitions, may be found on the GCC readings page, at http://gcc.gnu.org/readings.html.

This warning is enabled by -Wall for C and C++.

-Wreturn-type
Warn whenever a function is defined with a return-type that defaults to int. Also warn about any return statement with no return-value in a function whose return-type is not void (falling off the end of the function body is considered returning without a value), and about a return statement with an expression in a function whose return-type is void.

For C++, a function without return type always produces a diagnostic message, even when -Wno-return-type is specified. The only exceptions are ‘main’ and functions defined in system headers.

This warning is enabled by -Wall.

-Wswitch
Warn whenever a switch statement has an index of enumerated type and lacks a case for one or more of the named codes of that enumeration. (The presence of a default label prevents this warning.) case labels outside the enumeration range also provoke warnings when this option is used (even if there is a default label). This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wswitch-default
Warn whenever a switch statement does not have a default case.
-Wswitch-enum
Warn whenever a switch statement has an index of enumerated type and lacks a case for one or more of the named codes of that enumeration. case labels outside the enumeration range also provoke warnings when this option is used. The only difference between -Wswitch and this option is that this option gives a warning about an omitted enumeration code even if there is a default label.
-Wsync-nand (C and C++ only)
Warn when __sync_fetch_and_nand and __sync_nand_and_fetch built-in functions are used. These functions changed semantics in GCC 4.4.
-Wtrigraphs
Warn if any trigraphs are encountered that might change the meaning of the program (trigraphs within comments are not warned about). This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wunused-but-set-parameter
Warn whenever a function parameter is assigned to, but otherwise unused (aside from its declaration).

To suppress this warning use the ‘unused’ attribute (see Variable Attributes).

This warning is also enabled by -Wunused together with -Wextra.

-Wunused-but-set-variable
Warn whenever a local variable is assigned to, but otherwise unused (aside from its declaration). This warning is enabled by -Wall.

To suppress this warning use the ‘unused’ attribute (see Variable Attributes).

This warning is also enabled by -Wunused, which is enabled by -Wall.

-Wunused-function
Warn whenever a static function is declared but not defined or a non-inline static function is unused. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wunused-label
Warn whenever a label is declared but not used. This warning is enabled by -Wall.

To suppress this warning use the ‘unused’ attribute (see Variable Attributes).

-Wunused-local-typedefs (C, Objective-C, C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when a typedef locally defined in a function is not used.
-Wunused-parameter
Warn whenever a function parameter is unused aside from its declaration.

To suppress this warning use the ‘unused’ attribute (see Variable Attributes).

-Wno-unused-result
Do not warn if a caller of a function marked with attribute warn_unused_result (see Function Attributes) does not use its return value. The default is -Wunused-result.
-Wunused-variable
Warn whenever a local variable or non-constant static variable is unused aside from its declaration. This warning is enabled by -Wall.

To suppress this warning use the ‘unused’ attribute (see Variable Attributes).

-Wunused-value
Warn whenever a statement computes a result that is explicitly not used. To suppress this warning cast the unused expression to ‘void’. This includes an expression-statement or the left-hand side of a comma expression that contains no side effects. For example, an expression such as ‘x[i,j]’ will cause a warning, while ‘x[(void)i,j]’ will not.

This warning is enabled by -Wall.

-Wunused
All the above -Wunused options combined.

In order to get a warning about an unused function parameter, you must either specify ‘-Wextra -Wunused’ (note that ‘-Wall’ implies ‘-Wunused’), or separately specify -Wunused-parameter.

-Wuninitialized
Warn if an automatic variable is used without first being initialized or if a variable may be clobbered by a setjmp call. In C++, warn if a non-static reference or non-static ‘const’ member appears in a class without constructors.

If you want to warn about code that uses the uninitialized value of the variable in its own initializer, use the -Winit-self option.

These warnings occur for individual uninitialized or clobbered elements of structure, union or array variables as well as for variables that are uninitialized or clobbered as a whole. They do not occur for variables or elements declared volatile. Because these warnings depend on optimization, the exact variables or elements for which there are warnings will depend on the precise optimization options and version of GCC used.

Note that there may be no warning about a variable that is used only to compute a value that itself is never used, because such computations may be deleted by data flow analysis before the warnings are printed.

-Wmaybe-uninitialized
For an automatic variable, if there exists a path from the function entry to a use of the variable that is initialized, but there exist some other paths the variable is not initialized, the compiler will emit a warning if it can not prove the uninitialized paths do not happen at run time. These warnings are made optional because GCC is not smart enough to see all the reasons why the code might be correct despite appearing to have an error. Here is one example of how this can happen:
          {
            int x;
            switch (y)
              {
              case 1: x = 1;
                break;
              case 2: x = 4;
                break;
              case 3: x = 5;
              }
            foo (x);
          }

If the value of y is always 1, 2 or 3, then x is always initialized, but GCC doesn't know this. To suppress the warning, the user needs to provide a default case with assert(0) or similar code.

This option also warns when a non-volatile automatic variable might be changed by a call to longjmp. These warnings as well are possible only in optimizing compilation.

The compiler sees only the calls to setjmp. It cannot know where longjmp will be called; in fact, a signal handler could call it at any point in the code. As a result, you may get a warning even when there is in fact no problem because longjmp cannot in fact be called at the place that would cause a problem.

Some spurious warnings can be avoided if you declare all the functions you use that never return as noreturn. See Function Attributes.

This warning is enabled by -Wall or -Wextra.

-Wunknown-pragmas
Warn when a #pragma directive is encountered that is not understood by GCC. If this command-line option is used, warnings will even be issued for unknown pragmas in system header files. This is not the case if the warnings were only enabled by the -Wall command-line option.
-Wno-pragmas
Do not warn about misuses of pragmas, such as incorrect parameters, invalid syntax, or conflicts between pragmas. See also ‘-Wunknown-pragmas’.
-Wstrict-aliasing
This option is only active when -fstrict-aliasing is active. It warns about code that might break the strict aliasing rules that the compiler is using for optimization. The warning does not catch all cases, but does attempt to catch the more common pitfalls. It is included in -Wall. It is equivalent to -Wstrict-aliasing=3
-Wstrict-aliasing=n
This option is only active when -fstrict-aliasing is active. It warns about code that might break the strict aliasing rules that the compiler is using for optimization. Higher levels correspond to higher accuracy (fewer false positives). Higher levels also correspond to more effort, similar to the way -O works. -Wstrict-aliasing is equivalent to -Wstrict-aliasing=n, with n=3.

Level 1: Most aggressive, quick, least accurate. Possibly useful when higher levels do not warn but -fstrict-aliasing still breaks the code, as it has very few false negatives. However, it has many false positives. Warns for all pointer conversions between possibly incompatible types, even if never dereferenced. Runs in the front end only.

Level 2: Aggressive, quick, not too precise. May still have many false positives (not as many as level 1 though), and few false negatives (but possibly more than level 1). Unlike level 1, it only warns when an address is taken. Warns about incomplete types. Runs in the front end only.

Level 3 (default for -Wstrict-aliasing): Should have very few false positives and few false negatives. Slightly slower than levels 1 or 2 when optimization is enabled. Takes care of the common pun+dereference pattern in the front end: *(int*)&some_float. If optimization is enabled, it also runs in the back end, where it deals with multiple statement cases using flow-sensitive points-to information. Only warns when the converted pointer is dereferenced. Does not warn about incomplete types.

-Wstrict-overflow
-Wstrict-overflow=n
This option is only active when -fstrict-overflow is active. It warns about cases where the compiler optimizes based on the assumption that signed overflow does not occur. Note that it does not warn about all cases where the code might overflow: it only warns about cases where the compiler implements some optimization. Thus this warning depends on the optimization level.

An optimization that assumes that signed overflow does not occur is perfectly safe if the values of the variables involved are such that overflow never does, in fact, occur. Therefore this warning can easily give a false positive: a warning about code that is not actually a problem. To help focus on important issues, several warning levels are defined. No warnings are issued for the use of undefined signed overflow when estimating how many iterations a loop will require, in particular when determining whether a loop will be executed at all.

-Wstrict-overflow=1
Warn about cases that are both questionable and easy to avoid. For example: x + 1 > x; with -fstrict-overflow, the compiler will simplify this to 1. This level of -Wstrict-overflow is enabled by -Wall; higher levels are not, and must be explicitly requested.
-Wstrict-overflow=2
Also warn about other cases where a comparison is simplified to a constant. For example: abs (x) >= 0. This can only be simplified when -fstrict-overflow is in effect, because abs (INT_MIN) overflows to INT_MIN, which is less than zero. -Wstrict-overflow (with no level) is the same as -Wstrict-overflow=2.
-Wstrict-overflow=3
Also warn about other cases where a comparison is simplified. For example: x + 1 > 1 will be simplified to x > 0.
-Wstrict-overflow=4
Also warn about other simplifications not covered by the above cases. For example: (x * 10) / 5 will be simplified to x * 2.
-Wstrict-overflow=5
Also warn about cases where the compiler reduces the magnitude of a constant involved in a comparison. For example: x + 2 > y will be simplified to x + 1 >= y. This is reported only at the highest warning level because this simplification applies to many comparisons, so this warning level will give a very large number of false positives.

-Wsuggest-attribute=[pure|const|noreturn]
Warn for cases where adding an attribute may be beneficial. The attributes currently supported are listed below.
-Wsuggest-attribute=pure
-Wsuggest-attribute=const
-Wsuggest-attribute=noreturn
Warn about functions that might be candidates for attributes pure, const or noreturn. The compiler only warns for functions visible in other compilation units or (in the case of pure and const) if it cannot prove that the function returns normally. A function returns normally if it doesn't contain an infinite loop nor returns abnormally by throwing, calling abort() or trapping. This analysis requires option -fipa-pure-const, which is enabled by default at -O and higher. Higher optimization levels improve the accuracy of the analysis.

-Warray-bounds
This option is only active when -ftree-vrp is active (default for -O2 and above). It warns about subscripts to arrays that are always out of bounds. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wno-div-by-zero
Do not warn about compile-time integer division by zero. Floating-point division by zero is not warned about, as it can be a legitimate way of obtaining infinities and NaNs.
-Wsystem-headers
Print warning messages for constructs found in system header files. Warnings from system headers are normally suppressed, on the assumption that they usually do not indicate real problems and would only make the compiler output harder to read. Using this command-line option tells GCC to emit warnings from system headers as if they occurred in user code. However, note that using -Wall in conjunction with this option will not warn about unknown pragmas in system headers—for that, -Wunknown-pragmas must also be used.
-Wtrampolines
Warn about trampolines generated for pointers to nested functions.

A trampoline is a small piece of data or code that is created at run time on the stack when the address of a nested function is taken, and is used to call the nested function indirectly. For some targets, it is made up of data only and thus requires no special treatment. But, for most targets, it is made up of code and thus requires the stack to be made executable in order for the program to work properly.

-Wfloat-equal
Warn if floating-point values are used in equality comparisons.

The idea behind this is that sometimes it is convenient (for the programmer) to consider floating-point values as approximations to infinitely precise real numbers. If you are doing this, then you need to compute (by analyzing the code, or in some other way) the maximum or likely maximum error that the computation introduces, and allow for it when performing comparisons (and when producing output, but that's a different problem). In particular, instead of testing for equality, you would check to see whether the two values have ranges that overlap; and this is done with the relational operators, so equality comparisons are probably mistaken.

-Wtraditional (C and Objective-C only)
Warn about certain constructs that behave differently in traditional and ISO C. Also warn about ISO C constructs that have no traditional C equivalent, and/or problematic constructs that should be avoided.
-Wtraditional-conversion (C and Objective-C only)
Warn if a prototype causes a type conversion that is different from what would happen to the same argument in the absence of a prototype. This includes conversions of fixed point to floating and vice versa, and conversions changing the width or signedness of a fixed-point argument except when the same as the default promotion.
-Wdeclaration-after-statement (C and Objective-C only)
Warn when a declaration is found after a statement in a block. This construct, known from C++, was introduced with ISO C99 and is by default allowed in GCC. It is not supported by ISO C90 and was not supported by GCC versions before GCC 3.0. See Mixed Declarations.
-Wundef
Warn if an undefined identifier is evaluated in an ‘#if’ directive.
-Wno-endif-labels
Do not warn whenever an ‘#else’ or an ‘#endif’ are followed by text.
-Wshadow
Warn whenever a local variable or type declaration shadows another variable, parameter, type, or class member (in C++), or whenever a built-in function is shadowed. Note that in C++, the compiler will not warn if a local variable shadows a struct/class/enum, but will warn if it shadows an explicit typedef.
-Wlarger-than=len
Warn whenever an object of larger than len bytes is defined.
-Wframe-larger-than=len
Warn if the size of a function frame is larger than len bytes. The computation done to determine the stack frame size is approximate and not conservative. The actual requirements may be somewhat greater than len even if you do not get a warning. In addition, any space allocated via alloca, variable-length arrays, or related constructs is not included by the compiler when determining whether or not to issue a warning.
-Wno-free-nonheap-object
Do not warn when attempting to free an object that was not allocated on the heap.
-Wstack-usage=len
Warn if the stack usage of a function might be larger than len bytes. The computation done to determine the stack usage is conservative. Any space allocated via alloca, variable-length arrays, or related constructs is included by the compiler when determining whether or not to issue a warning.

The message is in keeping with the output of -fstack-usage.


-Wunsafe-loop-optimizations
Warn if the loop cannot be optimized because the compiler could not assume anything on the bounds of the loop indices. With -funsafe-loop-optimizations warn if the compiler made such assumptions.
-Wno-pedantic-ms-format (MinGW targets only)
Disables the warnings about non-ISO printf / scanf format width specifiers I32, I64, and I used on Windows targets depending on the MS runtime, when you are using the options -Wformat and -pedantic without gnu-extensions.
-Wpointer-arith
Warn about anything that depends on the “size of” a function type or of void. GNU C assigns these types a size of 1, for convenience in calculations with void * pointers and pointers to functions. In C++, warn also when an arithmetic operation involves NULL. This warning is also enabled by -pedantic.
-Wtype-limits
Warn if a comparison is always true or always false due to the limited range of the data type, but do not warn for constant expressions. For example, warn if an unsigned variable is compared against zero with ‘<’ or ‘>=’. This warning is also enabled by -Wextra.
-Wbad-function-cast (C and Objective-C only)
Warn whenever a function call is cast to a non-matching type. For example, warn if int malloc() is cast to anything *.
-Wc++-compat (C and Objective-C only)
Warn about ISO C constructs that are outside of the common subset of ISO C and ISO C++, e.g. request for implicit conversion from void * to a pointer to non-void type.
-Wc++11-compat (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn about C++ constructs whose meaning differs between ISO C++ 1998 and ISO C++ 2011, e.g., identifiers in ISO C++ 1998 that are keywords in ISO C++ 2011. This warning turns on -Wnarrowing and is enabled by -Wall.
-Wcast-qual
Warn whenever a pointer is cast so as to remove a type qualifier from the target type. For example, warn if a const char * is cast to an ordinary char *.

Also warn when making a cast that introduces a type qualifier in an unsafe way. For example, casting char ** to const char ** is unsafe, as in this example:

            /* p is char ** value.  */
            const char **q = (const char **) p;
            /* Assignment of readonly string to const char * is OK.  */
            *q = "string";
            /* Now char** pointer points to read-only memory.  */
            **p = 'b';

-Wcast-align
Warn whenever a pointer is cast such that the required alignment of the target is increased. For example, warn if a char * is cast to an int * on machines where integers can only be accessed at two- or four-byte boundaries.
-Wwrite-strings
When compiling C, give string constants the type const char[length] so that copying the address of one into a non-const char * pointer will get a warning. These warnings will help you find at compile time code that can try to write into a string constant, but only if you have been very careful about using const in declarations and prototypes. Otherwise, it will just be a nuisance. This is why we did not make -Wall request these warnings.

When compiling C++, warn about the deprecated conversion from string literals to char *. This warning is enabled by default for C++ programs.

-Wclobbered
Warn for variables that might be changed by ‘longjmp’ or ‘vfork’. This warning is also enabled by -Wextra.
-Wconversion
Warn for implicit conversions that may alter a value. This includes conversions between real and integer, like abs (x) when x is double; conversions between signed and unsigned, like unsigned ui = -1; and conversions to smaller types, like sqrtf (M_PI). Do not warn for explicit casts like abs ((int) x) and ui = (unsigned) -1, or if the value is not changed by the conversion like in abs (2.0). Warnings about conversions between signed and unsigned integers can be disabled by using -Wno-sign-conversion.

For C++, also warn for confusing overload resolution for user-defined conversions; and conversions that will never use a type conversion operator: conversions to void, the same type, a base class or a reference to them. Warnings about conversions between signed and unsigned integers are disabled by default in C++ unless -Wsign-conversion is explicitly enabled.

-Wno-conversion-null (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Do not warn for conversions between NULL and non-pointer types. -Wconversion-null is enabled by default.
-Wzero-as-null-pointer-constant (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Warn when a literal '0' is used as null pointer constant. This can be useful to facilitate the conversion to nullptr in C++11.
-Wempty-body
Warn if an empty body occurs in an ‘if’, ‘else’ or ‘do while’ statement. This warning is also enabled by -Wextra.
-Wenum-compare
Warn about a comparison between values of different enumerated types. In C++ enumeral mismatches in conditional expressions are also diagnosed and the warning is enabled by default. In C this warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wjump-misses-init (C, Objective-C only)
Warn if a goto statement or a switch statement jumps forward across the initialization of a variable, or jumps backward to a label after the variable has been initialized. This only warns about variables that are initialized when they are declared. This warning is only supported for C and Objective-C; in C++ this sort of branch is an error in any case.

-Wjump-misses-init is included in -Wc++-compat. It can be disabled with the -Wno-jump-misses-init option.

-Wsign-compare
Warn when a comparison between signed and unsigned values could produce an incorrect result when the signed value is converted to unsigned. This warning is also enabled by -Wextra; to get the other warnings of -Wextra without this warning, use ‘-Wextra -Wno-sign-compare’.
-Wsign-conversion
Warn for implicit conversions that may change the sign of an integer value, like assigning a signed integer expression to an unsigned integer variable. An explicit cast silences the warning. In C, this option is enabled also by -Wconversion.
-Waddress
Warn about suspicious uses of memory addresses. These include using the address of a function in a conditional expression, such as void func(void); if (func), and comparisons against the memory address of a string literal, such as if (x == "abc"). Such uses typically indicate a programmer error: the address of a function always evaluates to true, so their use in a conditional usually indicate that the programmer forgot the parentheses in a function call; and comparisons against string literals result in unspecified behavior and are not portable in C, so they usually indicate that the programmer intended to use strcmp. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wlogical-op
Warn about suspicious uses of logical operators in expressions. This includes using logical operators in contexts where a bit-wise operator is likely to be expected.
-Waggregate-return
Warn if any functions that return structures or unions are defined or called. (In languages where you can return an array, this also elicits a warning.)
-Wno-attributes
Do not warn if an unexpected __attribute__ is used, such as unrecognized attributes, function attributes applied to variables, etc. This will not stop errors for incorrect use of supported attributes.
-Wno-builtin-macro-redefined
Do not warn if certain built-in macros are redefined. This suppresses warnings for redefinition of __TIMESTAMP__, __TIME__, __DATE__, __FILE__, and __BASE_FILE__.
-Wstrict-prototypes (C and Objective-C only)
Warn if a function is declared or defined without specifying the argument types. (An old-style function definition is permitted without a warning if preceded by a declaration that specifies the argument types.)
-Wold-style-declaration (C and Objective-C only)
Warn for obsolescent usages, according to the C Standard, in a declaration. For example, warn if storage-class specifiers like static are not the first things in a declaration. This warning is also enabled by -Wextra.
-Wold-style-definition (C and Objective-C only)
Warn if an old-style function definition is used. A warning is given even if there is a previous prototype.
-Wmissing-parameter-type (C and Objective-C only)
A function parameter is declared without a type specifier in K&R-style functions:
          void foo(bar) { }

This warning is also enabled by -Wextra.

-Wmissing-prototypes (C and Objective-C only)
Warn if a global function is defined without a previous prototype declaration. This warning is issued even if the definition itself provides a prototype. The aim is to detect global functions that are not declared in header files.
-Wmissing-declarations
Warn if a global function is defined without a previous declaration. Do so even if the definition itself provides a prototype. Use this option to detect global functions that are not declared in header files. In C++, no warnings are issued for function templates, or for inline functions, or for functions in anonymous namespaces.
-Wmissing-field-initializers
Warn if a structure's initializer has some fields missing. For example, the following code would cause such a warning, because x.h is implicitly zero:
          struct s { int f, g, h; };
          struct s x = { 3, 4 };

This option does not warn about designated initializers, so the following modification would not trigger a warning:

          struct s { int f, g, h; };
          struct s x = { .f = 3, .g = 4 };

This warning is included in -Wextra. To get other -Wextra warnings without this one, use ‘-Wextra -Wno-missing-field-initializers’.

-Wmissing-format-attribute
Warn about function pointers that might be candidates for format attributes. Note these are only possible candidates, not absolute ones. GCC will guess that function pointers with format attributes that are used in assignment, initialization, parameter passing or return statements should have a corresponding format attribute in the resulting type. I.e. the left-hand side of the assignment or initialization, the type of the parameter variable, or the return type of the containing function respectively should also have a format attribute to avoid the warning.

GCC will also warn about function definitions that might be candidates for format attributes. Again, these are only possible candidates. GCC will guess that format attributes might be appropriate for any function that calls a function like vprintf or vscanf, but this might not always be the case, and some functions for which format attributes are appropriate may not be detected.

-Wno-multichar
Do not warn if a multicharacter constant (‘'FOOF'’) is used. Usually they indicate a typo in the user's code, as they have implementation-defined values, and should not be used in portable code.
-Wnormalized=<none|id|nfc|nfkc>
In ISO C and ISO C++, two identifiers are different if they are different sequences of characters. However, sometimes when characters outside the basic ASCII character set are used, you can have two different character sequences that look the same. To avoid confusion, the ISO 10646 standard sets out some normalization rules which when applied ensure that two sequences that look the same are turned into the same sequence. GCC can warn you if you are using identifiers that have not been normalized; this option controls that warning.

There are four levels of warning supported by GCC. The default is -Wnormalized=nfc, which warns about any identifier that is not in the ISO 10646 “C” normalized form, NFC. NFC is the recommended form for most uses.

Unfortunately, there are some characters allowed in identifiers by ISO C and ISO C++ that, when turned into NFC, are not allowed in identifiers. That is, there's no way to use these symbols in portable ISO C or C++ and have all your identifiers in NFC. -Wnormalized=id suppresses the warning for these characters. It is hoped that future versions of the standards involved will correct this, which is why this option is not the default.

You can switch the warning off for all characters by writing -Wnormalized=none. You would only want to do this if you were using some other normalization scheme (like “D”), because otherwise you can easily create bugs that are literally impossible to see.

Some characters in ISO 10646 have distinct meanings but look identical in some fonts or display methodologies, especially once formatting has been applied. For instance \u207F, “SUPERSCRIPT LATIN SMALL LETTER N”, will display just like a regular n that has been placed in a superscript. ISO 10646 defines the NFKC normalization scheme to convert all these into a standard form as well, and GCC will warn if your code is not in NFKC if you use -Wnormalized=nfkc. This warning is comparable to warning about every identifier that contains the letter O because it might be confused with the digit 0, and so is not the default, but may be useful as a local coding convention if the programming environment is unable to be fixed to display these characters distinctly.

-Wno-deprecated
Do not warn about usage of deprecated features. See Deprecated Features.
-Wno-deprecated-declarations
Do not warn about uses of functions (see Function Attributes), variables (see Variable Attributes), and types (see Type Attributes) marked as deprecated by using the deprecated attribute.
-Wno-overflow
Do not warn about compile-time overflow in constant expressions.
-Woverride-init (C and Objective-C only)
Warn if an initialized field without side effects is overridden when using designated initializers (see Designated Initializers).

This warning is included in -Wextra. To get other -Wextra warnings without this one, use ‘-Wextra -Wno-override-init’.

-Wpacked
Warn if a structure is given the packed attribute, but the packed attribute has no effect on the layout or size of the structure. Such structures may be mis-aligned for little benefit. For instance, in this code, the variable f.x in struct bar will be misaligned even though struct bar does not itself have the packed attribute:
          struct foo {
            int x;
            char a, b, c, d;
          } __attribute__((packed));
          struct bar {
            char z;
            struct foo f;
          };

-Wpacked-bitfield-compat
The 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3 series of GCC ignore the packed attribute on bit-fields of type char. This has been fixed in GCC 4.4 but the change can lead to differences in the structure layout. GCC informs you when the offset of such a field has changed in GCC 4.4. For example there is no longer a 4-bit padding between field a and b in this structure:
          struct foo
          {
            char a:4;
            char b:8;
          } __attribute__ ((packed));

This warning is enabled by default. Use -Wno-packed-bitfield-compat to disable this warning.

-Wpadded
Warn if padding is included in a structure, either to align an element of the structure or to align the whole structure. Sometimes when this happens it is possible to rearrange the fields of the structure to reduce the padding and so make the structure smaller.
-Wredundant-decls
Warn if anything is declared more than once in the same scope, even in cases where multiple declaration is valid and changes nothing.
-Wnested-externs (C and Objective-C only)
Warn if an extern declaration is encountered within a function.
-Winline
Warn if a function can not be inlined and it was declared as inline. Even with this option, the compiler will not warn about failures to inline functions declared in system headers.

The compiler uses a variety of heuristics to determine whether or not to inline a function. For example, the compiler takes into account the size of the function being inlined and the amount of inlining that has already been done in the current function. Therefore, seemingly insignificant changes in the source program can cause the warnings produced by -Winline to appear or disappear.

-Wno-invalid-offsetof (C++ and Objective-C++ only)
Suppress warnings from applying the ‘offsetof’ macro to a non-POD type. According to the 1998 ISO C++ standard, applying ‘offsetof’ to a non-POD type is undefined. In existing C++ implementations, however, ‘offsetof’ typically gives meaningful results even when applied to certain kinds of non-POD types. (Such as a simple ‘struct’ that fails to be a POD type only by virtue of having a constructor.) This flag is for users who are aware that they are writing nonportable code and who have deliberately chosen to ignore the warning about it.

The restrictions on ‘offsetof’ may be relaxed in a future version of the C++ standard.

-Wno-int-to-pointer-cast
Suppress warnings from casts to pointer type of an integer of a different size. In C++, casting to a pointer type of smaller size is an error. Wint-to-pointer-cast is enabled by default.
-Wno-pointer-to-int-cast (C and Objective-C only)
Suppress warnings from casts from a pointer to an integer type of a different size.
-Winvalid-pch
Warn if a precompiled header (see Precompiled Headers) is found in the search path but can't be used.
-Wlong-long
Warn if ‘long long’ type is used. This is enabled by either -pedantic or -Wtraditional in ISO C90 and C++98 modes. To inhibit the warning messages, use -Wno-long-long.
-Wvariadic-macros
Warn if variadic macros are used in pedantic ISO C90 mode, or the GNU alternate syntax when in pedantic ISO C99 mode. This is default. To inhibit the warning messages, use -Wno-variadic-macros.
-Wvector-operation-performance
Warn if vector operation is not implemented via SIMD capabilities of the architecture. Mainly useful for the performance tuning. Vector operation can be implemented piecewise, which means that the scalar operation is performed on every vector element; in parallel, which means that the vector operation is implemented using scalars of wider type, which normally is more performance efficient; and as a single scalar, which means that vector fits into a scalar type.
-Wvla
Warn if variable length array is used in the code. -Wno-vla will prevent the -pedantic warning of the variable length array.
-Wvolatile-register-var
Warn if a register variable is declared volatile. The volatile modifier does not inhibit all optimizations that may eliminate reads and/or writes to register variables. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
-Wdisabled-optimization
Warn if a requested optimization pass is disabled. This warning does not generally indicate that there is anything wrong with your code; it merely indicates that GCC's optimizers were unable to handle the code effectively. Often, the problem is that your code is too big or too complex; GCC will refuse to optimize programs when the optimization itself is likely to take inordinate amounts of time.
-Wpointer-sign (C and Objective-C only)
Warn for pointer argument passing or assignment with different signedness. This option is only supported for C and Objective-C. It is implied by -Wall and by -pedantic, which can be disabled with -Wno-pointer-sign.
-Wstack-protector
This option is only active when -fstack-protector is active. It warns about functions that will not be protected against stack smashing.
-Wno-mudflap
Suppress warnings about constructs that cannot be instrumented by -fmudflap.
-Woverlength-strings
Warn about string constants that are longer than the “minimum maximum” length specified in the C standard. Modern compilers generally allow string constants that are much longer than the standard's minimum limit, but very portable programs should avoid using longer strings.

The limit applies after string constant concatenation, and does not count the trailing NUL. In C90, the limit was 509 characters; in C99, it was raised to 4095. C++98 does not specify a normative minimum maximum, so we do not diagnose overlength strings in C++.

This option is implied by -pedantic, and can be disabled with -Wno-overlength-strings.

-Wunsuffixed-float-constants (C and Objective-C only)
GCC will issue a warning for any floating constant that does not have a suffix. When used together with -Wsystem-headers it will warn about such constants in system header files. This can be useful when preparing code to use with the FLOAT_CONST_DECIMAL64 pragma from the decimal floating-point extension to C99.


Next: , Previous: Warning Options, Up: Invoking GCC

3.9 Options for Debugging Your Program or GCC

GCC has various special options that are used for debugging either your program or GCC:

-g
Produce debugging information in the operating system's native format (stabs, COFF, XCOFF, or DWARF 2). GDB can work with this debugging information.

On most systems that use stabs format, -g enables use of extra debugging information that only GDB can use; this extra information makes debugging work better in GDB but will probably make other debuggers crash or refuse to read the program. If you want to control for certain whether to generate the extra information, use -gstabs+, -gstabs, -gxcoff+, -gxcoff, or -gvms (see below).

GCC allows you to use -g with -O. The shortcuts taken by optimized code may occasionally produce surprising results: some variables you declared may not exist at all; flow of control may briefly move where you did not expect it; some statements may not be executed because they compute constant results or their values were already at hand; some statements may execute in different places because they were moved out of loops.

Nevertheless it proves possible to debug optimized output. This makes it reasonable to use the optimizer for programs that might have bugs.

The following options are useful when GCC is generated with the capability for more than one debugging format.

-ggdb
Produce debugging information for use by GDB. This means to use the most expressive format available (DWARF 2, stabs, or the native format if neither of those are supported), including GDB extensions if at all possible.
-gstabs
Produce debugging information in stabs format (if that is supported), without GDB extensions. This is the format used by DBX on most BSD systems. On MIPS, Alpha and System V Release 4 systems this option produces stabs debugging output that is not understood by DBX or SDB. On System V Release 4 systems this option requires the GNU assembler.
-feliminate-unused-debug-symbols
Produce debugging information in stabs format (if that is supported), for only symbols that are actually used.
-femit-class-debug-always
Instead of emitting debugging information for a C++ class in only one object file, emit it in all object files using the class. This option should be used only with debuggers that are unable to handle the way GCC normally emits debugging information for classes because using this option will increase the size of debugging information by as much as a factor of two.
-fno-debug-types-section
By default when using DWARF v4 or higher type DIEs will be put into their own .debug_types section instead of making them part of the .debug_info section. It is more efficient to put them in a separate comdat sections since the linker will then be able to remove duplicates. But not all DWARF consumers support .debug_types sections yet.
-gstabs+
Produce debugging information in stabs format (if that is supported), using GNU extensions understood only by the GNU debugger (GDB). The use of these extensions is likely to make other debuggers crash or refuse to read the program.
-gcoff
Produce debugging information in COFF format (if that is supported). This is the format used by SDB on most System V systems prior to System V Release 4.
-gxcoff
Produce debugging information in XCOFF format (if that is supported). This is the format used by the DBX debugger on IBM RS/6000 systems.
-gxcoff+
Produce debugging information in XCOFF format (if that is supported), using GNU extensions understood only by the GNU debugger (GDB). The use of these extensions is likely to make other debuggers crash or refuse to read the program, and may cause assemblers other than the GNU assembler (GAS) to fail with an error.
-gdwarf-version
Produce debugging information in DWARF format (if that is supported). This is the format used by DBX on IRIX 6. The value of version may be either 2, 3 or 4; the default version is 2.

Note that with DWARF version 2 some ports require, and will always use, some non-conflicting DWARF 3 extensions in the unwind tables.

Version 4 may require GDB 7.0 and -fvar-tracking-assignments for maximum benefit.

-grecord-gcc-switches
This switch causes the command-line options used to invoke the compiler that may affect code generation to be appended to the DW_AT_producer attribute in DWARF debugging information. The options are concatenated with spaces separating them from each other and from the compiler version. See also -frecord-gcc-switches for another way of storing compiler options into the object file.
-gno-record-gcc-switches
Disallow appending command-line options to the DW_AT_producer attribute in DWARF debugging information. This is the default.
-gstrict-dwarf
Disallow using extensions of later DWARF standard version than selected with -gdwarf-version. On most targets using non-conflicting DWARF extensions from later standard versions is allowed.
-gno-strict-dwarf
Allow using extensions of later DWARF standard version than selected with -gdwarf-version.
-gvms
Produce debugging information in VMS debug format (if that is supported). This is the format used by DEBUG on VMS systems.
-glevel
-ggdblevel
-gstabslevel
-gcofflevel
-gxcofflevel
-gvmslevel
Request debugging information and also use level to specify how much information. The default level is 2.

Level 0 produces no debug information at all. Thus, -g0 negates -g.

Level 1 produces minimal information, enough for making backtraces in parts of the program that you don't plan to debug. This includes descriptions of functions and external variables, but no information about local variables and no line numbers.

Level 3 includes extra information, such as all the macro definitions present in the program. Some debuggers support macro expansion when you use -g3.

-gdwarf-2 does not accept a concatenated debug level, because GCC used to support an option -gdwarf that meant to generate debug information in version 1 of the DWARF format (which is very different from version 2), and it would have been too confusing. That debug format is long obsolete, but the option cannot be changed now. Instead use an additional -glevel option to change the debug level for DWARF.

-gtoggle
Turn off generation of debug info, if leaving out this option would have generated it, or turn it on at level 2 otherwise. The position of this argument in the command line does not matter, it takes effect after all other options are processed, and it does so only once, no matter how many times it is given. This is mainly intended to be used with -fcompare-debug.
-fdump-final-insns[=file]
Dump the final internal representation (RTL) to file. If the optional argument is omitted (or if file is .), the name of the dump file will be determined by appending .gkd to the compilation output file name.
-fcompare-debug[=opts]
If no error occurs during compilation, run the compiler a second time, adding opts and -fcompare-debug-second to the arguments passed to the second compilation. Dump the final internal representation in both compilations, and print an error if they differ.

If the equal sign is omitted, the default -gtoggle is used.

The environment variable GCC_COMPARE_DEBUG, if defined, non-empty and nonzero, implicitly enables -fcompare-debug. If GCC_COMPARE_DEBUG is defined to a string starting with a dash, then it is used for opts, otherwise the default -gtoggle is used.

-fcompare-debug=, with the equal sign but without opts, is equivalent to -fno-compare-debug, which disables the dumping of the final representation and the second compilation, preventing even GCC_COMPARE_DEBUG from taking effect.

To verify full coverage during -fcompare-debug testing, set GCC_COMPARE_DEBUG to say ‘-fcompare-debug-not-overridden’, which GCC will reject as an invalid option in any actual compilation (rather than preprocessing, assembly or linking). To get just a warning, setting GCC_COMPARE_DEBUG to ‘-w%n-fcompare-debug not overridden’ will do.

-fcompare-debug-second
This option is implicitly passed to the compiler for the second compilation requested by -fcompare-debug, along with options to silence warnings, and omitting other options that would cause side-effect compiler outputs to files or to the standard output. Dump files and preserved temporary files are renamed so as to contain the .gk additional extension during the second compilation, to avoid overwriting those generated by the first.

When this option is passed to the compiler driver, it causes the first compilation to be skipped, which makes it useful for little other than debugging the compiler proper.

-feliminate-dwarf2-dups
Compress DWARF2 debugging information by eliminating duplicated information about each symbol. This option only makes sense when generating DWARF2 debugging information with -gdwarf-2.
-femit-struct-debug-baseonly
Emit debug information for struct-like types only when the base name of the compilation source file matches the base name of file in which the struct was defined.

This option substantially reduces the size of debugging information, but at significant potential loss in type information to the debugger. See -femit-struct-debug-reduced for a less aggressive option. See -femit-struct-debug-detailed for more detailed control.

This option works only with DWARF 2.

-femit-struct-debug-reduced
Emit debug information for struct-like types only when the base name of the compilation source file matches the base name of file in which the type was defined, unless the struct is a template or defined in a system header.

This option significantly reduces the size of debugging information, with some potential loss in type information to the debugger. See -femit-struct-debug-baseonly for a more aggressive option. See -femit-struct-debug-detailed for more detailed control.

This option works only with DWARF 2.

-femit-struct-debug-detailed[=spec-list]
Specify the struct-like types for which the compiler will generate debug information. The intent is to reduce duplicate struct debug information between different object files within the same program.

This option is a detailed version of -femit-struct-debug-reduced and -femit-struct-debug-baseonly, which will serve for most needs.

A specification has the syntax
[‘dir:’|‘ind:’][‘ord:’|‘gen:’](‘any’|‘sys’|‘base’|‘none’)

The optional first word limits the specification to structs that are used directly (‘dir:’) or used indirectly (‘ind:’). A struct type is used directly when it is the type of a variable, member. Indirect uses arise through pointers to structs. That is, when use of an incomplete struct would be legal, the use is indirect. An example is ‘struct one direct; struct two * indirect;’.

The optional second word limits the specification to ordinary structs (‘ord:’) or generic structs (‘gen:’). Generic structs are a bit complicated to explain. For C++, these are non-explicit specializations of template classes, or non-template classes within the above. Other programming languages have generics, but ‘-femit-struct-debug-detailed’ does not yet implement them.

The third word specifies the source files for those structs for which the compiler will emit debug information. The values ‘none’ and ‘any’ have the normal meaning. The value ‘base’ means that the base of name of the file in which the type declaration appears must match the base of the name of the main compilation file. In practice, this means that types declared in foo.c and foo.h will have debug information, but types declared in other header will not. The value ‘sys’ means those types satisfying ‘base’ or declared in system or compiler headers.

You may need to experiment to determine the best settings for your application.

The default is ‘-femit-struct-debug-detailed=all’.

This option works only with DWARF 2.

-fno-merge-debug-strings
Direct the linker to not merge together strings in the debugging information that are identical in different object files. Merging is not supported by all assemblers or linkers. Merging decreases the size of the debug information in the output file at the cost of increasing link processing time. Merging is enabled by default.
-fdebug-prefix-map=old=new
When compiling files in directory old, record debugging information describing them as in new instead.
-fno-dwarf2-cfi-asm
Emit DWARF 2 unwind info as compiler generated .eh_frame section instead of using GAS .cfi_* directives.


-p
Generate extra code to write profile information suitable for the analysis program prof. You must use this option when compiling the source files you want data about, and you must also use it when linking.


-pg
Generate extra code to write profile information suitable for the analysis program gprof. You must use this option when compiling the source files you want data about, and you must also use it when linking.
-Q
Makes the compiler print out each function name as it is compiled, and print some statistics about each pass when it finishes.
-ftime-report
Makes the compiler print some statistics about the time consumed by each pass when it finishes.
-fmem-report
Makes the compiler print some statistics about permanent memory allocation when it finishes.
-fpre-ipa-mem-report

-fpost-ipa-mem-report
Makes the compiler print some statistics about permanent memory allocation before or after interprocedural optimization.
-fstack-usage
Makes the compiler output stack usage information for the program, on a per-function basis. The filename for the dump is made by appending .su to the auxname. auxname is generated from the name of the output file, if explicitly specified and it is not an executable, otherwise it is the basename of the source file. An entry is made up of three fields:

The qualifier static means that the function manipulates the stack statically: a fixed number of bytes are allocated for the frame on function entry and released on function exit; no stack adjustments are otherwise made in the function. The second field is this fixed number of bytes.

The qualifier dynamic means that the function manipulates the stack dynamically: in addition to the static allocation described above, stack adjustments are made in the body of the function, for example to push/pop arguments around function calls. If the qualifier bounded is also present, the amount of these adjustments is bounded at compile time and the second field is an upper bound of the total amount of stack used by the function. If it is not present, the amount of these adjustments is not bounded at compile time and the second field only represents the bounded part.

-fprofile-arcs
Add code so that program flow arcs are instrumented. During execution the program records how many times each branch and call is executed and how many times it is taken or returns. When the compiled program exits it saves this data to a file called auxname.gcda for each source file. The data may be used for profile-directed optimizations (-fbranch-probabilities), or for test coverage analysis (-ftest-coverage). Each object file's auxname is generated from the name of the output file, if explicitly specified and it is not the final executable, otherwise it is the basename of the source file. In both cases any suffix is removed (e.g. foo.gcda for input file dir/foo.c, or dir/foo.gcda for output file specified as -o dir/foo.o). See Cross-profiling.


--coverage
This option is used to compile and link code instrumented for coverage analysis. The option is a synonym for -fprofile-arcs -ftest-coverage (when compiling) and -lgcov (when linking). See the documentation for those options for more details.

With -fprofile-arcs, for each function of your program GCC creates a program flow graph, then finds a spanning tree for the graph. Only arcs that are not on the spanning tree have to be instrumented: the compiler adds code to count the number of times that these arcs are executed. When an arc is the only exit or only entrance to a block, the instrumentation code can be added to the block; otherwise, a new basic block must be created to hold the instrumentation code.

-ftest-coverage
Produce a notes file that the gcov code-coverage utility (see gcov—a Test Coverage Program) can use to show program coverage. Each source file's note file is called auxname.gcno. Refer to the -fprofile-arcs option above for a description of auxname and instructions on how to generate test coverage data. Coverage data will match the source files more closely, if you do not optimize.
-fdbg-cnt-list
Print the name and the counter upper bound for all debug counters.
-fdbg-cnt=counter-value-list
Set the internal debug counter upper bound. counter-value-list is a comma-separated list of name:value pairs which sets the upper bound of each debug counter name to value. All debug counters have the initial upper bound of UINT_MAX, thus dbg_cnt() returns true always unless the upper bound is set by this option. e.g. With -fdbg-cnt=dce:10,tail_call:0 dbg_cnt(dce) will return true only for first 10 invocations
-fenable-kind-pass
-fdisable-kind-pass=range-list
This is a set of debugging options that are used to explicitly disable/enable optimization passes. For compiler users, regular options for enabling/disabling passes should be used instead.
-dletters
-fdump-rtl-pass
Says to make debugging dumps during compilation at times specified by letters. This is used for debugging the RTL-based passes of the compiler. The file names for most of the dumps are made by appending a pass number and a word to the dumpname, and the files are created in the directory of the output file. Note that the pass number is computed statically as passes get registered into the pass manager. Thus the numbering is not related to the dynamic order of execution of passes. In particular, a pass installed by a plugin could have a number over 200 even if it executed quite early. dumpname is generated from the name of the output file, if explicitly specified and it is not an executable, otherwise it is the basename of the source file. These switches may have different effects when -E is used for preprocessing.

Debug dumps can be enabled with a -fdump-rtl switch or some -d option letters. Here are the possible letters for use in pass and letters, and their meanings:

-fdump-rtl-alignments
Dump after branch alignments have been computed.
-fdump-rtl-asmcons
Dump after fixing rtl statements that have unsatisfied in/out constraints.
-fdump-rtl-auto_inc_dec
Dump after auto-inc-dec discovery. This pass is only run on architectures that have auto inc or auto dec instructions.
-fdump-rtl-barriers
Dump after cleaning up the barrier instructions.
-fdump-rtl-bbpart
Dump after partitioning hot and cold basic blocks.
-fdump-rtl-bbro
Dump after block reordering.
-fdump-rtl-btl1
-fdump-rtl-btl2
-fdump-rtl-btl1 and -fdump-rtl-btl2 enable dumping after the two branch target load optimization passes.
-fdump-rtl-bypass
Dump after jump bypassing and control flow optimizations.
-fdump-rtl-combine
Dump after the RTL instruction combination pass.
-fdump-rtl-compgotos
Dump after duplicating the computed gotos.
-fdump-rtl-ce1
-fdump-rtl-ce2
-fdump-rtl-ce3
-fdump-rtl-ce1, -fdump-rtl-ce2, and -fdump-rtl-ce3 enable dumping after the three if conversion passes.
-fdump-rtl-cprop_hardreg
Dump after hard register copy propagation.
-fdump-rtl-csa
Dump after combining stack adjustments.
-fdump-rtl-cse1
-fdump-rtl-cse2
-fdump-rtl-cse1 and -fdump-rtl-cse2 enable dumping after the two common sub-expression elimination passes.
-fdump-rtl-dce
Dump after the standalone dead code elimination passes.
-fdump-rtl-dbr
Dump after delayed branch scheduling.
-fdump-rtl-dce1
-fdump-rtl-dce2
-fdump-rtl-dce1 and -fdump-rtl-dce2 enable dumping after the two dead store elimination passes.
-fdump-rtl-eh
Dump after finalization of EH handling code.
-fdump-rtl-eh_ranges
Dump after conversion of EH handling range regions.
-fdump-rtl-expand
Dump after RTL generation.
-fdump-rtl-fwprop1
-fdump-rtl-fwprop2
-fdump-rtl-fwprop1 and -fdump-rtl-fwprop2 enable dumping after the two forward propagation passes.
-fdump-rtl-gcse1
-fdump-rtl-gcse2
-fdump-rtl-gcse1 and -fdump-rtl-gcse2 enable dumping after global common subexpression elimination.
-fdump-rtl-init-regs
Dump after the initialization of the registers.
-fdump-rtl-initvals
Dump after the computation of the initial value sets.
-fdump-rtl-into_cfglayout
Dump after converting to cfglayout mode.
-fdump-rtl-ira
Dump after iterated register allocation.
-fdump-rtl-jump
Dump after the second jump optimization.
-fdump-rtl-loop2
-fdump-rtl-loop2 enables dumping after the rtl loop optimization passes.
-fdump-rtl-mach
Dump after performing the machine dependent reorganization pass, if that pass exists.
-fdump-rtl-mode_sw
Dump after removing redundant mode switches.
-fdump-rtl-rnreg
Dump after register renumbering.
-fdump-rtl-outof_cfglayout
Dump after converting from cfglayout mode.
-fdump-rtl-peephole2
Dump after the peephole pass.
-fdump-rtl-postreload
Dump after post-reload optimizations.
-fdump-rtl-pro_and_epilogue
Dump after generating the function prologues and epilogues.
-fdump-rtl-regmove
Dump after the register move pass.
-fdump-rtl-sched1
-fdump-rtl-sched2
-fdump-rtl-sched1 and -fdump-rtl-sched2 enable dumping after the basic block scheduling passes.
-fdump-rtl-see
Dump after sign extension elimination.
-fdump-rtl-seqabstr
Dump after common sequence discovery.
-fdump-rtl-shorten
Dump after shortening branches.
-fdump-rtl-sibling
Dump after sibling call optimizations.
-fdump-rtl-split1
-fdump-rtl-split2
-fdump-rtl-split3
-fdump-rtl-split4
-fdump-rtl-split5
-fdump-rtl-split1, -fdump-rtl-split2, -fdump-rtl-split3, -fdump-rtl-split4 and -fdump-rtl-split5 enable dumping after five rounds of instruction splitting.
-fdump-rtl-sms
Dump after modulo scheduling. This pass is only run on some architectures.
-fdump-rtl-stack
Dump after conversion from GCC's "flat register file" registers to the x87's stack-like registers. This pass is only run on x86 variants.
-fdump-rtl-subreg1
-fdump-rtl-subreg2
-fdump-rtl-subreg1 and -fdump-rtl-subreg2 enable dumping after the two subreg expansion passes.
-fdump-rtl-unshare
Dump after all rtl has been unshared.
-fdump-rtl-vartrack
Dump after variable tracking.
-fdump-rtl-vregs
Dump after converting virtual registers to hard registers.
-fdump-rtl-web
Dump after live range splitting.
-fdump-rtl-regclass
-fdump-rtl-subregs_of_mode_init
-fdump-rtl-subregs_of_mode_finish
-fdump-rtl-dfinit
-fdump-rtl-dfinish
These dumps are defined but always produce empty files.
-da
-fdump-rtl-all
Produce all the dumps listed above.
-dA
Annotate the assembler output with miscellaneous debugging information.
-dD
Dump all macro definitions, at the end of preprocessing, in addition to normal output.
-dH
Produce a core dump whenever an error occurs.
-dp
Annotate the assembler output with a comment indicating which pattern and alternative was used. The length of each instruction is also printed.
-dP
Dump the RTL in the assembler output as a comment before each instruction. Also turns on -dp annotation.
-dv
For each of the other indicated dump files (-fdump-rtl-pass), dump a representation of the control flow graph suitable for viewing with VCG to file.pass.vcg.
-dx
Just generate RTL for a function instead of compiling it. Usually used with -fdump-rtl-expand.

-fdump-noaddr
When doing debugging dumps, suppress address output. This makes it more feasible to use diff on debugging dumps for compiler invocations with different compiler binaries and/or different text / bss / data / heap / stack / dso start locations.
-fdump-unnumbered
When doing debugging dumps, suppress instruction numbers and address output. This makes it more feasible to use diff on debugging dumps for compiler invocations with different options, in particular with and without -g.
-fdump-unnumbered-links
When doing debugging dumps (see -d option above), suppress instruction numbers for the links to the previous and next instructions in a sequence.
-fdump-translation-unit (C++ only)
-fdump-translation-unit-options (C++ only)
Dump a representation of the tree structure for the entire translation unit to a file. The file name is made by appending .tu to the source file name, and the file is created in the same directory as the output file. If the ‘-options’ form is used, options controls the details of the dump as described for the -fdump-tree options.
-fdump-class-hierarchy (C++ only)
-fdump-class-hierarchy-options (C++ only)
Dump a representation of each class's hierarchy and virtual function table layout to a file. The file name is made by appending .class to the source file name, and the file is created in the same directory as the output file. If the ‘-options’ form is used, options controls the details of the dump as described for the -fdump-tree options.
-fdump-ipa-switch
Control the dumping at various stages of inter-procedural analysis language tree to a file. The file name is generated by appending a switch specific suffix to the source file name, and the file is created in the same directory as the output file. The following dumps are possible:
all
Enables all inter-procedural analysis dumps.
cgraph
Dumps information about call-graph optimization, unused function removal, and inlining decisions.
inline
Dump after function inlining.

-fdump-passes
Dump the list of optimization passes that are turned on and off by the current command-line options.
-fdump-statistics-option
Enable and control dumping of pass statistics in a separate file. The file name is generated by appending a suffix ending in ‘.statistics’ to the source file name, and the file is created in the same directory as the output file. If the ‘-option’ form is used, ‘-stats’ will cause counters to be summed over the whole compilation unit while ‘-details’ will dump every event as the passes generate them. The default with no option is to sum counters for each function compiled.
-fdump-tree-switch
-fdump-tree-switch-options
Control the dumping at various stages of processing the intermediate language tree to a file. The file name is generated by appending a switch specific suffix to the source file name, and the file is created in the same directory as the output file. If the ‘-options’ form is used, options is a list of ‘-’ separated options which control the details of the dump. Not all options are applicable to all dumps; those that are not meaningful will be ignored. The following options are available
address
Print the address of each node. Usually this is not meaningful as it changes according to the environment and source file. Its primary use is for tying up a dump file with a debug environment.
asmname
If DECL_ASSEMBLER_NAME has been set for a given decl, use that in the dump instead of DECL_NAME. Its primary use is ease of use working backward from mangled names in the assembly file.
slim
Inhibit dumping of members of a scope or body of a function merely because that scope has been reached. Only dump such items when they are directly reachable by some other path. When dumping pretty-printed trees, this option inhibits dumping the bodies of control structures.
raw
Print a raw representation of the tree. By default, trees are pretty-printed into a C-like representation.
details
Enable more detailed dumps (not honored by every dump option).
stats
Enable dumping various statistics about the pass (not honored by every dump option).
blocks
Enable showing basic block boundaries (disabled in raw dumps).
vops
Enable showing virtual operands for every statement.
lineno
Enable showing line numbers for statements.
uid
Enable showing the unique ID (DECL_UID) for each variable.
verbose
Enable showing the tree dump for each statement.
eh
Enable showing the EH region number holding each statement.
scev
Enable showing scalar evolution analysis details.
all
Turn on all options, except raw, slim, verbose and lineno.

The following tree dumps are possible:

original
Dump before any tree based optimization, to file.original.
optimized
Dump after all tree based optimization, to file.optimized.
gimple
Dump each function before and after the gimplification pass to a file. The file name is made by appending .gimple to the source file name.
cfg
Dump the control flow graph of each function to a file. The file name is made by appending .cfg to the source file name.
vcg
Dump the control flow graph of each function to a file in VCG format. The file name is made by appending .vcg to the source file name. Note that if the file contains more than one function, the generated file cannot be used directly by VCG. You will need to cut and paste each function's graph into its own separate file first.
ch
Dump each function after copying loop headers. The file name is made by appending .ch to the source file name.
ssa
Dump SSA related information to a file. The file name is made by appending .ssa to the source file name.
alias
Dump aliasing information for each function. The file name is made by appending .alias to the source file name.
ccp
Dump each function after CCP. The file name is made by appending .ccp to the source file name.
storeccp
Dump each function after STORE-CCP. The file name is made by appending .storeccp to the source file name.
pre
Dump trees after partial redundancy elimination. The file name is made by appending .pre to the source file name.
fre
Dump trees after full redundancy elimination. The file name is made by appending .fre to the source file name.
copyprop
Dump trees after copy propagation. The file name is made by appending .copyprop to the source file name.
store_copyprop
Dump trees after store copy-propagation. The file name is made by appending .store_copyprop to the source file name.
dce
Dump each function after dead code elimination. The file name is made by appending .dce to the source file name.
mudflap
Dump each function after adding mudflap instrumentation. The file name is made by appending .mudflap to the source file name.
sra
Dump each function after performing scalar replacement of aggregates. The file name is made by appending .sra to the source file name.
sink
Dump each function after performing code sinking. The file name is made by appending .sink to the source file name.
dom
Dump each function after applying dominator tree optimizations. The file name is made by appending .dom to the source file name.
dse
Dump each function after applying dead store elimination. The file name is made by appending .dse to the source file name.
phiopt
Dump each function after optimizing PHI nodes into straightline code. The file name is made by appending .phiopt to the source file name.
forwprop
Dump each function after forward propagating single use variables. The file name is made by appending .forwprop to the source file name.
copyrename
Dump each function after applying the copy rename optimization. The file name is made by appending .copyrename to the source file name.
nrv
Dump each function after applying the named return value optimization on generic trees. The file name is made by appending .nrv to the source file name.
vect
Dump each function after applying vectorization of loops. The file name is made by appending .vect to the source file name.
slp
Dump each function after applying vectorization of basic blocks. The file name is made by appending .slp to the source file name.
vrp
Dump each function after Value Range Propagation (VRP). The file name is made by appending .vrp to the source file name.
all
Enable all the available tree dumps with the flags provided in this option.

-ftree-vectorizer-verbose=n
This option controls the amount of debugging output the vectorizer prints. This information is written to standard error, unless -fdump-tree-all or -fdump-tree-vect is specified, in which case it is output to the usual dump listing file, .vect. For n=0 no diagnostic information is reported. If n=1 the vectorizer reports each loop that got vectorized, and the total number of loops that got vectorized. If n=2 the vectorizer also reports non-vectorized loops that passed the first analysis phase (vect_analyze_loop_form) - i.e. countable, inner-most, single-bb, single-entry/exit loops. This is the same verbosity level that -fdump-tree-vect-stats uses. Higher verbosity levels mean either more information dumped for each reported loop, or same amount of information reported for more loops: if n=3, vectorizer cost model information is reported. If n=4, alignment related information is added to the reports. If n=5, data-references related information (e.g. memory dependences, memory access-patterns) is added to the reports. If n=6, the vectorizer reports also non-vectorized inner-most loops that did not pass the first analysis phase (i.e., may not be countable, or may have complicated control-flow). If n=7, the vectorizer reports also non-vectorized nested loops. If n=8, SLP related information is added to the reports. For n=9, all the information the vectorizer generates during its analysis and transformation is reported. This is the same verbosity level that -fdump-tree-vect-details uses.
-frandom-seed=string
This option provides a seed that GCC uses when it would otherwise use random numbers. It is used to generate certain symbol names that have to be different in every compiled file. It is also used to place unique stamps in coverage data files and the object files that produce them. You can use the -frandom-seed option to produce reproducibly identical object files.

The string should be different for every file you compile.

-fsched-verbose=n
On targets that use instruction scheduling, this option controls the amount of debugging output the scheduler prints. This information is written to standard error, unless -fdump-rtl-sched1 or -fdump-rtl-sched2 is specified, in which case it is output to the usual dump listing file, .sched1 or .sched2 respectively. However for n greater than nine, the output is always printed to standard error.

For n greater than zero, -fsched-verbose outputs the same information as -fdump-rtl-sched1 and -fdump-rtl-sched2. For n greater than one, it also output basic block probabilities, detailed ready list information and unit/insn info. For n greater than two, it includes RTL at abort point, control-flow and regions info. And for n over four, -fsched-verbose also includes dependence info.

-save-temps
-save-temps=cwd
Store the usual “temporary” intermediate files permanently; place them in the current directory and name them based on the source file. Thus, compiling foo.c with ‘-c -save-temps’ would produce files foo.i and foo.s, as well as foo.o. This creates a preprocessed foo.i output file even though the compiler now normally uses an integrated preprocessor.

When used in combination with the -x command-line option, -save-temps is sensible enough to avoid over writing an input source file with the same extension as an intermediate file. The corresponding intermediate file may be obtained by renaming the source file before using -save-temps.

If you invoke GCC in parallel, compiling several different source files that share a common base name in different subdirectories or the same source file compiled for multiple output destinations, it is likely that the different parallel compilers will interfere with each other, and overwrite the temporary files. For instance:

          gcc -save-temps -o outdir1/foo.o indir1/foo.c&
          gcc -save-temps -o outdir2/foo.o indir2/foo.c&

may result in foo.i and foo.o being written to simultaneously by both compilers.

-save-temps=obj
Store the usual “temporary” intermediate files permanently. If the -o option is used, the temporary files are based on the object file. If the -o option is not used, the -save-temps=obj switch behaves like -save-temps.

For example:

          gcc -save-temps=obj -c foo.c
          gcc -save-temps=obj -c bar.c -o dir/xbar.o
          gcc -save-temps=obj foobar.c -o dir2/yfoobar

would create foo.i, foo.s, dir/xbar.i, dir/xbar.s, dir2/yfoobar.i, dir2/yfoobar.s, and dir2/yfoobar.o.

-time[=file]
Report the CPU time taken by each subprocess in the compilation sequence. For C source files, this is the compiler proper and assembler (plus the linker if linking is done).

Without the specification of an output file, the output looks like this:

          # cc1 0.12 0.01
          # as 0.00 0.01

The first number on each line is the “user time”, that is time spent executing the program itself. The second number is “system time”, time spent executing operating system routines on behalf of the program. Both numbers are in seconds.

With the specification of an output file, the output is appended to the named file, and it looks like this:

          0.12 0.01 cc1 options
          0.00 0.01 as options

The “user time” and the “system time” are moved before the program name, and the options passed to the program are displayed, so that one can later tell what file was being compiled, and with which options.

-fvar-tracking
Run variable tracking pass. It computes where variables are stored at each position in code. Better debugging information is then generated (if the debugging information format supports this information).

It is enabled by default when compiling with optimization (-Os, -O, -O2, ...), debugging information (-g) and the debug info format supports it.

-fvar-tracking-assignments
Annotate assignments to user variables early in the compilation and attempt to carry the annotations over throughout the compilation all the way to the end, in an attempt to improve debug information while optimizing. Use of -gdwarf-4 is recommended along with it.

It can be enabled even if var-tracking is disabled, in which case annotations will be created and maintained, but discarded at the end.

-fvar-tracking-assignments-toggle
Toggle -fvar-tracking-assignments, in the same way that -gtoggle toggles -g.
-print-file-name=library
Print the full absolute name of the library file library that would be used when linking—and don't do anything else. With this option, GCC does not compile or link anything; it just prints the file name.
-print-multi-directory
Print the directory name corresponding to the multilib selected by any other switches present in the command line. This directory is supposed to exist in GCC_EXEC_PREFIX.
-print-multi-lib
Print the mapping from multilib directory names to compiler switches that enable them. The directory name is separated from the switches by ‘;’, and each switch starts with an ‘@’ instead of the ‘-’, without spaces between multiple switches. This is supposed to ease shell-processing.
-print-multi-os-directory
Print the path to OS libraries for the selected multilib, relative to some lib subdirectory. If OS libraries are present in the lib subdirectory and no multilibs are used, this is usually just ., if OS libraries are present in libsuffix sibling directories this prints e.g. ../lib64, ../lib or ../lib32, or if OS libraries are present in lib/subdir subdirectories it prints e.g. amd64, sparcv9 or ev6.
-print-multiarch
Print the path to OS libraries for the selected multiarch, relative to some lib subdirectory.
-print-prog-name=program
Like -print-file-name, but searches for a program such as ‘cpp’.
-print-libgcc-file-name
Same as -print-file-name=libgcc.a.

This is useful when you use -nostdlib or -nodefaultlibs but you do want to link with libgcc.a. You can do

          gcc -nostdlib files... `gcc -print-libgcc-file-name`

-print-search-dirs
Print the name of the configured installation directory and a list of program and library directories gcc will search—and don't do anything else.

This is useful when gcc prints the error message ‘installation problem, cannot exec cpp0: No such file or directory’. To resolve this you either need to put cpp0 and the other compiler components where gcc expects to find them, or you can set the environment variable GCC_EXEC_PREFIX to the directory where you installed them. Don't forget the trailing ‘/’. See Environment Variables.

-print-sysroot
Print the target sysroot directory that will be used during compilation. This is the target sysroot specified either at configure time or using the --sysroot option, possibly with an extra suffix that depends on compilation options. If no target sysroot is specified, the option prints nothing.
-print-sysroot-headers-suffix
Print the suffix added to the target sysroot when searching for headers, or give an error if the compiler is not configured with such a suffix—and don't do anything else.
-dumpmachine
Print the compiler's target machine (for example, ‘i686-pc-linux-gnu’)—and don't do anything else.
-dumpversion
Print the compiler version (for example, ‘3.0’)—and don't do anything else.
-dumpspecs
Print the compiler's built-in specs—and don't do anything else. (This is used when GCC itself is being built.) See Spec Files.
-feliminate-unused-debug-types
Normally, when producing DWARF2 output, GCC will emit debugging information for all types declared in a compilation unit, regardless of whether or not they are actually used in that compilation unit. Sometimes this is useful, such as if, in the debugger, you want to cast a value to a type that is not actually used in your program (but is declared). More often, however, this results in a significant amount of wasted space. With this option, GCC will avoid producing debug symbol output for types that are nowhere used in the source file being compiled.


Next: , Previous: Debugging Options, Up: Invoking GCC

3.10 Options That Control Optimization

These options control various sorts of optimizations.

Without any optimization option, the compiler's goal is to reduce the cost of compilation and to make debugging produce the expected results. Statements are independent: if you stop the program with a breakpoint between statements, you can then assign a new value to any variable or change the program counter to any other statement in the function and get exactly the results you would expect from the source code.

Turning on optimization flags makes the compiler attempt to improve the performance and/or code size at the expense of compilation time and possibly the ability to debug the program.

The compiler performs optimization based on the knowledge it has of the program. Compiling multiple files at once to a single output file mode allows the compiler to use information gained from all of the files when compiling each of them.

Not all optimizations are controlled directly by a flag. Only optimizations that have a flag are listed in this section.

Most optimizations are only enabled if an -O level is set on the command line. Otherwise they are disabled, even if individual optimization flags are specified.

Depending on the target and how GCC was configured, a slightly different set of optimizations may be enabled at each -O level than those listed here. You can invoke GCC with ‘-Q --help=optimizers’ to find out the exact set of optimizations that are enabled at each level. See Overall Options, for examples.

-O
-O1
Optimize. Optimizing compilation takes somewhat more time, and a lot more memory for a large function.

With -O, the compiler tries to reduce code size and execution time, without performing any optimizations that take a great deal of compilation time.

-O turns on the following optimization flags:

          -fauto-inc-dec 
          -fcompare-elim 
          -fcprop-registers 
          -fdce 
          -fdefer-pop 
          -fdelayed-branch 
          -fdse 
          -fguess-branch-probability 
          -fif-conversion2 
          -fif-conversion 
          -fipa-pure-const 
          -fipa-profile 
          -fipa-reference 
          -fmerge-constants
          -fsplit-wide-types 
          -ftree-bit-ccp 
          -ftree-builtin-call-dce 
          -ftree-ccp 
          -ftree-ch 
          -ftree-copyrename 
          -ftree-dce 
          -ftree-dominator-opts 
          -ftree-dse 
          -ftree-forwprop 
          -ftree-fre 
          -ftree-phiprop 
          -ftree-sra 
          -ftree-pta 
          -ftree-ter 
          -funit-at-a-time

-O also turns on -fomit-frame-pointer on machines where doing so does not interfere with debugging.

-O2
Optimize even more. GCC performs nearly all supported optimizations that do not involve a space-speed tradeoff. As compared to -O, this option increases both compilation time and the performance of the generated code.

-O2 turns on all optimization flags specified by -O. It also turns on the following optimization flags:

          -fthread-jumps 
          -falign-functions  -falign-jumps 
          -falign-loops  -falign-labels 
          -fcaller-saves 
          -fcrossjumping 
          -fcse-follow-jumps  -fcse-skip-blocks 
          -fdelete-null-pointer-checks 
          -fdevirtualize 
          -fexpensive-optimizations 
          -fgcse  -fgcse-lm  
          -finline-small-functions 
          -findirect-inlining 
          -fipa-sra 
          -foptimize-sibling-calls 
          -fpartial-inlining 
          -fpeephole2 
          -fregmove 
          -freorder-blocks  -freorder-functions 
          -frerun-cse-after-loop  
          -fsched-interblock  -fsched-spec 
          -fschedule-insns  -fschedule-insns2 
          -fstrict-aliasing -fstrict-overflow 
          -ftree-switch-conversion -ftree-tail-merge 
          -ftree-pre 
          -ftree-vrp

Please note the warning under -fgcse about invoking -O2 on programs that use computed gotos.

NOTE: In Ubuntu 8.10 and later versions, -D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2 is set by default, and is activated when -O is set to 2 or higher. This enables additional compile-time and run-time checks for several libc functions. To disable, specify either -U_FORTIFY_SOURCE or -D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=0.

-O3
Optimize yet more. -O3 turns on all optimizations specified by -O2 and also turns on the -finline-functions, -funswitch-loops, -fpredictive-commoning, -fgcse-after-reload, -ftree-vectorize, -ftree-partial-pre and -fipa-cp-clone options.
-O0
Reduce compilation time and make debugging produce the expected results. This is the default.
-Os
Optimize for size. -Os enables all -O2 optimizations that do not typically increase code size. It also performs further optimizations designed to reduce code size.

-Os disables the following optimization flags:

          -falign-functions  -falign-jumps  -falign-loops 
          -falign-labels  -freorder-blocks  -freorder-blocks-and-partition 
          -fprefetch-loop-arrays  -ftree-vect-loop-version

-Ofast
Disregard strict standards compliance. -Ofast enables all -O3 optimizations. It also enables optimizations that are not valid for all standard compliant programs. It turns on -ffast-math and the Fortran-specific -fno-protect-parens and -fstack-arrays.

If you use multiple -O options, with or without level numbers, the last such option is the one that is effective.

Options of the form -fflag specify machine-independent flags. Most flags have both positive and negative forms; the negative form of -ffoo would be -fno-foo. In the table below, only one of the forms is listed—the one you typically will use. You can figure out the other form by either removing ‘no-’ or adding it.

The following options control specific optimizations. They are either activated by -O options or are related to ones that are. You can use the following flags in the rare cases when “fine-tuning” of optimizations to be performed is desired.

-fno-default-inline
Do not make member functions inline by default merely because they are defined inside the class scope (C++ only). Otherwise, when you specify -O, member functions defined inside class scope are compiled inline by default; i.e., you don't need to add ‘inline’ in front of the member function name.
-fno-defer-pop
Always pop the arguments to each function call as soon as that function returns. For machines that must pop arguments after a function call, the compiler normally lets arguments accumulate on the stack for several function calls and pops them all at once.

Disabled at levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fforward-propagate
Perform a forward propagation pass on RTL. The pass tries to combine two instructions and checks if the result can be simplified. If loop unrolling is active, two passes are performed and the second is scheduled after loop unrolling.

This option is enabled by default at optimization levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os.

-ffp-contract=style
-ffp-contract=off disables floating-point expression contraction. -ffp-contract=fast enables floating-point expression contraction such as forming of fused multiply-add operations if the target has native support for them. -ffp-contract=on enables floating-point expression contraction if allowed by the language standard. This is currently not implemented and treated equal to -ffp-contract=off.

The default is -ffp-contract=fast.

-fomit-frame-pointer
Don't keep the frame pointer in a register for functions that don't need one. This avoids the instructions to save, set up and restore frame pointers; it also makes an extra register available in many functions. It also makes debugging impossible on some machines.

On some machines, such as the VAX, this flag has no effect, because the standard calling sequence automatically handles the frame pointer and nothing is saved by pretending it doesn't exist. The machine-description macro FRAME_POINTER_REQUIRED controls whether a target machine supports this flag. See Register Usage.

Starting with GCC version 4.6, the default setting (when not optimizing for size) for 32-bit Linux x86 and 32-bit Darwin x86 targets has been changed to -fomit-frame-pointer. The default can be reverted to -fno-omit-frame-pointer by configuring GCC with the --enable-frame-pointer configure option.

Enabled at levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os.

-foptimize-sibling-calls
Optimize sibling and tail recursive calls.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fno-inline
Do not expand any functions inline apart from those marked with the always_inline attribute. This is the default when not optimizing.

Single functions can be exempted from inlining by marking them with the noinline attribute.

-finline-small-functions
Integrate functions into their callers when their body is smaller than expected function call code (so overall size of program gets smaller). The compiler heuristically decides which functions are simple enough to be worth integrating in this way. This inlining applies to all functions, even those not declared inline.

Enabled at level -O2.

-findirect-inlining
Inline also indirect calls that are discovered to be known at compile time thanks to previous inlining. This option has any effect only when inlining itself is turned on by the -finline-functions or -finline-small-functions options.

Enabled at level -O2.

-finline-functions
Consider all functions for inlining, even if they are not declared inline. The compiler heuristically decides which functions are worth integrating in this way.

If all calls to a given function are integrated, and the function is declared static, then the function is normally not output as assembler code in its own right.

Enabled at level -O3.

-finline-functions-called-once
Consider all static functions called once for inlining into their caller even if they are not marked inline. If a call to a given function is integrated, then the function is not output as assembler code in its own right.

Enabled at levels -O1, -O2, -O3 and -Os.

-fearly-inlining
Inline functions marked by always_inline and functions whose body seems smaller than the function call overhead early before doing -fprofile-generate instrumentation and real inlining pass. Doing so makes profiling significantly cheaper and usually inlining faster on programs having large chains of nested wrapper functions.

Enabled by default.

-fipa-sra
Perform interprocedural scalar replacement of aggregates, removal of unused parameters and replacement of parameters passed by reference by parameters passed by value.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3 and -Os.

-finline-limit=n
By default, GCC limits the size of functions that can be inlined. This flag allows coarse control of this limit. n is the size of functions that can be inlined in number of pseudo instructions.

Inlining is actually controlled by a number of parameters, which may be specified individually by using --param name=value. The -finline-limit=n option sets some of these parameters as follows:

max-inline-insns-single
is set to n/2.
max-inline-insns-auto
is set to n/2.

See below for a documentation of the individual parameters controlling inlining and for the defaults of these parameters.

Note: there may be no value to -finline-limit that results in default behavior.

Note: pseudo instruction represents, in this particular context, an abstract measurement of function's size. In no way does it represent a count of assembly instructions and as such its exact meaning might change from one release to an another.

-fno-keep-inline-dllexport
This is a more fine-grained version of -fkeep-inline-functions, which applies only to functions that are declared using the dllexport attribute or declspec (See Declaring Attributes of Functions.)
-fkeep-inline-functions
In C, emit static functions that are declared inline into the object file, even if the function has been inlined into all of its callers. This switch does not affect functions using the extern inline extension in GNU C90. In C++, emit any and all inline functions into the object file.
-fkeep-static-consts
Emit variables declared static const when optimization isn't turned on, even if the variables aren't referenced.

GCC enables this option by default. If you want to force the compiler to check if the variable was referenced, regardless of whether or not optimization is turned on, use the -fno-keep-static-consts option.

-fmerge-constants
Attempt to merge identical constants (string constants and floating-point constants) across compilation units.

This option is the default for optimized compilation if the assembler and linker support it. Use -fno-merge-constants to inhibit this behavior.

Enabled at levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fmerge-all-constants
Attempt to merge identical constants and identical variables.

This option implies -fmerge-constants. In addition to -fmerge-constants this considers e.g. even constant initialized arrays or initialized constant variables with integral or floating-point types. Languages like C or C++ require each variable, including multiple instances of the same variable in recursive calls, to have distinct locations, so using this option will result in non-conforming behavior.

-fmodulo-sched
Perform swing modulo scheduling immediately before the first scheduling pass. This pass looks at innermost loops and reorders their instructions by overlapping different iterations.
-fmodulo-sched-allow-regmoves
Perform more aggressive SMS based modulo scheduling with register moves allowed. By setting this flag certain anti-dependences edges will be deleted which will trigger the generation of reg-moves based on the life-range analysis. This option is effective only with -fmodulo-sched enabled.
-fno-branch-count-reg
Do not use “decrement and branch” instructions on a count register, but instead generate a sequence of instructions that decrement a register, compare it against zero, then branch based upon the result. This option is only meaningful on architectures that support such instructions, which include x86, PowerPC, IA-64 and S/390.

The default is -fbranch-count-reg.

-fno-function-cse
Do not put function addresses in registers; make each instruction that calls a constant function contain the function's address explicitly.

This option results in less efficient code, but some strange hacks that alter the assembler output may be confused by the optimizations performed when this option is not used.

The default is -ffunction-cse

-fno-zero-initialized-in-bss
If the target supports a BSS section, GCC by default puts variables that are initialized to zero into BSS. This can save space in the resulting code.

This option turns off this behavior because some programs explicitly rely on variables going to the data section. E.g., so that the resulting executable can find the beginning of that section and/or make assumptions based on that.

The default is -fzero-initialized-in-bss.

-fmudflap -fmudflapth -fmudflapir
For front-ends that support it (C and C++), instrument all risky pointer/array dereferencing operations, some standard library string/heap functions, and some other associated constructs with range/validity tests. Modules so instrumented should be immune to buffer overflows, invalid heap use, and some other classes of C/C++ programming errors. The instrumentation relies on a separate runtime library (libmudflap), which will be linked into a program if -fmudflap is given at link time. Run-time behavior of the instrumented program is controlled by the MUDFLAP_OPTIONS environment variable. See env MUDFLAP_OPTIONS=-help a.out for its options.

Use -fmudflapth instead of -fmudflap to compile and to link if your program is multi-threaded. Use -fmudflapir, in addition to -fmudflap or -fmudflapth, if instrumentation should ignore pointer reads. This produces less instrumentation (and therefore faster execution) and still provides some protection against outright memory corrupting writes, but allows erroneously read data to propagate within a program.

-fthread-jumps
Perform optimizations where we check to see if a jump branches to a location where another comparison subsumed by the first is found. If so, the first branch is redirected to either the destination of the second branch or a point immediately following it, depending on whether the condition is known to be true or false.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fsplit-wide-types
When using a type that occupies multiple registers, such as long long on a 32-bit system, split the registers apart and allocate them independently. This normally generates better code for those types, but may make debugging more difficult.

Enabled at levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fcse-follow-jumps
In common subexpression elimination (CSE), scan through jump instructions when the target of the jump is not reached by any other path. For example, when CSE encounters an if statement with an else clause, CSE will follow the jump when the condition tested is false.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fcse-skip-blocks
This is similar to -fcse-follow-jumps, but causes CSE to follow jumps that conditionally skip over blocks. When CSE encounters a simple if statement with no else clause, -fcse-skip-blocks causes CSE to follow the jump around the body of the if.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.

-frerun-cse-after-loop
Re-run common subexpression elimination after loop optimizations has been performed.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fgcse
Perform a global common subexpression elimination pass. This pass also performs global constant and copy propagation.

Note: When compiling a program using computed gotos, a GCC extension, you may get better run-time performance if you disable the global common subexpression elimination pass by adding -fno-gcse to the command line.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fgcse-lm
When -fgcse-lm is enabled, global common subexpression elimination will attempt to move loads that are only killed by stores into themselves. This allows a loop containing a load/store sequence to be changed to a load outside the loop, and a copy/store within the loop.

Enabled by default when gcse is enabled.

-fgcse-sm
When -fgcse-sm is enabled, a store motion pass is run after global common subexpression elimination. This pass will attempt to move stores out of loops. When used in conjunction with -fgcse-lm, loops containing a load/store sequence can be changed to a load before the loop and a store after the loop.

Not enabled at any optimization level.

-fgcse-las
When -fgcse-las is enabled, the global common subexpression elimination pass eliminates redundant loads that come after stores to the same memory location (both partial and full redundancies).

Not enabled at any optimization level.

-fgcse-after-reload
When -fgcse-after-reload is enabled, a redundant load elimination pass is performed after reload. The purpose of this pass is to cleanup redundant spilling.
-funsafe-loop-optimizations
If given, the loop optimizer will assume that loop indices do not overflow, and that the loops with nontrivial exit condition are not infinite. This enables a wider range of loop optimizations even if the loop optimizer itself cannot prove that these assumptions are valid. Using -Wunsafe-loop-optimizations, the compiler will warn you if it finds this kind of loop.
-fcrossjumping
Perform cross-jumping transformation. This transformation unifies equivalent code and save code size. The resulting code may or may not perform better than without cross-jumping.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fauto-inc-dec
Combine increments or decrements of addresses with memory accesses. This pass is always skipped on architectures that do not have instructions to support this. Enabled by default at -O and higher on architectures that support this.
-fdce
Perform dead code elimination (DCE) on RTL. Enabled by default at -O and higher.
-fdse
Perform dead store elimination (DSE) on RTL. Enabled by default at -O and higher.
-fif-conversion
Attempt to transform conditional jumps into branch-less equivalents. This include use of conditional moves, min, max, set flags and abs instructions, and some tricks doable by standard arithmetics. The use of conditional execution on chips where it is available is controlled by if-conversion2.

Enabled at levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fif-conversion2
Use conditional execution (where available) to transform conditional jumps into branch-less equivalents.

Enabled at levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fdelete-null-pointer-checks
Assume that programs cannot safely dereference null pointers, and that no code or data element resides there. This enables simple constant folding optimizations at all optimization levels. In addition, other optimization passes in GCC use this flag to control global dataflow analyses that eliminate useless checks for null pointers; these assume that if a pointer is checked after it has already been dereferenced, it cannot be null.

Note however that in some environments this assumption is not true. Use -fno-delete-null-pointer-checks to disable this optimization for programs that depend on that behavior.

Some targets, especially embedded ones, disable this option at all levels. Otherwise it is enabled at all levels: -O0, -O1, -O2, -O3, -Os. Passes that use the information are enabled independently at different optimization levels.

-fdevirtualize
Attempt to convert calls to virtual functions to direct calls. This is done both within a procedure and interprocedurally as part of indirect inlining (-findirect-inlining) and interprocedural constant propagation (-fipa-cp). Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.
-fexpensive-optimizations
Perform a number of minor optimizations that are relatively expensive.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.

-free
Attempt to remove redundant extension instructions. This is especially helpful for the x86-64 architecture which implicitly zero-extends in 64-bit registers after writing to their lower 32-bit half.

Enabled for x86 at levels -O2, -O3.

-foptimize-register-move
-fregmove
Attempt to reassign register numbers in move instructions and as operands of other simple instructions in order to maximize the amount of register tying. This is especially helpful on machines with two-operand instructions.

Note -fregmove and -foptimize-register-move are the same optimization.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fira-algorithm=algorithm
Use the specified coloring algorithm for the integrated register allocator. The algorithm argument can be ‘priority’, which specifies Chow's priority coloring, or ‘CB’, which specifies Chaitin-Briggs coloring. Chaitin-Briggs coloring is not implemented for all architectures, but for those targets that do support it, it is the default because it generates better code.
-fira-region=region
Use specified regions for the integrated register allocator. The region argument should be one of the following:
all
Use all loops as register allocation regions. This can give the best results for machines with a small and/or irregular register set.
mixed
Use all loops except for loops with small register pressure as the regions. This value usually gives the best results in most cases and for most architectures, and is enabled by default when compiling with optimization for speed (-O, -O2, ...).
one
Use all functions as a single region. This typically results in the smallest code size, and is enabled by default for -Os or -O0.

-fira-loop-pressure
Use IRA to evaluate register pressure in loops for decisions to move loop invariants. This option usually results in generation of faster and smaller code on machines with large register files (>= 32 registers), but it can slow the compiler down.

This option is enabled at level -O3 for some targets.

-fno-ira-share-save-slots
Disable sharing of stack slots used for saving call-used hard registers living through a call. Each hard register gets a separate stack slot, and as a result function stack frames are larger.
-fno-ira-share-spill-slots
Disable sharing of stack slots allocated for pseudo-registers. Each pseudo-register that does not get a hard register gets a separate stack slot, and as a result function stack frames are larger.
-fira-verbose=n
Control the verbosity of the dump file for the integrated register allocator. The default value is 5. If the value n is greater or equal to 10, the dump output is sent to stderr using the same format as n minus 10.
-fdelayed-branch
If supported for the target machine, attempt to reorder instructions to exploit instruction slots available after delayed branch instructions.

Enabled at levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fschedule-insns
If supported for the target machine, attempt to reorder instructions to eliminate execution stalls due to required data being unavailable. This helps machines that have slow floating point or memory load instructions by allowing other instructions to be issued until the result of the load or floating-point instruction is required.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3.

-fschedule-insns2
Similar to -fschedule-insns, but requests an additional pass of instruction scheduling after register allocation has been done. This is especially useful on machines with a relatively small number of registers and where memory load instructions take more than one cycle.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fno-sched-interblock
Don't schedule instructions across basic blocks. This is normally enabled by default when scheduling before register allocation, i.e. with -fschedule-insns or at -O2 or higher.
-fno-sched-spec
Don't allow speculative motion of non-load instructions. This is normally enabled by default when scheduling before register allocation, i.e. with -fschedule-insns or at -O2 or higher.
-fsched-pressure
Enable register pressure sensitive insn scheduling before the register allocation. This only makes sense when scheduling before register allocation is enabled, i.e. with -fschedule-insns or at -O2 or higher. Usage of this option can improve the generated code and decrease its size by preventing register pressure increase above the number of available hard registers and as a consequence register spills in the register allocation.
-fsched-spec-load
Allow speculative motion of some load instructions. This only makes sense when scheduling before register allocation, i.e. with -fschedule-insns or at -O2 or higher.
-fsched-spec-load-dangerous
Allow speculative motion of more load instructions. This only makes sense when scheduling before register allocation, i.e. with -fschedule-insns or at -O2 or higher.
-fsched-stalled-insns
-fsched-stalled-insns=n
Define how many insns (if any) can be moved prematurely from the queue of stalled insns into the ready list, during the second scheduling pass. -fno-sched-stalled-insns means that no insns will be moved prematurely, -fsched-stalled-insns=0 means there is no limit on how many queued insns can be moved prematurely. -fsched-stalled-insns without a value is equivalent to -fsched-stalled-insns=1.
-fsched-stalled-insns-dep
-fsched-stalled-insns-dep=n
Define how many insn groups (cycles) will be examined for a dependency on a stalled insn that is candidate for premature removal from the queue of stalled insns. This has an effect only during the second scheduling pass, and only if -fsched-stalled-insns is used. -fno-sched-stalled-insns-dep is equivalent to -fsched-stalled-insns-dep=0. -fsched-stalled-insns-dep without a value is equivalent to -fsched-stalled-insns-dep=1.
-fsched2-use-superblocks
When scheduling after register allocation, do use superblock scheduling algorithm. Superblock scheduling allows motion across basic block boundaries resulting on faster schedules. This option is experimental, as not all machine descriptions used by GCC model the CPU closely enough to avoid unreliable results from the algorithm.

This only makes sense when scheduling after register allocation, i.e. with -fschedule-insns2 or at -O2 or higher.

-fsched-group-heuristic
Enable the group heuristic in the scheduler. This heuristic favors the instruction that belongs to a schedule group. This is enabled by default when scheduling is enabled, i.e. with -fschedule-insns or -fschedule-insns2 or at -O2 or higher.
-fsched-critical-path-heuristic
Enable the critical-path heuristic in the scheduler. This heuristic favors instructions on the critical path. This is enabled by default when scheduling is enabled, i.e. with -fschedule-insns or -fschedule-insns2 or at -O2 or higher.
-fsched-spec-insn-heuristic
Enable the speculative instruction heuristic in the scheduler. This heuristic favors speculative instructions with greater dependency weakness. This is enabled by default when scheduling is enabled, i.e. with -fschedule-insns or -fschedule-insns2 or at -O2 or higher.
-fsched-rank-heuristic
Enable the rank heuristic in the scheduler. This heuristic favors the instruction belonging to a basic block with greater size or frequency. This is enabled by default when scheduling is enabled, i.e. with -fschedule-insns or -fschedule-insns2 or at -O2 or higher.
-fsched-last-insn-heuristic
Enable the last-instruction heuristic in the scheduler. This heuristic favors the instruction that is less dependent on the last instruction scheduled. This is enabled by default when scheduling is enabled, i.e. with -fschedule-insns or -fschedule-insns2 or at -O2 or higher.
-fsched-dep-count-heuristic
Enable the dependent-count heuristic in the scheduler. This heuristic favors the instruction that has more instructions depending on it. This is enabled by default when scheduling is enabled, i.e. with -fschedule-insns or -fschedule-insns2 or at -O2 or higher.
-freschedule-modulo-scheduled-loops
The modulo scheduling comes before the traditional scheduling, if a loop was modulo scheduled we may want to prevent the later scheduling passes from changing its schedule, we use this option to control that.
-fselective-scheduling
Schedule instructions using selective scheduling algorithm. Selective scheduling runs instead of the first scheduler pass.
-fselective-scheduling2
Schedule instructions using selective scheduling algorithm. Selective scheduling runs instead of the second scheduler pass.
-fsel-sched-pipelining
Enable software pipelining of innermost loops during selective scheduling. This option has no effect until one of -fselective-scheduling or -fselective-scheduling2 is turned on.
-fsel-sched-pipelining-outer-loops
When pipelining loops during selective scheduling, also pipeline outer loops. This option has no effect until -fsel-sched-pipelining is turned on.
-fshrink-wrap
Emit function prologues only before parts of the function that need it, rather than at the top of the function. This flag is enabled by default at -O and higher.
-fcaller-saves
Enable values to be allocated in registers that will be clobbered by function calls, by emitting extra instructions to save and restore the registers around such calls. Such allocation is done only when it seems to result in better code than would otherwise be produced.

This option is always enabled by default on certain machines, usually those which have no call-preserved registers to use instead.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fcombine-stack-adjustments
Tracks stack adjustments (pushes and pops) and stack memory references and then tries to find ways to combine them.

Enabled by default at -O1 and higher.

-fconserve-stack
Attempt to minimize stack usage. The compiler will attempt to use less stack space, even if that makes the program slower. This option implies setting the large-stack-frame parameter to 100 and the large-stack-frame-growth parameter to 400.
-ftree-reassoc
Perform reassociation on trees. This flag is enabled by default at -O and higher.
-ftree-pre
Perform partial redundancy elimination (PRE) on trees. This flag is enabled by default at -O2 and -O3.
-ftree-partial-pre
Make partial redundancy elimination (PRE) more aggressive. This flag is enabled by default at -O3.
-ftree-forwprop
Perform forward propagation on trees. This flag is enabled by default at -O and higher.
-ftree-fre
Perform full redundancy elimination (FRE) on trees. The difference between FRE and PRE is that FRE only considers expressions that are computed on all paths leading to the redundant computation. This analysis is faster than PRE, though it exposes fewer redundancies. This flag is enabled by default at -O and higher.
-ftree-phiprop
Perform hoisting of loads from conditional pointers on trees. This pass is enabled by default at -O and higher.
-ftree-copy-prop
Perform copy propagation on trees. This pass eliminates unnecessary copy operations. This flag is enabled by default at -O and higher.
-fipa-pure-const
Discover which functions are pure or constant. Enabled by default at -O and higher.
-fipa-reference
Discover which static variables do not escape cannot escape the compilation unit. Enabled by default at -O and higher.
-fipa-pta
Perform interprocedural pointer analysis and interprocedural modification and reference analysis. This option can cause excessive memory and compile-time usage on large compilation units. It is not enabled by default at any optimization level.
-fipa-profile
Perform interprocedural profile propagation. The functions called only from cold functions are marked as cold. Also functions executed once (such as cold, noreturn, static constructors or destructors) are identified. Cold functions and loop less parts of functions executed once are then optimized for size. Enabled by default at -O and higher.
-fipa-cp
Perform interprocedural constant propagation. This optimization analyzes the program to determine when values passed to functions are constants and then optimizes accordingly. This optimization can substantially increase performance if the application has constants passed to functions. This flag is enabled by default at -O2, -Os and -O3.
-fipa-cp-clone
Perform function cloning to make interprocedural constant propagation stronger. When enabled, interprocedural constant propagation will perform function cloning when externally visible function can be called with constant arguments. Because this optimization can create multiple copies of functions, it may significantly increase code size (see --param ipcp-unit-growth=value). This flag is enabled by default at -O3.
-fipa-matrix-reorg
Perform matrix flattening and transposing. Matrix flattening tries to replace an m-dimensional matrix with its equivalent n-dimensional matrix, where n < m. This reduces the level of indirection needed for accessing the elements of the matrix. The second optimization is matrix transposing, which attempts to change the order of the matrix's dimensions in order to improve cache locality. Both optimizations need the -fwhole-program flag. Transposing is enabled only if profiling information is available.
-ftree-sink
Perform forward store motion on trees. This flag is enabled by default at -O and higher.
-ftree-bit-ccp
Perform sparse conditional bit constant propagation on trees and propagate pointer alignment information. This pass only operates on local scalar variables and is enabled by default at -O and higher. It requires that -ftree-ccp is enabled.
-ftree-ccp
Perform sparse conditional constant propagation (CCP) on trees. This pass only operates on local scalar variables and is enabled by default at -O and higher.
-ftree-switch-conversion
Perform conversion of simple initializations in a switch to initializations from a scalar array. This flag is enabled by default at -O2 and higher.
-ftree-tail-merge
Look for identical code sequences. When found, replace one with a jump to the other. This optimization is known as tail merging or cross jumping. This flag is enabled by default at -O2 and higher. The compilation time in this pass can be limited using max-tail-merge-comparisons parameter and max-tail-merge-iterations parameter.
-ftree-dce
Perform dead code elimination (DCE) on trees. This flag is enabled by default at -O and higher.
-ftree-builtin-call-dce
Perform conditional dead code elimination (DCE) for calls to builtin functions that may set errno but are otherwise side-effect free. This flag is enabled by default at -O2 and higher if -Os is not also specified.
-ftree-dominator-opts
Perform a variety of simple scalar cleanups (constant/copy propagation, redundancy elimination, range propagation and expression simplification) based on a dominator tree traversal. This also performs jump threading (to reduce jumps to jumps). This flag is enabled by default at -O and higher.
-ftree-dse
Perform dead store elimination (DSE) on trees. A dead store is a store into a memory location that is later overwritten by another store without any intervening loads. In this case the earlier store can be deleted. This flag is enabled by default at -O and higher.
-ftree-ch
Perform loop header copying on trees. This is beneficial since it increases effectiveness of code motion optimizations. It also saves one jump. This flag is enabled by default at -O and higher. It is not enabled for -Os, since it usually increases code size.
-ftree-loop-optimize
Perform loop optimizations on trees. This flag is enabled by default at -O and higher.
-ftree-loop-linear
Perform loop interchange transformations on tree. Same as -floop-interchange. To use this code transformation, GCC has to be configured with --with-ppl and --with-cloog to enable the Graphite loop transformation infrastructure.
-floop-interchange
Perform loop interchange transformations on loops. Interchanging two nested loops switches the inner and outer loops. For example, given a loop like:
          DO J = 1, M
            DO I = 1, N
              A(J, I) = A(J, I) * C
            ENDDO
          ENDDO

loop interchange will transform the loop as if the user had written:

          DO I = 1, N
            DO J = 1, M
              A(J, I) = A(J, I) * C
            ENDDO
          ENDDO

which can be beneficial when N is larger than the caches, because in Fortran, the elements of an array are stored in memory contiguously by column, and the original loop iterates over rows, potentially creating at each access a cache miss. This optimization applies to all the languages supported by GCC and is not limited to Fortran. To use this code transformation, GCC has to be configured with --with-ppl and --with-cloog to enable the Graphite loop transformation infrastructure.

-floop-strip-mine
Perform loop strip mining transformations on loops. Strip mining splits a loop into two nested loops. The outer loop has strides equal to the strip size and the inner loop has strides of the original loop within a strip. The strip length can be changed using the loop-block-tile-size parameter. For example, given a loop like:
          DO I = 1, N
            A(I) = A(I) + C
          ENDDO

loop strip mining will transform the loop as if the user had written:

          DO II = 1, N, 51
            DO I = II, min (II + 50, N)
              A(I) = A(I) + C
            ENDDO
          ENDDO

This optimization applies to all the languages supported by GCC and is not limited to Fortran. To use this code transformation, GCC has to be configured with --with-ppl and --with-cloog to enable the Graphite loop transformation infrastructure.

-floop-block
Perform loop blocking transformations on loops. Blocking strip mines each loop in the loop nest such that the memory accesses of the element loops fit inside caches. The strip length can be changed using the loop-block-tile-size parameter. For example, given a loop like:
          DO I = 1, N
            DO J = 1, M
              A(J, I) = B(I) + C(J)
            ENDDO
          ENDDO

loop blocking will transform the loop as if the user had written:

          DO II = 1, N, 51
            DO JJ = 1, M, 51
              DO I = II, min (II + 50, N)
                DO J = JJ, min (JJ + 50, M)
                  A(J, I) = B(I) + C(J)
                ENDDO
              ENDDO
            ENDDO
          ENDDO

which can be beneficial when M is larger than the caches, because the innermost loop will iterate over a smaller amount of data which can be kept in the caches. This optimization applies to all the languages supported by GCC and is not limited to Fortran. To use this code transformation, GCC has to be configured with --with-ppl and --with-cloog to enable the Graphite loop transformation infrastructure.

-fgraphite-identity
Enable the identity transformation for graphite. For every SCoP we generate the polyhedral representation and transform it back to gimple. Using -fgraphite-identity we can check the costs or benefits of the GIMPLE -> GRAPHITE -> GIMPLE transformation. Some minimal optimizations are also performed by the code generator CLooG, like index splitting and dead code elimination in loops.
-floop-flatten
Removes the loop nesting structure: transforms the loop nest into a single loop. This transformation can be useful as an enablement transform for vectorization and parallelization. This feature is experimental. To use this code transformation, GCC has to be configured with --with-ppl and --with-cloog to enable the Graphite loop transformation infrastructure.
-floop-parallelize-all
Use the Graphite data dependence analysis to identify loops that can be parallelized. Parallelize all the loops that can be analyzed to not contain loop carried dependences without checking that it is profitable to parallelize the loops.
-fcheck-data-deps
Compare the results of several data dependence analyzers. This option is used for debugging the data dependence analyzers.
-ftree-loop-if-convert
Attempt to transform conditional jumps in the innermost loops to branch-less equivalents. The intent is to remove control-flow from the innermost loops in order to improve the ability of the vectorization pass to handle these loops. This is enabled by default if vectorization is enabled.
-ftree-loop-if-convert-stores
Attempt to also if-convert conditional jumps containing memory writes. This transformation can be unsafe for multi-threaded programs as it transforms conditional memory writes into unconditional memory writes. For example,
          for (i = 0; i < N; i++)
            if (cond)
              A[i] = expr;

would be transformed to

          for (i = 0; i < N; i++)
            A[i] = cond ? expr : A[i];

potentially producing data races.

-ftree-loop-distribution
Perform loop distribution. This flag can improve cache performance on big loop bodies and allow further loop optimizations, like parallelization or vectorization, to take place. For example, the loop
          DO I = 1, N
            A(I) = B(I) + C
            D(I) = E(I) * F
          ENDDO

is transformed to

          DO I = 1, N
             A(I) = B(I) + C
          ENDDO
          DO I = 1, N
             D(I) = E(I) * F
          ENDDO

-ftree-loop-distribute-patterns
Perform loop distribution of patterns that can be code generated with calls to a library. This flag is enabled by default at -O3.

This pass distributes the initialization loops and generates a call to memset zero. For example, the loop

          DO I = 1, N
            A(I) = 0
            B(I) = A(I) + I
          ENDDO

is transformed to

          DO I = 1, N
             A(I) = 0
          ENDDO
          DO I = 1, N
             B(I) = A(I) + I
          ENDDO

and the initialization loop is transformed into a call to memset zero.

-ftree-loop-im
Perform loop invariant motion on trees. This pass moves only invariants that would be hard to handle at RTL level (function calls, operations that expand to nontrivial sequences of insns). With -funswitch-loops it also moves operands of conditions that are invariant out of the loop, so that we can use just trivial invariantness analysis in loop unswitching. The pass also includes store motion.
-ftree-loop-ivcanon
Create a canonical counter for number of iterations in loops for which determining number of iterations requires complicated analysis. Later optimizations then may determine the number easily. Useful especially in connection with unrolling.
-fivopts
Perform induction variable optimizations (strength reduction, induction variable merging and induction variable elimination) on trees.
-ftree-parallelize-loops=n
Parallelize loops, i.e., split their iteration space to run in n threads. This is only possible for loops whose iterations are independent and can be arbitrarily reordered. The optimization is only profitable on multiprocessor machines, for loops that are CPU-intensive, rather than constrained e.g. by memory bandwidth. This option implies -pthread, and thus is only supported on targets that have support for -pthread.
-ftree-pta
Perform function-local points-to analysis on trees. This flag is enabled by default at -O and higher.
-ftree-sra
Perform scalar replacement of aggregates. This pass replaces structure references with scalars to prevent committing structures to memory too early. This flag is enabled by default at -O and higher.
-ftree-copyrename
Perform copy renaming on trees. This pass attempts to rename compiler temporaries to other variables at copy locations, usually resulting in variable names which more closely resemble the original variables. This flag is enabled by default at -O and higher.
-ftree-coalesce-inlined-vars
Tell the copyrename pass (see -ftree-copyrename) to attempt to combine small user-defined variables too, but only if they were inlined from other functions. It is a more limited form of -ftree-coalesce-vars. This may harm debug information of such inlined variables, but it will keep variables of the inlined-into function apart from each other, such that they are more likely to contain the expected values in a debugging session. This was the default in GCC versions older than 4.7.
-ftree-coalesce-vars
Tell the copyrename pass (see -ftree-copyrename) to attempt to combine small user-defined variables too, instead of just compiler temporaries. This may severely limit the ability to debug an optimized program compiled with -fno-var-tracking-assignments. In the negated form, this flag prevents SSA coalescing of user variables, including inlined ones. This option is enabled by default.
-ftree-ter
Perform temporary expression replacement during the SSA->normal phase. Single use/single def temporaries are replaced at their use location with their defining expression. This results in non-GIMPLE code, but gives the expanders much more complex trees to work on resulting in better RTL generation. This is enabled by default at -O and higher.
-ftree-vectorize
Perform loop vectorization on trees. This flag is enabled by default at -O3.
-ftree-slp-vectorize
Perform basic block vectorization on trees. This flag is enabled by default at -O3 and when -ftree-vectorize is enabled.
-ftree-vect-loop-version
Perform loop versioning when doing loop vectorization on trees. When a loop appears to be vectorizable except that data alignment or data dependence cannot be determined at compile time, then vectorized and non-vectorized versions of the loop are generated along with run-time checks for alignment or dependence to control which version is executed. This option is enabled by default except at level -Os where it is disabled.
-fvect-cost-model
Enable cost model for vectorization.
-ftree-vrp
Perform Value Range Propagation on trees. This is similar to the constant propagation pass, but instead of values, ranges of values are propagated. This allows the optimizers to remove unnecessary range checks like array bound checks and null pointer checks. This is enabled by default at -O2 and higher. Null pointer check elimination is only done if -fdelete-null-pointer-checks is enabled.
-ftracer
Perform tail duplication to enlarge superblock size. This transformation simplifies the control flow of the function allowing other optimizations to do better job.
-funroll-loops
Unroll loops whose number of iterations can be determined at compile time or upon entry to the loop. -funroll-loops implies -frerun-cse-after-loop. This option makes code larger, and may or may not make it run faster.
-funroll-all-loops
Unroll all loops, even if their number of iterations is uncertain when the loop is entered. This usually makes programs run more slowly. -funroll-all-loops implies the same options as -funroll-loops,
-fsplit-ivs-in-unroller
Enables expressing of values of induction variables in later iterations of the unrolled loop using the value in the first iteration. This breaks long dependency chains, thus improving efficiency of the scheduling passes.

Combination of -fweb and CSE is often sufficient to obtain the same effect. However in cases the loop body is more complicated than a single basic block, this is not reliable. It also does not work at all on some of the architectures due to restrictions in the CSE pass.

This optimization is enabled by default.

-fvariable-expansion-in-unroller
With this option, the compiler will create multiple copies of some local variables when unrolling a loop which can result in superior code.
-fpartial-inlining
Inline parts of functions. This option has any effect only when inlining itself is turned on by the -finline-functions or -finline-small-functions options.

Enabled at level -O2.

-fpredictive-commoning
Perform predictive commoning optimization, i.e., reusing computations (especially memory loads and stores) performed in previous iterations of loops.

This option is enabled at level -O3.

-fprefetch-loop-arrays
If supported by the target machine, generate instructions to prefetch memory to improve the performance of loops that access large arrays.

This option may generate better or worse code; results are highly dependent on the structure of loops within the source code.

Disabled at level -Os.

-fno-peephole
-fno-peephole2
Disable any machine-specific peephole optimizations. The difference between -fno-peephole and -fno-peephole2 is in how they are implemented in the compiler; some targets use one, some use the other, a few use both.

-fpeephole is enabled by default. -fpeephole2 enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fno-guess-branch-probability
Do not guess branch probabilities using heuristics.

GCC will use heuristics to guess branch probabilities if they are not provided by profiling feedback (-fprofile-arcs). These heuristics are based on the control flow graph. If some branch probabilities are specified by ‘__builtin_expect’, then the heuristics will be used to guess branch probabilities for the rest of the control flow graph, taking the ‘__builtin_expect’ info into account. The interactions between the heuristics and ‘__builtin_expect’ can be complex, and in some cases, it may be useful to disable the heuristics so that the effects of ‘__builtin_expect’ are easier to understand.

The default is -fguess-branch-probability at levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os.

-freorder-blocks
Reorder basic blocks in the compiled function in order to reduce number of taken branches and improve code locality.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3.

-freorder-blocks-and-partition
In addition to reordering basic blocks in the compiled function, in order to reduce number of taken branches, partitions hot and cold basic blocks into separate sections of the assembly and .o files, to improve paging and cache locality performance.

This optimization is automatically turned off in the presence of exception handling, for linkonce sections, for functions with a user-defined section attribute and on any architecture that does not support named sections.

-freorder-functions
Reorder functions in the object file in order to improve code locality. This is implemented by using special subsections .text.hot for most frequently executed functions and .text.unlikely for unlikely executed functions. Reordering is done by the linker so object file format must support named sections and linker must place them in a reasonable way.

Also profile feedback must be available in to make this option effective. See -fprofile-arcs for details.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fstrict-aliasing
Allow the compiler to assume the strictest aliasing rules applicable to the language being compiled. For C (and C++), this activates optimizations based on the type of expressions. In particular, an object of one type is assumed never to reside at the same address as an object of a different type, unless the types are almost the same. For example, an unsigned int can alias an int, but not a void* or a double. A character type may alias any other type.

Pay special attention to code like this:

          union a_union {
            int i;
            double d;
          };
          
          int f() {
            union a_union t;
            t.d = 3.0;
            return t.i;
          }

The practice of reading from a different union member than the one most recently written to (called “type-punning”) is common. Even with -fstrict-aliasing, type-punning is allowed, provided the memory is accessed through the union type. So, the code above will work as expected. See Structures unions enumerations and bit-fields implementation. However, this code might not:

          int f() {
            union a_union t;
            int* ip;
            t.d = 3.0;
            ip = &t.i;
            return *ip;
          }

Similarly, access by taking the address, casting the resulting pointer and dereferencing the result has undefined behavior, even if the cast uses a union type, e.g.:

          int f() {
            double d = 3.0;
            return ((union a_union *) &d)->i;
          }

The -fstrict-aliasing option is enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fstrict-overflow
Allow the compiler to assume strict signed overflow rules, depending on the language being compiled. For C (and C++) this means that overflow when doing arithmetic with signed numbers is undefined, which means that the compiler may assume that it will not happen. This permits various optimizations. For example, the compiler will assume that an expression like i + 10 > i will always be true for signed i. This assumption is only valid if signed overflow is undefined, as the expression is false if i + 10 overflows when using twos complement arithmetic. When this option is in effect any attempt to determine whether an operation on signed numbers will overflow must be written carefully to not actually involve overflow.

This option also allows the compiler to assume strict pointer semantics: given a pointer to an object, if adding an offset to that pointer does not produce a pointer to the same object, the addition is undefined. This permits the compiler to conclude that p + u > p is always true for a pointer p and unsigned integer u. This assumption is only valid because pointer wraparound is undefined, as the expression is false if p + u overflows using twos complement arithmetic.

See also the -fwrapv option. Using -fwrapv means that integer signed overflow is fully defined: it wraps. When -fwrapv is used, there is no difference between -fstrict-overflow and -fno-strict-overflow for integers. With -fwrapv certain types of overflow are permitted. For example, if the compiler gets an overflow when doing arithmetic on constants, the overflowed value can still be used with -fwrapv, but not otherwise.

The -fstrict-overflow option is enabled at levels -O2, -O3, -Os.

-falign-functions
-falign-functions=n
Align the start of functions to the next power-of-two greater than n, skipping up to n bytes. For instance, -falign-functions=32 aligns functions to the next 32-byte boundary, but -falign-functions=24 would align to the next 32-byte boundary only if this can be done by skipping 23 bytes or less.

-fno-align-functions and -falign-functions=1 are equivalent and mean that functions will not be aligned.

Some assemblers only support this flag when n is a power of two; in that case, it is rounded up.

If n is not specified or is zero, use a machine-dependent default.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3.

-falign-labels
-falign-labels=n
Align all branch targets to a power-of-two boundary, skipping up to n bytes like -falign-functions. This option can easily make code slower, because it must insert dummy operations for when the branch target is reached in the usual flow of the code.

-fno-align-labels and -falign-labels=1 are equivalent and mean that labels will not be aligned.

If -falign-loops or -falign-jumps are applicable and are greater than this value, then their values are used instead.

If n is not specified or is zero, use a machine-dependent default which is very likely to be ‘1’, meaning no alignment.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3.

-falign-loops
-falign-loops=n
Align loops to a power-of-two boundary, skipping up to n bytes like -falign-functions. The hope is that the loop will be executed many times, which will make up for any execution of the dummy operations.

-fno-align-loops and -falign-loops=1 are equivalent and mean that loops will not be aligned.

If n is not specified or is zero, use a machine-dependent default.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3.

-falign-jumps
-falign-jumps=n
Align branch targets to a power-of-two boundary, for branch targets where the targets can only be reached by jumping, skipping up to n bytes like -falign-functions. In this case, no dummy operations need be executed.

-fno-align-jumps and -falign-jumps=1 are equivalent and mean that loops will not be aligned.

If n is not specified or is zero, use a machine-dependent default.

Enabled at levels -O2, -O3.

-funit-at-a-time
This option is left for compatibility reasons. -funit-at-a-time has no effect, while -fno-unit-at-a-time implies -fno-toplevel-reorder and -fno-section-anchors.

Enabled by default.

-fno-toplevel-reorder
Do not reorder top-level functions, variables, and asm statements. Output them in the same order that they appear in the input file. When this option is used, unreferenced static variables will not be removed. This option is intended to support existing code that relies on a particular ordering. For new code, it is better to use attributes.

Enabled at level -O0. When disabled explicitly, it also implies -fno-section-anchors, which is otherwise enabled at -O0 on some targets.

-fweb
Constructs webs as commonly used for register allocation purposes and assign each web individual pseudo register. This allows the register allocation pass to operate on pseudos directly, but also strengthens several other optimization passes, such as CSE, loop optimizer and trivial dead code remover. It can, however, make debugging impossible, since variables will no longer stay in a “home register”.

Enabled by default with -funroll-loops.

-fwhole-program
Assume that the current compilation unit represents the whole program being compiled. All public functions and variables with the exception of main and those merged by attribute externally_visible become static functions and in effect are optimized more aggressively by interprocedural optimizers. If gold is used as the linker plugin, externally_visible attributes are automatically added to functions (not variable yet due to a current gold issue) that are accessed outside of LTO objects according to resolution file produced by gold. For other linkers that cannot generate resolution file, explicit externally_visible attributes are still necessary. While this option is equivalent to proper use of the static keyword for programs consisting of a single file, in combination with option -flto this flag can be used to compile many smaller scale programs since the functions and variables become local for the whole combined compilation unit, not for the single source file itself.

This option implies -fwhole-file for Fortran programs.

-flto[=n]
This option runs the standard link-time optimizer. When invoked with source code, it generates GIMPLE (one of GCC's internal representations) and writes it to special ELF sections in the object file. When the object files are linked together, all the function bodies are read from these ELF sections and instantiated as if they had been part of the same translation unit.

To use the link-time optimizer, -flto needs to be specified at compile time and during the final link. For example:

          gcc -c -O2 -flto foo.c
          gcc -c -O2 -flto bar.c
          gcc -o myprog -flto -O2 foo.o bar.o

The first two invocations to GCC save a bytecode representation of GIMPLE into special ELF sections inside foo.o and bar.o. The final invocation reads the GIMPLE bytecode from foo.o and bar.o, merges the two files into a single internal image, and compiles the result as usual. Since both foo.o and bar.o are merged into a single image, this causes all the interprocedural analyses and optimizations in GCC to work across the two files as if they were a single one. This means, for example, that the inliner is able to inline functions in bar.o into functions in foo.o and vice-versa.

Another (simpler) way to enable link-time optimization is:

          gcc -o myprog -flto -O2 foo.c bar.c

The above generates bytecode for foo.c and bar.c, merges them together into a single GIMPLE representation and optimizes them as usual to produce myprog.

The only important thing to keep in mind is that to enable link-time optimizations the -flto flag needs to be passed to both the compile and the link commands.

To make whole program optimization effective, it is necessary to make certain whole program assumptions. The compiler needs to know what functions and variables can be accessed by libraries and runtime outside of the link-time optimized unit. When supported by the linker, the linker plugin (see -fuse-linker-plugin) passes information to the compiler about used and externally visible symbols. When the linker plugin is not available, -fwhole-program should be used to allow the compiler to make these assumptions, which leads to more aggressive optimization decisions.

Note that when a file is compiled with -flto, the generated object file is larger than a regular object file because it contains GIMPLE bytecodes and the usual final code. This means that object files with LTO information can be linked as normal object files; if -flto is not passed to the linker, no interprocedural optimizations are applied.

Additionally, the optimization flags used to compile individual files are not necessarily related to those used at link time. For instance,

          gcc -c -O0 -flto foo.c
          gcc -c -O0 -flto bar.c
          gcc -o myprog -flto -O3 foo.o bar.o

This produces individual object files with unoptimized assembler code, but the resulting binary myprog is optimized at -O3. If, instead, the final binary is generated without -flto, then myprog is not optimized.

When producing the final binary with -flto, GCC only applies link-time optimizations to those files that contain bytecode. Therefore, you can mix and match object files and libraries with GIMPLE bytecodes and final object code. GCC automatically selects which files to optimize in LTO mode and which files to link without further processing.

There are some code generation flags preserved by GCC when generating bytecodes, as they need to be used during the final link stage. Currently, the following options are saved into the GIMPLE bytecode files: -fPIC, -fcommon and all the -m target flags.

At link time, these options are read in and reapplied. Note that the current implementation makes no attempt to recognize conflicting values for these options. If different files have conflicting option values (e.g., one file is compiled with -fPIC and another isn't), the compiler simply uses the last value read from the bytecode files. It is recommended, then, that you compile all the files participating in the same link with the same options.

If LTO encounters objects with C linkage declared with incompatible types in separate translation units to be linked together (undefined behavior according to ISO C99 6.2.7), a non-fatal diagnostic may be issued. The behavior is still undefined at run time.

Another feature of LTO is that it is possible to apply interprocedural optimizations on files written in different languages. This requires support in the language front end. Currently, the C, C++ and Fortran front ends are capable of emitting GIMPLE bytecodes, so something like this should work:

          gcc -c -flto foo.c
          g++ -c -flto bar.cc
          gfortran -c -flto baz.f90
          g++ -o myprog -flto -O3 foo.o bar.o baz.o -lgfortran

Notice that the final link is done with g++ to get the C++ runtime libraries and -lgfortran is added to get the Fortran runtime libraries. In general, when mixing languages in LTO mode, you should use the same link command options as when mixing languages in a regular (non-LTO) compilation; all you need to add is -flto to all the compile and link commands.

If object files containing GIMPLE bytecode are stored in a library archive, say libfoo.a, it is possible to extract and use them in an LTO link if you are using a linker with plugin support. To enable this feature, use the flag -fuse-linker-plugin at link time:

          gcc -o myprog -O2 -flto -fuse-linker-plugin a.o b.o -lfoo

With the linker plugin enabled, the linker extracts the needed GIMPLE files from libfoo.a and passes them on to the running GCC to make them part of the aggregated GIMPLE image to be optimized.

If you are not using a linker with plugin support and/or do not enable the linker plugin, then the objects inside libfoo.a are extracted and linked as usual, but they do not participate in the LTO optimization process.

Link-time optimizations do not require the presence of the whole program to operate. If the program does not require any symbols to be exported, it is possible to combine -flto and -fwhole-program to allow the interprocedural optimizers to use more aggressive assumptions which may lead to improved optimization opportunities. Use of -fwhole-program is not needed when linker plugin is active (see -fuse-linker-plugin).

The current implementation of LTO makes no attempt to generate bytecode that is portable between different types of hosts. The bytecode files are versioned and there is a strict version check, so bytecode files generated in one version of GCC will not work with an older/newer version of GCC.

Link-time optimization does not work well with generation of debugging information. Combining -flto with -g is currently experimental and expected to produce wrong results.

If you specify the optional n, the optimization and code generation done at link time is executed in parallel using n parallel jobs by utilizing an installed make program. The environment variable MAKE may be used to override the program used. The default value for n is 1.

You can also specify -flto=jobserver to use GNU make's job server mode to determine the number of parallel jobs. This is useful when the Makefile calling GCC is already executing in parallel. You must prepend a ‘+’ to the command recipe in the parent Makefile for this to work. This option likely only works if MAKE is GNU make.

This option is disabled by default

-flto-partition=alg
Specify the partitioning algorithm used by the link-time optimizer. The value is either 1to1 to specify a partitioning mirroring the original source files or balanced to specify partitioning into equally sized chunks (whenever possible). Specifying none as an algorithm disables partitioning and streaming completely. The default value is balanced.
-flto-compression-level=n
This option specifies the level of compression used for intermediate language written to LTO object files, and is only meaningful in conjunction with LTO mode (-flto). Valid values are 0 (no compression) to 9 (maximum compression). Values outside this range are clamped to either 0 or 9. If the option is not given, a default balanced compression setting is used.
-flto-report
Prints a report with internal details on the workings of the link-time optimizer. The contents of this report vary from version to version. It is meant to be useful to GCC developers when processing object files in LTO mode (via -flto).

Disabled by default.

-fuse-linker-plugin
Enables the use of a linker plugin during link-time optimization. This option relies on plugin support in the linker, which is available in gold or in GNU ld 2.21 or newer.

This option enables the extraction of object files with GIMPLE bytecode out of library archives. This improves the quality of optimization by exposing more code to the link-time optimizer. This information specifies what symbols can be accessed externally (by non-LTO object or during dynamic linking). Resulting code quality improvements on binaries (and shared libraries that use hidden visibility) are similar to -fwhole-program. See -flto for a description of the effect of this flag and how to use it.

This option is enabled by default when LTO support in GCC is enabled and GCC was configured for use with a linker supporting plugins (GNU ld 2.21 or newer or gold).

-ffat-lto-objects
Fat LTO objects are object files that contain both the intermediate language and the object code. This makes them usable for both LTO linking and normal linking. This option is effective only when compiling with -flto and is ignored at link time.

-fno-fat-lto-objects improves compilation time over plain LTO, but requires the complete toolchain to be aware of LTO. It requires a linker with linker plugin support for basic functionality. Additionally, nm, ar and ranlib need to support linker plugins to allow a full-featured build environment (capable of building static libraries etc).

The default is -ffat-lto-objects but this default is intended to change in future releases when linker plugin enabled environments become more common.

-fcompare-elim
After register allocation and post-register allocation instruction splitting, identify arithmetic instructions that compute processor flags similar to a comparison operation based on that arithmetic. If possible, eliminate the explicit comparison operation.

This pass only applies to certain targets that cannot explicitly represent the comparison operation before register allocation is complete.

Enabled at levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fuse-ld=gold
Use the gold linker instead of the default linker.
-fuse-ld=bfd
Use the ld.bfd linker instead of the default linker.
-fcprop-registers
After register allocation and post-register allocation instruction splitting, we perform a copy-propagation pass to try to reduce scheduling dependencies and occasionally eliminate the copy.

Enabled at levels -O, -O2, -O3, -Os.

-fprofile-correction
Profiles collected using an instrumented binary for multi-threaded programs may be inconsistent due to missed counter updates. When this option is specified, GCC will use heuristics to correct or smooth out such inconsistencies. By default, GCC will emit an error message when an inconsistent profile is detected.
-fprofile-dir=path
Set the directory to search for the profile data files in to path. This option affects only the profile data generated by -fprofile-generate, -ftest-coverage, -fprofile-arcs and used by -fprofile-use and -fbranch-probabilities and its related options. Both absolute and relative paths can be used. By default, GCC will use the current directory as path, thus the profile data file will appear in the same directory as the object file.
-fprofile-generate
-fprofile-generate=path
Enable options usually used for instrumenting application to produce profile useful for later recompilation with profile feedback based optimization. You must use -fprofile-generate both when compiling and when linking your program.

The following options are enabled: -fprofile-arcs, -fprofile-values, -fvpt.

If path is specified, GCC will look at the path to find the profile feedback data files. See -fprofile-dir.

-fprofile-use
-fprofile-use=path
Enable profile feedback directed optimizations, and optimizations generally profitable only with profile feedback available.

The following options are enabled: -fbranch-probabilities, -fvpt, -funroll-loops, -fpeel-loops, -ftracer

By default, GCC emits an error message if the feedback profiles do not match the source code. This error can be turned into a warning by using -Wcoverage-mismatch. Note this may result in poorly optimized code.

If path is specified, GCC will look at the path to find the profile feedback data files. See -fprofile-dir.

The following options control compiler behavior regarding floating-point arithmetic. These options trade off between speed and correctness. All must be specifically enabled.

-ffloat-store
Do not store floating-point variables in registers, and inhibit other options that might change whether a floating-point value is taken from a register or memory.

This option prevents undesirable excess precision on machines such as the 68000 where the floating registers (of the 68881) keep more precision than a double is supposed to have. Similarly for the x86 architecture. For most programs, the excess precision does only good, but a few programs rely on the precise definition of IEEE floating point. Use -ffloat-store for such programs, after modifying them to store all pertinent intermediate computations into variables.

-fexcess-precision=style
This option allows further control over excess precision on machines where floating-point registers have more precision than the IEEE float and double types and the processor does not support operations rounding to those types. By default, -fexcess-precision=fast is in effect; this means that operations are carried out in the precision of the registers and that it is unpredictable when rounding to the types specified in the source code takes place. When compiling C, if -fexcess-precision=standard is specified then excess precision will follow the rules specified in ISO C99; in particular, both casts and assignments cause values to be rounded to their semantic types (whereas -ffloat-store only affects assignments). This option is enabled by default for C if a strict conformance option such as -std=c99 is used.

-fexcess-precision=standard is not implemented for languages other than C, and has no effect if -funsafe-math-optimizations or -ffast-math is specified. On the x86, it also has no effect if -mfpmath=sse or -mfpmath=sse+387 is specified; in the former case, IEEE semantics apply without excess precision, and in the latter, rounding is unpredictable.

-ffast-math
Sets -fno-math-errno, -funsafe-math-optimizations, -ffinite-math-only, -fno-rounding-math, -fno-signaling-nans and -fcx-limited-range.

This option causes the preprocessor macro __FAST_MATH__ to be defined.

This option is not turned on by any -O option besides -Ofast since it can result in incorrect output for programs that depend on an exact implementation of IEEE or ISO rules/specifications for math functions. It may, however, yield faster code for programs that do not require the guarantees of these specifications.

-fno-math-errno
Do not set ERRNO after calling math functions that are executed with a single instruction, e.g., sqrt. A program that relies on IEEE exceptions for math error handling may want to use this flag for speed while maintaining IEEE arithmetic compatibility.

This option is not turned on by any -O option since it can result in incorrect output for programs that depend on an exact implementation of IEEE or ISO rules/specifications for math functions. It may, however, yield faster code for programs that do not require the guarantees of these specifications.

The default is -fmath-errno.

On Darwin systems, the math library never sets errno. There is therefore no reason for the compiler to consider the possibility that it might, and -fno-math-errno is the default.

-funsafe-math-optimizations
Allow optimizations for floating-point arithmetic that (a) assume that arguments and results are valid and (b) may violate IEEE or ANSI standards. When used at link-time, it may include libraries or startup files that change the default FPU control word or other similar optimizations.

This option is not turned on by any -O option since it can result in incorrect output for programs that depend on an exact implementation of IEEE or ISO rules/specifications for math functions. It may, however, yield faster code for programs that do not require the guarantees of these specifications. Enables -fno-signed-zeros, -fno-trapping-math, -fassociative-math and -freciprocal-math.

The default is -fno-unsafe-math-optimizations.

-fassociative-math
Allow re-association of operands in series of floating-point operations. This violates the ISO C and C++ language standard by possibly changing computation result. NOTE: re-ordering may change the sign of zero as well as ignore NaNs and inhibit or create underflow or overflow (and thus cannot be used on code that relies on rounding behavior like (x + 2**52) - 2**52. May also reorder floating-point comparisons and thus may not be used when ordered comparisons are required. This option requires that both -fno-signed-zeros and -fno-trapping-math be in effect. Moreover, it doesn't make much sense with -frounding-math. For Fortran the option is automatically enabled when both -fno-signed-zeros and -fno-trapping-math are in effect.

The default is -fno-associative-math.

-freciprocal-math
Allow the reciprocal of a value to be used instead of dividing by the value if this enables optimizations. For example x / y can be replaced with x * (1/y), which is useful if (1/y) is subject to common subexpression elimination. Note that this loses precision and increases the number of flops operating on the value.

The default is -fno-reciprocal-math.

-ffinite-math-only
Allow optimizations for floating-point arithmetic that assume that arguments and results are not NaNs or +-Infs.

This option is not turned on by any -O option since it can result in incorrect output for programs that depend on an exact implementation of IEEE or ISO rules/specifications for math functions. It may, however, yield faster code for programs that do not require the guarantees of these specifications.

The default is -fno-finite-math-only.

-fno-signed-zeros
Allow optimizations for floating-point arithmetic that ignore the signedness of zero. IEEE arithmetic specifies the behavior of distinct +0.0 and −0.0 values, which then prohibits simplification of expressions such as x+0.0 or 0.0*x (even with -ffinite-math-only). This option implies that the sign of a zero result isn't significant.

The default is -fsigned-zeros.

-fno-trapping-math
Compile code assuming that floating-point operations cannot generate user-visible traps. These traps include division by zero, overflow, underflow, inexact result and invalid operation. This option requires that -fno-signaling-nans be in effect. Setting this option may allow faster code if one relies on “non-stop” IEEE arithmetic, for example.

This option should never be turned on by any -O option since it can result in incorrect output for programs that depend on an exact implementation of IEEE or ISO rules/specifications for math functions.

The default is -ftrapping-math.

-frounding-math
Disable transformations and optimizations that assume default floating-point rounding behavior. This is round-to-zero for all floating point to integer conversions, and round-to-nearest for all other arithmetic truncations. This option should be specified for programs that change the FP rounding mode dynamically, or that may be executed with a non-default rounding mode. This option disables constant folding of floating-point expressions at compile time (which may be affected by rounding mode) and arithmetic transformations that are unsafe in the presence of sign-dependent rounding modes.

The default is -fno-rounding-math.

This option is experimental and does not currently guarantee to disable all GCC optimizations that are affected by rounding mode. Future versions of GCC may provide finer control of this setting using C99's FENV_ACCESS pragma. This command-line option will be used to specify the default state for FENV_ACCESS.

-fsignaling-nans
Compile code assuming that IEEE signaling NaNs may generate user-visible traps during floating-point operations. Setting this option disables optimizations that may change the number of exceptions visible with signaling NaNs. This option implies -ftrapping-math.

This option causes the preprocessor macro __SUPPORT_SNAN__ to be defined.

The default is -fno-signaling-nans.

This option is experimental and does not currently guarantee to disable all GCC optimizations that affect signaling NaN behavior.

-fsingle-precision-constant
Treat floating-point constants as single precision instead of implicitly converting them to double-precision constants.
-fcx-limited-range
When enabled, this option states that a range reduction step is not needed when performing complex division. Also, there is no checking whether the result of a complex multiplication or division is NaN + I*NaN, with an attempt to rescue the situation in that case. The default is -fno-cx-limited-range, but is enabled by -ffast-math.

This option controls the default setting of the ISO C99 CX_LIMITED_RANGE pragma. Nevertheless, the option applies to all languages.

-fcx-fortran-rules
Complex multiplication and division follow Fortran rules. Range reduction is done as part of complex division, but there is no checking whether the result of a complex multiplication or division is NaN + I*NaN, with an attempt to rescue the situation in that case.

The default is -fno-cx-fortran-rules.

The following options control optimizations that may improve performance, but are not enabled by any -O options. This section includes experimental options that may produce broken code.

-fbranch-probabilities
After running a program compiled with -fprofile-arcs (see Options for Debugging Your Program or gcc), you can compile it a second time using -fbranch-probabilities, to improve optimizations based on the number of times each branch was taken. When the program compiled with -fprofile-arcs exits it saves arc execution counts to a file called sourcename.gcda for each source file. The information in this data file is very dependent on the structure of the generated code, so you must use the same source code and the same optimization options for both compilations.

With -fbranch-probabilities, GCC puts a ‘REG_BR_PROB’ note on each ‘JUMP_INSN’ and ‘CALL_INSN’. These can be used to improve optimization. Currently, they are only used in one place: in reorg.c, instead of guessing which path a branch is most likely to take, the ‘REG_BR_PROB’ values are used to exactly determine which path is taken more often.

-fprofile-values
If combined with -fprofile-arcs, it adds code so that some data about values of expressions in the program is gathered.

With -fbranch-probabilities, it reads back the data gathered from profiling values of expressions for usage in optimizations.

Enabled with -fprofile-generate and -fprofile-use.

-fvpt
If combined with -fprofile-arcs, it instructs the compiler to add a code to gather information about values of expressions.

With -fbranch-probabilities, it reads back the data gathered and actually performs the optimizations based on them. Currently the optimizations include specialization of division operation using the knowledge about the value of the denominator.

-frename-registers
Attempt to avoid false dependencies in scheduled code by making use of registers left over after register allocation. This optimization will most benefit processors with lots of registers. Depending on the debug information format adopted by the target, however, it can make debugging impossible, since variables will no longer stay in a “home register”.

Enabled by default with -funroll-loops and -fpeel-loops.

-ftracer
Perform tail duplication to enlarge superblock size. This transformation simplifies the control flow of the function allowing other optimizations to do better job.

Enabled with -fprofile-use.

-funroll-loops
Unroll loops whose number of iterations can be determined at compile time or upon entry to the loop. -funroll-loops implies -frerun-cse-after-loop, -fweb and -frename-registers. It also turns on complete loop peeling (i.e. complete removal of loops with small constant number of iterations). This option makes code larger, and may or may not make it run faster.

Enabled with -fprofile-use.

-funroll-all-loops
Unroll all loops, even if their number of iterations is uncertain when the loop is entered. This usually makes programs run more slowly. -funroll-all-loops implies the same options as -funroll-loops.
-fpeel-loops
Peels loops for which there is enough information that they do not roll much (from profile feedback). It also turns on complete loop peeling (i.e. complete removal of loops with small constant number of iterations).

Enabled with -fprofile-use.

-fmove-loop-invariants
Enables the loop invariant motion pass in the RTL loop optimizer. Enabled at level -O1
-funswitch-loops
Move branches with loop invariant conditions out of the loop, with duplicates of the loop on both branches (modified according to result of the condition).
-ffunction-sections
-fdata-sections
Place each function or data item into its own section in the output file if the target supports arbitrary sections. The name of the function or the name of the data item determines the section's name in the output file.

Use these options on systems where the linker can perform optimizations to improve locality of reference in the instruction space. Most systems using the ELF object format and SPARC processors running Solaris 2 have linkers with such optimizations. AIX may have these optimizations in the future.

Only use these options when there are significant benefits from doing so. When you specify these options, the assembler and linker will create larger object and executable files and will also be slower. You will not be able to use gprof on all systems if you specify this option and you may have problems with debugging if you specify both this option and -g.

-fbranch-target-load-optimize
Perform branch target register load optimization before prologue / epilogue threading. The use of target registers can typically be exposed only during reload, thus hoisting loads out of loops and doing inter-block scheduling needs a separate optimization pass.
-fbranch-target-load-optimize2
Perform branch target register load optimization after prologue / epilogue threading.
-fbtr-bb-exclusive
When performing branch target register load optimization, don't reuse branch target registers in within any basic block.
-fstack-protector
Emit extra code to check for buffer overflows, such as stack smashing attacks. This is done by adding a guard variable to functions with vulnerable objects. This includes functions that call alloca, and functions with buffers larger than 8 bytes. The guards are initialized when a function is entered and then checked when the function exits. If a guard check fails, an error message is printed and the program exits.

NOTE: In Ubuntu 6.10 and later versions this option is enabled by default for C, C++, ObjC, ObjC++, if none of -fno-stack-protector, -nostdlib, nor -ffreestanding are found.

-fstack-protector-all
Like -fstack-protector except that all functions are protected.
-fsection-anchors
Try to reduce the number of symbolic address calculations by using shared “anchor” symbols to address nearby objects. This transformation can help to reduce the number of GOT entries and GOT accesses on some targets.

For example, the implementation of the following function foo:

          static int a, b, c;
          int foo (void) { return a + b + c; }

would usually calculate the addresses of all three variables, but if you compile it with -fsection-anchors, it will access the variables from a common anchor point instead. The effect is similar to the following pseudocode (which isn't valid C):

          int foo (void)
          {
            register int *xr = &x;
            return xr[&a - &x] + xr[&b - &x] + xr[&c - &x];
          }

Not all targets support this option.

--param name=value
In some places, GCC uses various constants to control the amount of optimization that is done. For example, GCC will not inline functions that contain more than a certain number of instructions. You can control some of these constants on the command line using the --param option.

The names of specific parameters, and the meaning of the values, are tied to the internals of the compiler, and are subject to change without notice in future releases.

In each case, the value is an integer. The allowable choices for name are given in the following table:

predictable-branch-outcome
When branch is predicted to be taken with probability lower than this threshold (in percent), then it is considered well predictable. The default is 10.
max-crossjump-edges
The maximum number of incoming edges to consider for crossjumping. The algorithm used by -fcrossjumping is O(N^2) in the number of edges incoming to each block. Increasing values mean more aggressive optimization, making the compilation time increase with probably small improvement in executable size.
min-crossjump-insns
The minimum number of instructions that must be matched at the end of two blocks before crossjumping will be performed on them. This value is ignored in the case where all instructions in the block being crossjumped from are matched. The default value is 5.
max-grow-copy-bb-insns
The maximum code size expansion factor when copying basic blocks instead of jumping. The expansion is relative to a jump instruction. The default value is 8.
max-goto-duplication-insns
The maximum number of instructions to duplicate to a block that jumps to a computed goto. To avoid O(N^2) behavior in a number of passes, GCC factors computed gotos early in the compilation process, and unfactors them as late as possible. Only computed jumps at the end of a basic blocks with no more than max-goto-duplication-insns are unfactored. The default value is 8.
max-delay-slot-insn-search
The maximum number of instructions to consider when looking for an instruction to fill a delay slot. If more than this arbitrary number of instructions is searched, the time savings from filling the delay slot will be minimal so stop searching. Increasing values mean more aggressive optimization, making the compilation time increase with probably small improvement in execution time.
max-delay-slot-live-search
When trying to fill delay slots, the maximum number of instructions to consider when searching for a block with valid live register information. Increasing this arbitrarily chosen value means more aggressive optimization, increasing the compilation time. This parameter should be removed when the delay slot code is rewritten to maintain the control-flow graph.
max-gcse-memory
The approximate maximum amount of memory that will be allocated in order to perform the global common subexpression elimination optimization. If more memory than specified is required, the optimization will not be done.
max-gcse-insertion-ratio
If the ratio of expression insertions to deletions is larger than this value for any expression, then RTL PRE will insert or remove the expression and thus leave partially redundant computations in the instruction stream. The default value is 20.
max-pending-list-length
The maximum number of pending dependencies scheduling will allow before flushing the current state and starting over. Large functions with few branches or calls can create excessively large lists which needlessly consume memory and resources.
max-modulo-backtrack-attempts
The maximum number of backtrack attempts the scheduler should make when modulo scheduling a loop. Larger values can exponentially increase compilation time.
max-inline-insns-single
Several parameters control the tree inliner used in gcc. This number sets the maximum number of instructions (counted in GCC's internal representation) in a single function that the tree inliner will consider for inlining. This only affects functions declared inline and methods implemented in a class declaration (C++). The default value is 400.
max-inline-insns-auto
When you use -finline-functions (included in -O3), a lot of functions that would otherwise not be considered for inlining by the compiler will be investigated. To those functions, a different (more restrictive) limit compared to functions declared inline can be applied. The default value is 40.
large-function-insns
The limit specifying really large functions. For functions larger than this limit after inlining, inlining is constrained by --param large-function-growth. This parameter is useful primarily to avoid extreme compilation time caused by non-linear algorithms used by the back end. The default value is 2700.
large-function-growth
Specifies maximal growth of large function caused by inlining in percents. The default value is 100 which limits large function growth to 2.0 times the original size.
large-unit-insns
The limit specifying large translation unit. Growth caused by inlining of units larger than this limit is limited by --param inline-unit-growth. For small units this might be too tight (consider unit consisting of function A that is inline and B that just calls A three time. If B is small relative to A, the growth of unit is 300\% and yet such inlining is very sane. For very large units consisting of small inlineable functions however the overall unit growth limit is needed to avoid exponential explosion of code size. Thus for smaller units, the size is increased to --param large-unit-insns before applying --param inline-unit-growth. The default is 10000
inline-unit-growth
Specifies maximal overall growth of the compilation unit caused by inlining. The default value is 30 which limits unit growth to 1.3 times the original size.
ipcp-unit-growth
Specifies maximal overall growth of the compilation unit caused by interprocedural constant propagation. The default value is 10 which limits unit growth to 1.1 times the original size.
large-stack-frame
The limit specifying large stack frames. While inlining the algorithm is trying to not grow past this limit too much. Default value is 256 bytes.
large-stack-frame-growth
Specifies maximal growth of large stack frames caused by inlining in percents. The default value is 1000 which limits large stack frame growth to 11 times the original size.
max-inline-insns-recursive
max-inline-insns-recursive-auto
Specifies maximum number of instructions out-of-line copy of self recursive inline function can grow into by performing recursive inlining.

For functions declared inline --param max-inline-insns-recursive is taken into account. For function not declared inline, recursive inlining happens only when -finline-functions (included in -O3) is enabled and --param max-inline-insns-recursive-auto is used. The default value is 450.

max-inline-recursive-depth
max-inline-recursive-depth-auto
Specifies maximum recursion depth used by the recursive inlining.

For functions declared inline --param max-inline-recursive-depth is taken into account. For function not declared inline, recursive inlining happens only when -finline-functions (included in -O3) is enabled and --param max-inline-recursive-depth-auto is used. The default value is 8.

min-inline-recursive-probability
Recursive inlining is profitable only for function having deep recursion in average and can hurt for function having little recursion depth by increasing the prologue size or complexity of function body to other optimizers.

When profile feedback is available (see -fprofile-generate) the actual recursion depth can be guessed from probability that function will recurse via given call expression. This parameter limits inlining only to call expression whose probability exceeds given threshold (in percents). The default value is 10.

early-inlining-insns
Specify growth that early inliner can make. In effect it increases amount of inlining for code having large abstraction penalty. The default value is 10.
max-early-inliner-iterations
max-early-inliner-iterations
Limit of iterations of early inliner. This basically bounds number of nested indirect calls early inliner can resolve. Deeper chains are still handled by late inlining.
comdat-sharing-probability
comdat-sharing-probability
Probability (in percent) that C++ inline function with comdat visibility will be shared across multiple compilation units. The default value is 20.
min-vect-loop-bound
The minimum number of iterations under which a loop will not get vectorized when -ftree-vectorize is used. The number of iterations after vectorization needs to be greater than the value specified by this option to allow vectorization. The default value is 0.
gcse-cost-distance-ratio
Scaling factor in calculation of maximum distance an expression can be moved by GCSE optimizations. This is currently supported only in the code hoisting pass. The bigger the ratio, the more aggressive code hoisting will be with simple expressions, i.e., the expressions that have cost less than gcse-unrestricted-cost. Specifying 0 will disable hoisting of simple expressions. The default value is 10.
gcse-unrestricted-cost
Cost, roughly measured as the cost of a single typical machine instruction, at which GCSE optimizations will not constrain the distance an expression can travel. This is currently supported only in the code hoisting pass. The lesser the cost, the more aggressive code hoisting will be. Specifying 0 will allow all expressions to travel unrestricted distances. The default value is 3.
max-hoist-depth
The depth of search in the dominator tree for expressions to hoist. This is used to avoid quadratic behavior in hoisting algorithm. The value of 0 will avoid limiting the search, but may slow down compilation of huge functions. The default value is 30.
max-tail-merge-comparisons
The maximum amount of similar bbs to compare a bb with. This is used to avoid quadratic behavior in tree tail merging. The default value is 10.
max-tail-merge-iterations
The maximum amount of iterations of the pass over the function. This is used to limit compilation time in tree tail merging. The default value is 2.
max-unrolled-insns
The maximum number of instructions that a loop should have if that loop is unrolled, and if the loop is unrolled, it determines how many times the loop code is unrolled.
max-average-unrolled-insns
The maximum number of instructions biased by probabilities of their execution that a loop should have if that loop is unrolled, and if the loop is unrolled, it determines how many times the loop code is unrolled.
max-unroll-times
The maximum number of unrollings of a single loop.
max-peeled-insns
The maximum number of instructions that a loop should have if that loop is peeled, and if the loop is peeled, it determines how many times the loop code is peeled.
max-peel-times
The maximum number of peelings of a single loop.
max-completely-peeled-insns
The maximum number of insns of a completely peeled loop.
max-completely-peel-times
The maximum number of iterations of a loop to be suitable for complete peeling.
max-completely-peel-loop-nest-depth
The maximum depth of a loop nest suitable for complete peeling.
max-unswitch-insns
The maximum number of insns of an unswitched loop.
max-unswitch-level
The maximum number of branches unswitched in a single loop.
lim-expensive
The minimum cost of an expensive expression in the loop invariant motion.
iv-consider-all-candidates-bound
Bound on number of candidates for induction variables below that all candidates are considered for each use in induction variable optimizations. Only the most relevant candidates are considered if there are more candidates, to avoid quadratic time complexity.
iv-max-considered-uses
The induction variable optimizations give up on loops that contain more induction variable uses.
iv-always-prune-cand-set-bound
If number of candidates in the set is smaller than this value, we always try to remove unnecessary ivs from the set during its optimization when a new iv is added to the set.
scev-max-expr-size
Bound on size of expressions used in the scalar evolutions analyzer. Large expressions slow the analyzer.
scev-max-expr-complexity
Bound on the complexity of the expressions in the scalar evolutions analyzer. Complex expressions slow the analyzer.
omega-max-vars
The maximum number of variables in an Omega constraint system. The default value is 128.
omega-max-geqs
The maximum number of inequalities in an Omega constraint system. The default value is 256.
omega-max-eqs
The maximum number of equalities in an Omega constraint system. The default value is 128.
omega-max-wild-cards
The maximum number of wildcard variables that the Omega solver will be able to insert. The default value is 18.
omega-hash-table-size
The size of the hash table in the Omega solver. The default value is 550.
omega-max-keys
The maximal number of keys used by the Omega solver. The default value is 500.
omega-eliminate-redundant-constraints
When set to 1, use expensive methods to eliminate all redundant constraints. The default value is 0.
vect-max-version-for-alignment-checks
The maximum number of run-time checks that can be performed when doing loop versioning for alignment in the vectorizer. See option ftree-vect-loop-version for more information.
vect-max-version-for-alias-checks
The maximum number of run-time checks that can be performed when doing loop versioning for alias in the vectorizer. See option ftree-vect-loop-version for more information.
max-iterations-to-track
The maximum number of iterations of a loop the brute force algorithm for analysis of # of iterations of the loop tries to evaluate.
hot-bb-count-fraction
Select fraction of the maximal count of repetitions of basic block in program given basic block needs to have to be considered hot.
hot-bb-frequency-fraction
Select fraction of the entry block frequency of executions of basic block in function given basic block needs to have to be considered hot.
max-predicted-iterations
The maximum number of loop iterations we predict statically. This is useful in cases where function contain single loop with known bound and other loop with unknown. We predict the known number of iterations correctly, while the unknown number of iterations average to roughly 10. This means that the loop without bounds would appear artificially cold relative to the other one.
align-threshold
Select fraction of the maximal frequency of executions of basic block in function given basic block will get aligned.
align-loop-iterations
A loop expected to iterate at lest the selected number of iterations will get aligned.
tracer-dynamic-coverage
tracer-dynamic-coverage-feedback
This value is used to limit superblock formation once the given percentage of executed instructions is covered. This limits unnecessary code size expansion.

The tracer-dynamic-coverage-feedback is used only when profile feedback is available. The real profiles (as opposed to statically estimated ones) are much less balanced allowing the threshold to be larger value.

tracer-max-code-growth
Stop tail duplication once code growth has reached given percentage. This is rather hokey argument, as most of the duplicates will be eliminated later in cross jumping, so it may be set to much higher values than is the desired code growth.
tracer-min-branch-ratio
Stop reverse growth when the reverse probability of best edge is less than this threshold (in percent).
tracer-min-branch-ratio
tracer-min-branch-ratio-feedback
Stop forward growth if the best edge do have probability lower than this threshold.

Similarly to tracer-dynamic-coverage two values are present, one for compilation for profile feedback and one for compilation without. The value for compilation with profile feedback needs to be more conservative (higher) in order to make tracer effective.

max-cse-path-length
Maximum number of basic blocks on path that cse considers. The default is 10.
max-cse-insns
The maximum instructions CSE process before flushing. The default is 1000.
ggc-min-expand
GCC uses a garbage collector to manage its own memory allocation. This parameter specifies the minimum percentage by which the garbage collector's heap should be allowed to expand between collections. Tuning this may improve compilation speed; it has no effect on code generation.

The default is 30% + 70% * (RAM/1GB) with an upper bound of 100% when RAM >= 1GB. If getrlimit is available, the notion of "RAM" is the smallest of actual RAM and RLIMIT_DATA or RLIMIT_AS. If GCC is not able to calculate RAM on a particular platform, the lower bound of 30% is used. Setting this parameter and ggc-min-heapsize to zero causes a full collection to occur at every opportunity. This is extremely slow, but can be useful for debugging.

ggc-min-heapsize
Minimum size of the garbage collector's heap before it begins bothering to collect garbage. The first collection occurs after the heap expands by ggc-min-expand% beyond ggc-min-heapsize. Again, tuning this may improve compilation speed, and has no effect on code generation.

The default is the smaller of RAM/8, RLIMIT_RSS, or a limit that tries to ensure that RLIMIT_DATA or RLIMIT_AS are not exceeded, but with a lower bound of 4096 (four megabytes) and an upper bound of 131072 (128 megabytes). If GCC is not able to calculate RAM on a particular platform, the lower bound is used. Setting this parameter very large effectively disables garbage collection. Setting this parameter and ggc-min-expand to zero causes a full collection to occur at every opportunity.

max-reload-search-insns
The maximum number of instruction reload should look backward for equivalent register. Increasing values mean more aggressive optimization, making the compilation time increase with probably slightly better performance. The default value is 100.
max-cselib-memory-locations
The maximum number of memory locations cselib should take into account. Increasing values mean more aggressive optimization, making the compilation time increase with probably slightly better performance. The default value is 500.
reorder-blocks-duplicate
reorder-blocks-duplicate-feedback
Used by basic block reordering pass to decide whether to use unconditional branch or duplicate the code on its destination. Code is duplicated when its estimated size is smaller than this value multiplied by the estimated size of unconditional jump in the hot spots of the program.

The reorder-block-duplicate-feedback is used only when profile feedback is available and may be set to higher values than reorder-block-duplicate since information about the hot spots is more accurate.

max-sched-ready-insns
The maximum number of instructions ready to be issued the scheduler should consider at any given time during the first scheduling pass. Increasing values mean more thorough searches, making the compilation time increase with probably little benefit. The default value is 100.
max-sched-region-blocks
The maximum number of blocks in a region to be considered for interblock scheduling. The default value is 10.
max-pipeline-region-blocks
The maximum number of blocks in a region to be considered for pipelining in the selective scheduler. The default value is 15.
max-sched-region-insns
The maximum number of insns in a region to be considered for interblock scheduling. The default value is 100.
max-pipeline-region-insns
The maximum number of insns in a region to be considered for pipelining in the selective scheduler. The default value is 200.
min-spec-prob
The minimum probability (in percents) of reaching a source block for interblock speculative scheduling. The default value is 40.
max-sched-extend-regions-iters
The maximum number of iterations through CFG to extend regions. 0 - disable region extension, N - do at most N iterations. The default value is 0.
max-sched-insn-conflict-delay
The maximum conflict delay for an insn to be considered for speculative motion. The default value is 3.
sched-spec-prob-cutoff
The minimal probability of speculation success (in percents), so that speculative insn will be scheduled. The default value is 40.
sched-mem-true-dep-cost
Minimal distance (in CPU cycles) between store and load targeting same memory locations. The default value is 1.
selsched-max-lookahead
The maximum size of the lookahead window of selective scheduling. It is a depth of search for available instructions. The default value is 50.
selsched-max-sched-times
The maximum number of times that an instruction will be scheduled during selective scheduling. This is the limit on the number of iterations through which the instruction may be pipelined. The default value is 2.
selsched-max-insns-to-rename
The maximum number of best instructions in the ready list that are considered for renaming in the selective scheduler. The default value is 2.
sms-min-sc
The minimum value of stage count that swing modulo scheduler will generate. The default value is 2.
max-last-value-rtl
The maximum size measured as number of RTLs that can be recorded in an expression in combiner for a pseudo register as last known value of that register. The default is 10000.
integer-share-limit
Small integer constants can use a shared data structure, reducing the compiler's memory usage and increasing its speed. This sets the maximum value of a shared integer constant. The default value is 256.
min-virtual-mappings
Specifies the minimum number of virtual mappings in the incremental SSA updater that should be registered to trigger the virtual mappings heuristic defined by virtual-mappings-ratio. The default value is 100.
virtual-mappings-ratio
If the number of virtual mappings is virtual-mappings-ratio bigger than the number of virtual symbols to be updated, then the incremental SSA updater switches to a full update for those symbols. The default ratio is 3.
ssp-buffer-size
The minimum size of buffers (i.e. arrays) that will receive stack smashing protection when -fstack-protection is used.

This default before Ubuntu 10.10 was "8". Currently it is "4", to increase the number of functions protected by the stack protector.

max-jump-thread-duplication-stmts
Maximum number of statements allowed in a block that needs to be duplicated when threading jumps.
max-fields-for-field-sensitive
Maximum number of fields in a structure we will treat in a field sensitive manner during pointer analysis. The default is zero for -O0, and -O1 and 100 for -Os, -O2, and -O3.
prefetch-latency
Estimate on average number of instructions that are executed before prefetch finishes. The distance we prefetch ahead is proportional to this constant. Increasing this number may also lead to less streams being prefetched (see simultaneous-prefetches).
simultaneous-prefetches
Maximum number of prefetches that can run at the same time.
l1-cache-line-size
The size of cache line in L1 cache, in bytes.
l1-cache-size
The size of L1 cache, in kilobytes.
l2-cache-size
The size of L2 cache, in kilobytes.
min-insn-to-prefetch-ratio
The minimum ratio between the number of instructions and the number of prefetches to enable prefetching in a loop.
prefetch-min-insn-to-mem-ratio
The minimum ratio between the number of instructions and the number of memory references to enable prefetching in a loop.
use-canonical-types
Whether the compiler should use the “canonical” type system. By default, this should always be 1, which uses a more efficient internal mechanism for comparing types in C++ and Objective-C++. However, if bugs in the canonical type system are causing compilation failures, set this value to 0 to disable canonical types.
switch-conversion-max-branch-ratio
Switch initialization conversion will refuse to create arrays that are bigger than switch-conversion-max-branch-ratio times the number of branches in the switch.
max-partial-antic-length
Maximum length of the partial antic set computed during the tree partial redundancy elimination optimization (-ftree-pre) when optimizing at -O3 and above. For some sorts of source code the enhanced partial redundancy elimination optimization can run away, consuming all of the memory available on the host machine. This parameter sets a limit on the length of the sets that are computed, which prevents the runaway behavior. Setting a value of 0 for this parameter will allow an unlimited set length.
sccvn-max-scc-size
Maximum size of a strongly connected component (SCC) during SCCVN processing. If this limit is hit, SCCVN processing for the whole function will not be done and optimizations depending on it will be disabled. The default maximum SCC size is 10000.
ira-max-loops-num
IRA uses regional register allocation by default. If a function contains more loops than the number given by this parameter, only at most the given number of the most frequently-executed loops form regions for regional register allocation. The default value of the parameter is 100.
ira-max-conflict-table-size
Although IRA uses a sophisticated algorithm to compress the conflict table, the table can still require excessive amounts of memory for huge functions. If the conflict table for a function could be more than the size in MB given by this parameter, the register allocator instead uses a faster, simpler, and lower-quality algorithm that does not require building a pseudo-register conflict table. The default value of the parameter is 2000.
ira-loop-reserved-regs
IRA can be used to evaluate more accurate register pressure in loops for decisions to move loop invariants (see -O3). The number of available registers reserved for some other purposes is given by this parameter. The default value of the parameter is 2, which is the minimal number of registers needed by typical instructions. This value is the best found from numerous experiments.
loop-invariant-max-bbs-in-loop
Loop invariant motion can be very expensive, both in compilation time and in amount of needed compile-time memory, with very large loops. Loops with more basic blocks than this parameter won't have loop invariant motion optimization performed on them. The default value of the parameter is 1000 for -O1 and 10000 for -O2 and above.
loop-max-datarefs-for-datadeps
Building data dapendencies is expensive for very large loops. This parameter limits the number of data references in loops that are considered for data dependence analysis. These large loops will not be handled then by the optimizations using loop data dependencies. The default value is 1000.
max-vartrack-size
Sets a maximum number of hash table slots to use during variable tracking dataflow analysis of any function. If this limit is exceeded with variable tracking at assignments enabled, analysis for that function is retried without it, after removing all debug insns from the function. If the limit is exceeded even without debug insns, var tracking analysis is completely disabled for the function. Setting the parameter to zero makes it unlimited.
max-vartrack-expr-depth
Sets a maximum number of recursion levels when attempting to map variable names or debug temporaries to value expressions. This trades compilation time for more complete debug information. If this is set too low, value expressions that are available and could be represented in debug information may end up not being used; setting this higher may enable the compiler to find more complex debug expressions, but compile time and memory use may grow. The default is 12.
min-nondebug-insn-uid
Use uids starting at this parameter for nondebug insns. The range below the parameter is reserved exclusively for debug insns created by -fvar-tracking-assignments, but debug insns may get (non-overlapping) uids above it if the reserved range is exhausted.
ipa-sra-ptr-growth-factor
IPA-SRA will replace a pointer to an aggregate with one or more new parameters only when their cumulative size is less or equal to ipa-sra-ptr-growth-factor times the size of the original pointer parameter.
tm-max-aggregate-size
When making copies of thread-local variables in a transaction, this parameter specifies the size in bytes after which variables will be saved with the logging functions as opposed to save/restore code sequence pairs. This option only applies when using -fgnu-tm.
graphite-max-nb-scop-params
To avoid exponential effects in the Graphite loop transforms, the number of parameters in a Static Control Part (SCoP) is bounded. The default value is 10 parameters. A variable whose value is unknown at compilation time and defined outside a SCoP is a parameter of the SCoP.
graphite-max-bbs-per-function
To avoid exponential effects in the detection of SCoPs, the size of the functions analyzed by Graphite is bounded. The default value is 100 basic blocks.
loop-block-tile-size
Loop blocking or strip mining transforms, enabled with -floop-block or -floop-strip-mine, strip mine each loop in the loop nest by a given number of iterations. The strip length can be changed using the loop-block-tile-size parameter. The default value is 51 iterations.
ipa-cp-value-list-size
IPA-CP attempts to track all possible values and types passed to a function's parameter in order to propagate them and perform devirtualization. ipa-cp-value-list-size is the maximum number of values and types it stores per one formal parameter of a function.
lto-partitions
Specify desired number of partitions produced during WHOPR compilation. The number of partitions should exceed the number of CPUs used for compilation. The default value is 32.
lto-minpartition
Size of minimal partition for WHOPR (in estimated instructions). This prevents expenses of splitting very small programs into too many partitions.
cxx-max-namespaces-for-diagnostic-help
The maximum number of namespaces to consult for suggestions when C++ name lookup fails for an identifier. The default is 1000.
sink-frequency-threshold
The maximum relative execution frequency (in percents) of the target block relative to a statement's original block to allow statement sinking of a statement. Larger numbers result in more aggressive statement sinking. The default value is 75. A small positive adjustment is applied for statements with memory operands as those are even more profitable so sink.
max-stores-to-sink
The maximum number of conditional stores paires that can be sunk. Set to 0 if either vectorization (-ftree-vectorize) or if-conversion (-ftree-loop-if-convert) is disabled. The default is 2.
allow-load-data-races
Allow optimizers to introduce new data races on loads. Set to 1 to allow, otherwise to 0. This option is enabled by default unless implicitly set by the -fmemory-model= option.
allow-store-data-races
Allow optimizers to introduce new data races on stores. Set to 1 to allow, otherwise to 0. This option is enabled by default unless implicitly set by the -fmemory-model= option.
allow-packed-load-data-races
Allow optimizers to introduce new data races on packed data loads. Set to 1 to allow, otherwise to 0. This option is enabled by default unless implicitly set by the -fmemory-model= option.
allow-packed-store-data-races
Allow optimizers to introduce new data races on packed data stores. Set to 1 to allow, otherwise to 0. This option is enabled by default unless implicitly set by the -fmemory-model= option.
case-values-threshold
The smallest number of different values for which it is best to use a jump-table instead of a tree of conditional branches. If the value is 0, use the default for the machine. The default is 0.
tree-reassoc-width
Set the maximum number of instructions executed in parallel in reassociated tree. This parameter overrides target dependent heuristics used by default if has non zero value.


Next: , Previous: Optimize Options, Up: Invoking GCC

3.11 Options Controlling the Preprocessor

These options control the C preprocessor, which is run on each C source file before actual compilation.

If you use the -E option, nothing is done except preprocessing. Some of these options make sense only together with -E because they cause the preprocessor output to be unsuitable for actual compilation.

-Wp,option
You can use -Wp,option to bypass the compiler driver and pass option directly through to the preprocessor. If option contains commas, it is split into multiple options at the commas. However, many options are modified, translated or interpreted by the compiler driver before being passed to the preprocessor, and -Wp forcibly bypasses this phase. The preprocessor's direct interface is undocumented and subject to change, so whenever possible you should avoid using -Wp and let the driver handle the options instead.
-Xpreprocessor option
Pass option as an option to the preprocessor. You can use this to supply system-specific preprocessor options that GCC does not know how to recognize.

If you want to pass an option that takes an argument, you must use -Xpreprocessor twice, once for the option and once for the argument.

-D name
Predefine name as a macro, with definition 1.
-D name=definition
The contents of definition are tokenized and processed as if they appeared during translation phase three in a ‘#define’ directive. In particular, the definition will be truncated by embedded newline characters.

If you are invoking the preprocessor from a shell or shell-like program you may need to use the shell's quoting syntax to protect characters such as spaces that have a meaning in the shell syntax.

If you wish to define a function-like macro on the command line, write its argument list with surrounding parentheses before the equals sign (if any). Parentheses are meaningful to most shells, so you will need to quote the option. With sh and csh, -D'name(args...)=definition' works.

-D and -U options are processed in the order they are given on the command line. All -imacros file and -include file options are processed after all -D and -U options.

-U name
Cancel any previous definition of name, either built in or provided with a -D option.
-undef
Do not predefine any system-specific or GCC-specific macros. The standard predefined macros remain defined.
-I dir
Add the directory dir to the list of directories to be searched for header files. Directories named by -I are searched before the standard system include directories. If the directory dir is a standard system include directory, the option is ignored to ensure that the default search order for system directories and the special treatment of system headers are not defeated . If dir begins with =, then the = will be replaced by the sysroot prefix; see --sysroot and -isysroot.
-o file
Write output to file. This is the same as specifying file as the second non-option argument to cpp. gcc has a different interpretation of a second non-option argument, so you must use -o to specify the output file.
-Wall
Turns on all optional warnings which are desirable for normal code. At present this is -Wcomment, -Wtrigraphs, -Wmultichar and a warning about integer promotion causing a change of sign in #if expressions. Note that many of the preprocessor's warnings are on by default and have no options to control them.
-Wcomment
-Wcomments
Warn whenever a comment-start sequence ‘/*’ appears in a ‘/*’ comment, or whenever a backslash-newline appears in a ‘//’ comment. (Both forms have the same effect.)
-Wtrigraphs
Most trigraphs in comments cannot affect the meaning of the program. However, a trigraph that would form an escaped newline (‘??/’ at the end of a line) can, by changing where the comment begins or ends. Therefore, only trigraphs that would form escaped newlines produce warnings inside a comment.

This option is implied by -Wall. If -Wall is not given, this option is still enabled unless trigraphs are enabled. To get trigraph conversion without warnings, but get the other -Wall warnings, use ‘-trigraphs -Wall -Wno-trigraphs’.

-Wtraditional
Warn about certain constructs that behave differently in traditional and ISO C. Also warn about ISO C constructs that have no traditional C equivalent, and problematic constructs which should be avoided.
-Wundef
Warn whenever an identifier which is not a macro is encountered in an ‘#if’ directive, outside of ‘defined’. Such identifiers are replaced with zero.
-Wunused-macros
Warn about macros defined in the main file that are unused. A macro is used if it is expanded or tested for existence at least once. The preprocessor will also warn if the macro has not been used at the time it is redefined or undefined.

Built-in macros, macros defined on the command line, and macros defined in include files are not warned about.

Note: If a macro is actually used, but only used in skipped conditional blocks, then CPP will report it as unused. To avoid the warning in such a case, you might improve the scope of the macro's definition by, for example, moving it into the first skipped block. Alternatively, you could provide a dummy use with something like:

          #if defined the_macro_causing_the_warning
          #endif

-Wendif-labels
Warn whenever an ‘#else’ or an ‘#endif’ are followed by text. This usually happens in code of the form
          #if FOO
          ...
          #else FOO
          ...
          #endif FOO

The second and third FOO should be in comments, but often are not in older programs. This warning is on by default.

-Werror
Make all warnings into hard errors. Source code which triggers warnings will be rejected.
-Wsystem-headers
Issue warnings for code in system headers. These are normally unhelpful in finding bugs in your own code, therefore suppressed. If you are responsible for the system library, you may want to see them.
-w
Suppress all warnings, including those which GNU CPP issues by default.
-pedantic
Issue all the mandatory diagnostics listed in the C standard. Some of them are left out by default, since they trigger frequently on harmless code.
-pedantic-errors
Issue all the mandatory diagnostics, and make all mandatory diagnostics into errors. This includes mandatory diagnostics that GCC issues without ‘-pedantic’ but treats as warnings.
-M
Instead of outputting the result of preprocessing, output a rule suitable for make describing the dependencies of the main source file. The preprocessor outputs one make rule containing the object file name for that source file, a colon, and the names of all the included files, including those coming from -include or -imacros command line options.

Unless specified explicitly (with -MT or -MQ), the object file name consists of the name of the source file with any suffix replaced with object file suffix and with any leading directory parts removed. If there are many included files then the rule is split into several lines using ‘\’-newline. The rule has no commands.

This option does not suppress the preprocessor's debug output, such as -dM. To avoid mixing such debug output with the dependency rules you should explicitly specify the dependency output file with -MF, or use an environment variable like DEPENDENCIES_OUTPUT (see Environment Variables). Debug output will still be sent to the regular output stream as normal.

Passing -M to the driver implies -E, and suppresses warnings with an implicit -w.

-MM
Like -M but do not mention header files that are found in system header directories, nor header files that are included, directly or indirectly, from such a header.

This implies that the choice of angle brackets or double quotes in an ‘#include’ directive does not in itself determine whether that header will appear in -MM dependency output. This is a slight change in semantics from GCC versions 3.0 and earlier.


-MF file
When used with -M or -MM, specifies a file to write the dependencies to. If no -MF switch is given the preprocessor sends the rules to the same place it would have sent preprocessed output.

When used with the driver options -MD or -MMD, -MF overrides the default dependency output file.

-MG
In conjunction with an option such as -M requesting dependency generation, -MG assumes missing header files are generated files and adds them to the dependency list without raising an error. The dependency filename is taken directly from the #include directive without prepending any path. -MG also suppresses preprocessed output, as a missing header file renders this useless.

This feature is used in automatic updating of makefiles.

-MP
This option instructs CPP to add a phony target for each dependency other than the main file, causing each to depend on nothing. These dummy rules work around errors make gives if you remove header files without updating the Makefile to match.

This is typical output:

          test.o: test.c test.h
          
          test.h:

-MT target
Change the target of the rule emitted by dependency generation. By default CPP takes the name of the main input file, deletes any directory components and any file suffix such as ‘.c’, and appends the platform's usual object suffix. The result is the target.

An -MT option will set the target to be exactly the string you specify. If you want multiple targets, you can specify them as a single argument to -MT, or use multiple -MT options.

For example, -MT '$(objpfx)foo.o' might give

          $(objpfx)foo.o: foo.c

-MQ target
Same as -MT, but it quotes any characters which are special to Make. -MQ '$(objpfx)foo.o' gives
          $$(objpfx)foo.o: foo.c

The default target is automatically quoted, as if it were given with -MQ.

-MD
-MD is equivalent to -M -MF file, except that -E is not implied. The driver determines file based on whether an -o option is given. If it is, the driver uses its argument but with a suffix of .d, otherwise it takes the name of the input file, removes any directory components and suffix, and applies a .d suffix.

If -MD is used in conjunction with -E, any -o switch is understood to specify the dependency output file (see -MF), but if used without -E, each -o is understood to specify a target object file.

Since -E is not implied, -MD can be used to generate a dependency output file as a side-effect of the compilation process.

-MMD
Like -MD except mention only user header files, not system header files.
-fpch-deps
When using precompiled headers (see Precompiled Headers), this flag will cause the dependency-output flags to also list the files from the precompiled header's dependencies. If not specified only the precompiled header would be listed and not the files that were used to create it because those files are not consulted when a precompiled header is used.
-fpch-preprocess
This option allows use of a precompiled header (see Precompiled Headers) together with -E. It inserts a special #pragma, #pragma GCC pch_preprocess "filename" in the output to mark the place where the precompiled header was found, and its filename. When -fpreprocessed is in use, GCC recognizes this #pragma and loads the PCH.

This option is off by default, because the resulting preprocessed output is only really suitable as input to GCC. It is switched on by -save-temps.

You should not write this #pragma in your own code, but it is safe to edit the filename if the PCH file is available in a different location. The filename may be absolute or it may be relative to GCC's current directory.

-x c
-x c++
-x objective-c
-x assembler-with-cpp
Specify the source language: C, C++, Objective-C, or assembly. This has nothing to do with standards conformance or extensions; it merely selects which base syntax to expect. If you give none of these options, cpp will deduce the language from the extension of the source file: ‘.c’, ‘.cc’, ‘.m’, or ‘.S’. Some other common extensions for C++ and assembly are also recognized. If cpp does not recognize the extension, it will treat the file as C; this is the most generic mode.

Note: Previous versions of cpp accepted a -lang option which selected both the language and the standards conformance level. This option has been removed, because it conflicts with the -l option.

-std=standard
-ansi
Specify the standard to which the code should conform. Currently CPP knows about C and C++ standards; others may be added in the future.

standard may be one of:

c90
c89
iso9899:1990
The ISO C standard from 1990. ‘c90’ is the customary shorthand for this version of the standard.

The -ansi option is equivalent to -std=c90.

iso9899:199409
The 1990 C standard, as amended in 1994.
iso9899:1999
c99
iso9899:199x
c9x
The revised ISO C standard, published in December 1999. Before publication, this was known as C9X.
iso9899:2011
c11
c1x
The revised ISO C standard, published in December 2011. Before publication, this was known as C1X.
gnu90
gnu89
The 1990 C standard plus GNU extensions. This is the default.
gnu99
gnu9x
The 1999 C standard plus GNU extensions.
gnu11
gnu1x
The 2011 C standard plus GNU extensions.
c++98
The 1998 ISO C++ standard plus amendments.
gnu++98
The same as -std=c++98 plus GNU extensions. This is the default for C++ code.

-I-
Split the include path. Any directories specified with -I options before -I- are searched only for headers requested with #include "file"; they are not searched for #include <file>. If additional directories are specified with -I options after the -I-, those directories are searched for all ‘#include’ directives.

In addition, -I- inhibits the use of the directory of the current file directory as the first search directory for #include "file". This option has been deprecated.

-nostdinc
Do not search the standard system directories for header files. Only the directories you have specified with -I options (and the directory of the current file, if appropriate) are searched.
-nostdinc++
Do not search for header files in the C++-specific standard directories, but do still search the other standard directories. (This option is used when building the C++ library.)
-include file
Process file as if #include "file" appeared as the first line of the primary source file. However, the first directory searched for file is the preprocessor's working directory instead of the directory containing the main source file. If not found there, it is searched for in the remainder of the #include "..." search chain as normal.

If multiple -include options are given, the files are included in the order they appear on the command line.

-imacros file
Exactly like -include, except that any output produced by scanning file is thrown away. Macros it defines remain defined. This allows you to acquire all the macros from a header without also processing its declarations.

All files specified by -imacros are processed before all files specified by -include.

-idirafter dir
Search dir for header files, but do it after all directories specified with -I and the standard system directories have been exhausted. dir is treated as a system include directory. If dir begins with =, then the = will be replaced by the sysroot prefix; see --sysroot and -isysroot.
-iprefix prefix
Specify prefix as the prefix for subsequent -iwithprefix options. If the prefix represents a directory, you should include the final ‘/’.
-iwithprefix dir
-iwithprefixbefore dir
Append dir to the prefix specified previously with -iprefix, and add the resulting directory to the include search path. -iwithprefixbefore puts it in the same place -I would; -iwithprefix puts it where -idirafter would.
-isysroot dir
This option is like the --sysroot option, but applies only to header files (except for Darwin targets, where it applies to both header files and libraries). See the --sysroot option for more information.
-imultilib dir
Use dir as a subdirectory of the directory containing target-specific C++ headers.
-isystem dir
Search dir for header files, after all directories specified by -I but before the standard system directories. Mark it as a system directory, so that it gets the same special treatment as is applied to the standard system directories. If dir begins with =, then the = will be replaced by the sysroot prefix; see --sysroot and -isysroot.
-iquote dir
Search dir only for header files requested with #include "file"; they are not searched for #include <file>, before all directories specified by -I and before the standard system directories. If dir begins with =, then the = will be replaced by the sysroot prefix; see --sysroot and -isysroot.
-fdirectives-only
When preprocessing, handle directives, but do not expand macros.

The option's behavior depends on the -E and -fpreprocessed options.

With -E, preprocessing is limited to the handling of directives such as #define, #ifdef, and #error. Other preprocessor operations, such as macro expansion and trigraph conversion are not performed. In addition, the -dD option is implicitly enabled.

With -fpreprocessed, predefinition of command line and most builtin macros is disabled. Macros such as __LINE__, which are contextually dependent, are handled normally. This enables compilation of files previously preprocessed with -E -fdirectives-only.

With both -E and -fpreprocessed, the rules for -fpreprocessed take precedence. This enables full preprocessing of files previously preprocessed with -E -fdirectives-only.

-fdollars-in-identifiers
Accept ‘$’ in identifiers.
-fextended-identifiers
Accept universal character names in identifiers. This option is experimental; in a future version of GCC, it will be enabled by default for C99 and C++.
-fpreprocessed
Indicate to the preprocessor that the input file has already been preprocessed. This suppresses things like macro expansion, trigraph conversion, escaped newline splicing, and processing of most directives. The preprocessor still recognizes and removes comments, so that you can pass a file preprocessed with -C to the compiler without problems. In this mode the integrated preprocessor is little more than a tokenizer for the front ends.

-fpreprocessed is implicit if the input file has one of the extensions ‘.i’, ‘.ii’ or ‘.mi’. These are the extensions that GCC uses for preprocessed files created by -save-temps.

-ftabstop=width
Set the distance between tab stops. This helps the preprocessor report correct column numbers in warnings or errors, even if tabs appear on the line. If the value is less than 1 or greater than 100, the option is ignored. The default is 8.
-fdebug-cpp
This option is only useful for debugging GCC. When used with -E, dumps debugging information about location maps. Every token in the output is preceded by the dump of the map its location belongs to. The dump of the map holding the location of a token would be:
          {‘P’:/file/path;‘F’:/includer/path;‘L’:line_num;‘C’:col_num;‘S’:system_header_p;‘M’:map_address;‘E’:macro_expansion_p,‘loc’:location}

When used without -E, this option has no effect.

-ftrack-macro-expansion[=level]
Track locations of tokens across macro expansions. This allows the compiler to emit diagnostic about the current macro expansion stack when a compilation error occurs in a macro expansion. Using this option makes the preprocessor and the compiler consume more memory. The level parameter can be used to choose the level of precision of token location tracking thus decreasing the memory consumption if necessary. Value ‘0’ of level de-activates this option just as if no -ftrack-macro-expansion was present on the command line. Value ‘1’ tracks tokens locations in a degraded mode for the sake of minimal memory overhead. In this mode all tokens resulting from the expansion of an argument of a function-like macro have the same location. Value ‘2’ tracks tokens locations completely. This value is the most memory hungry. When this option is given no argument, the default parameter value is ‘2’.
-fexec-charset=charset
Set the execution character set, used for string and character constants. The default is UTF-8. charset can be any encoding supported by the system's iconv library routine.
-fwide-exec-charset=charset
Set the wide execution character set, used for wide string and character constants. The default is UTF-32 or UTF-16, whichever corresponds to the width of wchar_t. As with -fexec-charset, charset can be any encoding supported by the system's iconv library routine; however, you will have problems with encodings that do not fit exactly in wchar_t.
-finput-charset=charset
Set the input character set, used for translation from the character set of the input file to the source character set used by GCC. If the locale does not specify, or GCC cannot get this information from the locale, the default is UTF-8. This can be overridden by either the locale or this command line option. Currently the command line option takes precedence if there's a conflict. charset can be any encoding supported by the system's iconv library routine.
-fworking-directory
Enable generation of linemarkers in the preprocessor output that will let the compiler know the current working directory at the time of preprocessing. When this option is enabled, the preprocessor will emit, after the initial linemarker, a second linemarker with the current working directory followed by two slashes. GCC will use this directory, when it's present in the preprocessed input, as the directory emitted as the current working directory in some debugging information formats. This option is implicitly enabled if debugging information is enabled, but this can be inhibited with the negated form -fno-working-directory. If the -P flag is present in the command line, this option has no effect, since no #line directives are emitted whatsoever.
-fno-show-column
Do not print column numbers in diagnostics. This may be necessary if diagnostics are being scanned by a program that does not understand the column numbers, such as dejagnu.
-A predicate=answer
Make an assertion with the predicate predicate and answer answer. This form is preferred to the older form -A predicate(answer), which is still supported, because it does not use shell special characters.
-A -predicate=answer
Cancel an assertion with the predicate predicate and answer answer.
-dCHARS
CHARS is a sequence of one or more of the following characters, and must not be preceded by a space. Other characters are interpreted by the compiler proper, or reserved for future versions of GCC, and so are silently ignored. If you specify characters whose behavior conflicts, the result is undefined.
M
Instead of the normal output, generate a list of ‘#define’ directives for all the macros defined during the execution of the preprocessor, including predefined macros. This gives you a way of finding out what is predefined in your version of the preprocessor. Assuming you have no file foo.h, the command
               touch foo.h; cpp -dM foo.h

will show all the predefined macros.

If you use -dM without the -E option, -dM is interpreted as a synonym for -fdump-rtl-mach. See Debugging Options.

D
Like ‘M’ except in two respects: it does not include the predefined macros, and it outputs both the ‘#define’ directives and the result of preprocessing. Both kinds of output go to the standard output file.
N
Like ‘D’, but emit only the macro names, not their expansions.
I
Output ‘#include’ directives in addition to the result of preprocessing.
U
Like ‘D’ except that only macros that are expanded, or whose definedness is tested in preprocessor directives, are output; the output is delayed until the use or test of the macro; and ‘#undef’ directives are also output for macros tested but undefined at the time.

-P
Inhibit generation of linemarkers in the output from the preprocessor. This might be useful when running the preprocessor on something that is not C code, and will be sent to a program which might be confused by the linemarkers.
-C
Do not discard comments. All comments are passed through to the output file, except for comments in processed directives, which are deleted along with the directive.

You should be prepared for side effects when using -C; it causes the preprocessor to treat comments as tokens in their own right. For example, comments appearing at the start of what would be a directive line have the effect of turning that line into an ordinary source line, since the first token on the line is no longer a ‘#’.

-CC
Do not discard comments, including during macro expansion. This is like -C, except that comments contained within macros are also passed through to the output file where the macro is expanded.

In addition to the side-effects of the -C option, the -CC option causes all C++-style comments inside a macro to be converted to C-style comments. This is to prevent later use of that macro from inadvertently commenting out the remainder of the source line.

The -CC option is generally used to support lint comments.

-traditional-cpp
Try to imitate the behavior of old-fashioned C preprocessors, as opposed to ISO C preprocessors.
-trigraphs
Process trigraph sequences. These are three-character sequences, all starting with ‘??’, that are defined by ISO C to stand for single characters. For example, ‘??/’ stands for ‘\’, so ‘'??/n'’ is a character constant for a newline. By default, GCC ignores trigraphs, but in standard-conforming modes it converts them. See the -std and -ansi options.

The nine trigraphs and their replacements are

          Trigraph:       ??(  ??)  ??<  ??>  ??=  ??/  ??'  ??!  ??-
          Replacement:      [    ]    {    }    #    \    ^    |    ~

-remap
Enable special code to work around file systems which only permit very short file names, such as MS-DOS.
--help
--target-help
Print text describing all the command line options instead of preprocessing anything.
-v
Verbose mode. Print out GNU CPP's version number at the beginning of execution, and report the final form of the include path.
-H
Print the name of each header file used, in addition to other normal activities. Each name is indented to show how deep in the ‘#include’ stack it is. Precompiled header files are also printed, even if they are found to be invalid; an invalid precompiled header file is printed with ‘...x’ and a valid one with ‘...!’ .
-version
--version
Print out GNU CPP's version number. With one dash, proceed to preprocess as normal. With two dashes, exit immediately.


Next: , Previous: Preprocessor Options, Up: Invoking GCC

3.12 Passing Options to the Assembler

You can pass options to the assembler.

-Wa,option
Pass option as an option to the assembler. If option contains commas, it is split into multiple options at the commas.
-Xassembler option
Pass option as an option to the assembler. You can use this to supply system-specific assembler options that GCC does not know how to recognize.

If you want to pass an option that takes an argument, you must use -Xassembler twice, once for the option and once for the argument.


Next: , Previous: Assembler Options, Up: Invoking GCC

3.13 Options for Linking

These options come into play when the compiler links object files into an executable output file. They are meaningless if the compiler is not doing a link step.

object-file-name
A file name that does not end in a special recognized suffix is considered to name an object file or library. (Object files are distinguished from libraries by the linker according to the file contents.) If linking is done, these object files are used as input to the linker.
-c
-S
-E
If any of these options is used, then the linker is not run, and object file names should not be used as arguments. See Overall Options.


-llibrary
-l library
Search the library named library when linking. (The second alternative with the library as a separate argument is only for POSIX compliance and is not recommended.)

It makes a difference where in the command you write this option; the linker searches and processes libraries and object files in the order they are specified. Thus, ‘foo.o -lz bar.o’ searches library ‘z’ after file foo.o but before bar.o. If bar.o refers to functions in ‘z’, those functions may not be loaded.

The linker searches a standard list of directories for the library, which is actually a file named liblibrary.a. The linker then uses this file as if it had been specified precisely by name.

The directories searched include several standard system directories plus any that you specify with -L.

Normally the files found this way are library files—archive files whose members are object files. The linker handles an archive file by scanning through it for members which define symbols that have so far been referenced but not defined. But if the file that is found is an ordinary object file, it is linked in the usual fashion. The only difference between using an -l option and specifying a file name is that -l surrounds library with ‘lib’ and ‘.a’ and searches several directories.

-lobjc
You need this special case of the -l option in order to link an Objective-C or Objective-C++ program.
-nostartfiles
Do not use the standard system startup files when linking. The standard system libraries are used normally, unless -nostdlib or -nodefaultlibs is used.
-nodefaultlibs
Do not use the standard system libraries when linking. Only the libraries you specify will be passed to the linker, options specifying linkage of the system libraries, such as -static-libgcc or -shared-libgcc, will be ignored. The standard startup files are used normally, unless -nostartfiles is used. The compiler may generate calls to memcmp, memset, memcpy and memmove. These entries are usually resolved by entries in libc. These entry points should be supplied through some other mechanism when this option is specified.
-nostdlib
Do not use the standard system startup files or libraries when linking. No startup files and only the libraries you specify will be passed to the linker, options specifying linkage of the system libraries, such as -static-libgcc or -shared-libgcc, will be ignored. The compiler may generate calls to memcmp, memset, memcpy and memmove. These entries are usually resolved by entries in libc. These entry points should be supplied through some other mechanism when this option is specified.

One of the standard libraries bypassed by -nostdlib and -nodefaultlibs is libgcc.a, a library of internal subroutines which GCC uses to overcome shortcomings of particular machines, or special needs for some languages. (See Interfacing to GCC Output, for more discussion of libgcc.a.) In most cases, you need libgcc.a even when you want to avoid other standard libraries. In other words, when you specify -nostdlib or -nodefaultlibs you should usually specify -lgcc as well. This ensures that you have no unresolved references to internal GCC library subroutines. (For example, ‘__main’, used to ensure C++ constructors will be called; see collect2.)

-pie
Produce a position independent executable on targets that support it. For predictable results, you must also specify the same set of options that were used to generate code (-fpie, -fPIE, or model suboptions) when you specify this option.
-rdynamic
Pass the flag -export-dynamic to the ELF linker, on targets that support it. This instructs the linker to add all symbols, not only used ones, to the dynamic symbol table. This option is needed for some uses of dlopen or to allow obtaining backtraces from within a program.
-s
Remove all symbol table and relocation information from the executable.
-static
On systems that support dynamic linking, this prevents linking with the shared libraries. On other systems, this option has no effect.
-shared
Produce a shared object which can then be linked with other objects to form an executable. Not all systems support this option. For predictable results, you must also specify the same set of options that were used to generate code (-fpic, -fPIC, or model suboptions) when you specify this option.1
-shared-libgcc
-static-libgcc
On systems that provide libgcc as a shared library, these options force the use of either the shared or static version respectively. If no shared version of libgcc was built when the compiler was configured, these options have no effect.

There are several situations in which an application should use the shared libgcc instead of the static version. The most common of these is when the application wishes to throw and catch exceptions across different shared libraries. In that case, each of the libraries as well as the application itself should use the shared libgcc.

Therefore, the G++ and GCJ drivers automatically add -shared-libgcc whenever you build a shared library or a main executable, because C++ and Java programs typically use exceptions, so this is the right thing to do.

If, instead, you use the GCC driver to create shared libraries, you may find that they will not always be linked with the shared libgcc. If GCC finds, at its configuration time, that you have a non-GNU linker or a GNU linker that does not support option --eh-frame-hdr, it will link the shared version of libgcc into shared libraries by default. Otherwise, it will take advantage of the linker and optimize away the linking with the shared version of libgcc, linking with the static version of libgcc by default. This allows exceptions to propagate through such shared libraries, without incurring relocation costs at library load time.

However, if a library or main executable is supposed to throw or catch exceptions, you must link it using the G++ or GCJ driver, as appropriate for the languages used in the program, or using the option -shared-libgcc, such that it is linked with the shared libgcc.

-static-libstdc++
When the g++ program is used to link a C++ program, it will normally automatically link against libstdc++. If libstdc++ is available as a shared library, and the -static option is not used, then this will link against the shared version of libstdc++. That is normally fine. However, it is sometimes useful to freeze the version of libstdc++ used by the program without going all the way to a fully static link. The -static-libstdc++ option directs the g++ driver to link libstdc++ statically, without necessarily linking other libraries statically.
-symbolic
Bind references to global symbols when building a shared object. Warn about any unresolved references (unless overridden by the link editor option ‘-Xlinker -z -Xlinker defs’). Only a few systems support this option.
-T script
Use script as the linker script. This option is supported by most systems using the GNU linker. On some targets, such as bare-board targets without an operating system, the -T option may be required when linking to avoid references to undefined symbols.
-Xlinker option
Pass option as an option to the linker. You can use this to supply system-specific linker options that GCC does not recognize.

If you want to pass an option that takes a separate argument, you must use -Xlinker twice, once for the option and once for the argument. For example, to pass -assert definitions, you must write ‘-Xlinker -assert -Xlinker definitions’. It does not work to write -Xlinker "-assert definitions", because this passes the entire string as a single argument, which is not what the linker expects.

When using the GNU linker, it is usually more convenient to pass arguments to linker options using the option=value syntax than as separate arguments. For example, you can specify ‘-Xlinker -Map=output.map’ rather than ‘-Xlinker -Map -Xlinker output.map’. Other linkers may not support this syntax for command-line options.

-Wl,option
Pass option as an option to the linker. If option contains commas, it is split into multiple options at the commas. You can use this syntax to pass an argument to the option. For example, ‘-Wl,-Map,output.map’ passes ‘-Map output.map’ to the linker. When using the GNU linker, you can also get the same effect with ‘-Wl,-Map=output.map’.

NOTE: In Ubuntu 8.10 and later versions, for LDFLAGS, the option -Wl,-z,relro is used. To disable, use -Wl,-z,norelro.

-u symbol
Pretend the symbol symbol is undefined, to force linking of library modules to define it. You can use -u multiple times with different symbols to force loading of additional library modules.


Next: , Previous: Link Options, Up: Invoking GCC

3.14 Options for Directory Search

These options specify directories to search for header files, for libraries and for parts of the compiler:

-Idir
Add the directory dir to the head of the list of directories to be searched for header files. This can be used to override a system header file, substituting your own version, since these directories are searched before the system header file directories. However, you should not use this option to add directories that contain vendor-supplied system header files (use -isystem for that). If you use more than one -I option, the directories are scanned in left-to-right order; the standard system directories come after.

If a standard system include directory, or a directory specified with -isystem, is also specified with -I, the -I option will be ignored. The directory will still be searched but as a system directory at its normal position in the system include chain. This is to ensure that GCC's procedure to fix buggy system headers and the ordering for the include_next directive are not inadvertently changed. If you really need to change the search order for system directories, use the -nostdinc and/or -isystem options.

-iplugindir=dir
Set the directory to search for plugins that are passed by -fplugin=name instead of -fplugin=path/name.so. This option is not meant to be used by the user, but only passed by the driver.
-iquotedir
Add the directory dir to the head of the list of directories to be searched for header files only for the case of ‘#include "file"’; they are not searched for ‘#include <file>’, otherwise just like -I.
-Ldir
Add directory dir to the list of directories to be searched for -l.
-Bprefix
This option specifies where to find the executables, libraries, include files, and data files of the compiler itself.

The compiler driver program runs one or more of the subprograms cpp, cc1, as and ld. It tries prefix as a prefix for each program it tries to run, both with and without ‘machine/version/’ (see Target Options).

For each subprogram to be run, the compiler driver first tries the -B prefix, if any. If that name is not found, or if -B was not specified, the driver tries two standard prefixes, /usr/lib/gcc/ and /usr/local/lib/gcc/. If neither of those results in a file name that is found, the unmodified program name is searched for using the directories specified in your PATH environment variable.

The compiler will check to see if the path provided by the -B refers to a directory, and if necessary it will add a directory separator character at the end of the path.

-B prefixes that effectively specify directory names also apply to libraries in the linker, because the compiler translates these options into -L options for the linker. They also apply to includes files in the preprocessor, because the compiler translates these options into -isystem options for the preprocessor. In this case, the compiler appends ‘include’ to the prefix.

The runtime support file libgcc.a can also be searched for using the -B prefix, if needed. If it is not found there, the two standard prefixes above are tried, and that is all. The file is left out of the link if it is not found by those means.

Another way to specify a prefix much like the -B prefix is to use the environment variable GCC_EXEC_PREFIX. See Environment Variables.

As a special kludge, if the path provided by -B is [dir/]stageN/, where N is a number in the range 0 to 9, then it will be replaced by [dir/]include. This is to help with boot-strapping the compiler.

-specs=file
Process file after the compiler reads in the standard specs file, in order to override the defaults which the gcc driver program uses when determining what switches to pass to cc1, cc1plus, as, ld, etc. More than one -specs=file can be specified on the command line, and they are processed in order, from left to right.
--sysroot=dir
Use dir as the logical root directory for headers and libraries. For example, if the compiler would normally search for headers in /usr/include and libraries in /usr/lib, it will instead search dir/usr/include and dir/usr/lib.

If you use both this option and the -isysroot option, then the --sysroot option will apply to libraries, but the -isysroot option will apply to header files.

The GNU linker (beginning with version 2.16) has the necessary support for this option. If your linker does not support this option, the header file aspect of --sysroot will still work, but the library aspect will not.

-I-
This option has been deprecated. Please use -iquote instead for -I directories before the -I- and remove the -I-. Any directories you specify with -I options before the -I- option are searched only for the case of ‘#include "file"’; they are not searched for ‘#include <file>’.

If additional directories are specified with -I options after the -I-, these directories are searched for all ‘#include’ directives. (Ordinarily all -I directories are used this way.)

In addition, the -I- option inhibits the use of the current directory (where the current input file came from) as the first search directory for ‘#include "file"’. There is no way to override this effect of -I-. With -I. you can specify searching the directory that was current when the compiler was invoked. That is not exactly the same as what the preprocessor does by default, but it is often satisfactory.

-I- does not inhibit the use of the standard system directories for header files. Thus, -I- and -nostdinc are independent.


Next: , Previous: Directory Options, Up: Invoking GCC

3.15 Specifying subprocesses and the switches to pass to them

gcc is a driver program. It performs its job by invoking a sequence of other programs to do the work of compiling, assembling and linking. GCC interprets its command-line parameters and uses these to deduce which programs it should invoke, and which command-line options it ought to place on their command lines. This behavior is controlled by spec strings. In most cases there is one spec string for each program that GCC can invoke, but a few programs have multiple spec strings to control their behavior. The spec strings built into GCC can be overridden by using the -specs= command-line switch to specify a spec file.

Spec files are plaintext files that are used to construct spec strings. They consist of a sequence of directives separated by blank lines. The type of directive is determined by the first non-whitespace character on the line, which can be one of the following:

%command
Issues a command to the spec file processor. The commands that can appear here are:
%include <file>
Search for file and insert its text at the current point in the specs file.
%include_noerr <file>
Just like ‘%include’, but do not generate an error message if the include file cannot be found.
%rename old_name new_name
Rename the spec string old_name to new_name.

*[spec_name]:
This tells the compiler to create, override or delete the named spec string. All lines after this directive up to the next directive or blank line are considered to be the text for the spec string. If this results in an empty string then the spec will be deleted. (Or, if the spec did not exist, then nothing will happen.) Otherwise, if the spec does not currently exist a new spec will be created. If the spec does exist then its contents will be overridden by the text of this directive, unless the first character of that text is the ‘+’ character, in which case the text will be appended to the spec.
[suffix]:
Creates a new ‘[suffix] spec’ pair. All lines after this directive and up to the next directive or blank line are considered to make up the spec string for the indicated suffix. When the compiler encounters an input file with the named suffix, it will processes the spec string in order to work out how to compile that file. For example:
          .ZZ:
          z-compile -input %i

This says that any input file whose name ends in ‘.ZZ’ should be passed to the program ‘z-compile’, which should be invoked with the command-line switch -input and with the result of performing the ‘%i’ substitution. (See below.)

As an alternative to providing a spec string, the text that follows a suffix directive can be one of the following:

@language
This says that the suffix is an alias for a known language. This is similar to using the -x command-line switch to GCC to specify a language explicitly. For example:
               .ZZ:
               @c++

Says that .ZZ files are, in fact, C++ source files.

#name
This causes an error messages saying:
               name compiler not installed on this system.

GCC already has an extensive list of suffixes built into it. This directive will add an entry to the end of the list of suffixes, but since the list is searched from the end backwards, it is effectively possible to override earlier entries using this technique.

GCC has the following spec strings built into it. Spec files can override these strings or create their own. Note that individual targets can also add their own spec strings to this list.

     asm          Options to pass to the assembler
     asm_final    Options to pass to the assembler post-processor
     cpp          Options to pass to the C preprocessor
     cc1          Options to pass to the C compiler
     cc1plus      Options to pass to the C++ compiler
     endfile      Object files to include at the end of the link
     link         Options to pass to the linker
     lib          Libraries to include on the command line to the linker
     libgcc       Decides which GCC support library to pass to the linker
     linker       Sets the name of the linker
     predefines   Defines to be passed to the C preprocessor
     signed_char  Defines to pass to CPP to say whether char is signed
                  by default
     startfile    Object files to include at the start of the link

Here is a small example of a spec file:

     %rename lib                 old_lib
     
     *lib:
     --start-group -lgcc -lc -leval1 --end-group %(old_lib)

This example renames the spec called ‘lib’ to ‘old_lib’ and then overrides the previous definition of ‘lib’ with a new one. The new definition adds in some extra command-line options before including the text of the old definition.

Spec strings are a list of command-line options to be passed to their corresponding program. In addition, the spec strings can contain ‘%’-prefixed sequences to substitute variable text or to conditionally insert text into the command line. Using these constructs it is possible to generate quite complex command lines.

Here is a table of all defined ‘%’-sequences for spec strings. Note that spaces are not generated automatically around the results of expanding these sequences. Therefore you can concatenate them together or combine them with constant text in a single argument.

%%
Substitute one ‘%’ into the program name or argument.
%i
Substitute the name of the input file being processed.
%b
Substitute the basename of the input file being processed. This is the substring up to (and not including) the last period and not including the directory.
%B
This is the same as ‘%b’, but include the file suffix (text after the last period).
%d
Marks the argument containing or following the ‘%d’ as a temporary file name, so that that file will be deleted if GCC exits successfully. Unlike ‘%g’, this contributes no text to the argument.
%gsuffix
Substitute a file name that has suffix suffix and is chosen once per compilation, and mark the argument in the same way as ‘%d’. To reduce exposure to denial-of-service attacks, the file name is now chosen in a way that is hard to predict even when previously chosen file names are known. For example, ‘%g.s ... %g.o ... %g.s’ might turn into ‘ccUVUUAU.s ccXYAXZ12.o ccUVUUAU.s’. suffix matches the regexp ‘[.A-Za-z]*’ or the special string ‘%O’, which is treated exactly as if ‘%O’ had been preprocessed. Previously, ‘%g’ was simply substituted with a file name chosen once per compilation, without regard to any appended suffix (which was therefore treated just like ordinary text), making such attacks more likely to succeed.
%usuffix
Like ‘%g’, but generates a new temporary file name even if ‘%usuffix’ was already seen.
%Usuffix
Substitutes the last file name generated with ‘%usuffix’, generating a new one if there is no such last file name. In the absence of any ‘%usuffix’, this is just like ‘%gsuffix’, except they don't share the same suffix space, so ‘%g.s ... %U.s ... %g.s ... %U.s’ would involve the generation of two distinct file names, one for each ‘%g.s’ and another for each ‘%U.s’. Previously, ‘%U’ was simply substituted with a file name chosen for the previous ‘%u’, without regard to any appended suffix.
%jsuffix
Substitutes the name of the HOST_BIT_BUCKET, if any, and if it is writable, and if save-temps is off; otherwise, substitute the name of a temporary file, just like ‘%u’. This temporary file is not meant for communication between processes, but rather as a junk disposal mechanism.
%|suffix
%msuffix
Like ‘%g’, except if -pipe is in effect. In that case ‘%|’ substitutes a single dash and ‘%m’ substitutes nothing at all. These are the two most common ways to instruct a program that it should read from standard input or write to standard output. If you need something more elaborate you can use an ‘%{pipe:X}’ construct: see for example f/lang-specs.h.
%.SUFFIX
Substitutes .SUFFIX for the suffixes of a matched switch's args when it is subsequently output with ‘%*’. SUFFIX is terminated by the next space or %.
%w
Marks the argument containing or following the ‘%w’ as the designated output file of this compilation. This puts the argument into the sequence of arguments that ‘%o’ will substitute later.
%o
Substitutes the names of all the output files, with spaces automatically placed around them. You should write spaces around the ‘%o’ as well or the results are undefined. ‘%o’ is for use in the specs for running the linker. Input files whose names have no recognized suffix are not compiled at all, but they are included among the output files, so they will be linked.
%O
Substitutes the suffix for object files. Note that this is handled specially when it immediately follows ‘%g, %u, or %U’, because of the need for those to form complete file names. The handling is such that ‘%O’ is treated exactly as if it had already been substituted, except that ‘%g, %u, and %U’ do not currently support additional suffix characters following ‘%O’ as they would following, for example, ‘.o’.
%p
Substitutes the standard macro predefinitions for the current target machine. Use this when running cpp.
%P
Like ‘%p’, but puts ‘__’ before and after the name of each predefined macro, except for macros that start with ‘__’ or with ‘_L’, where L is an uppercase letter. This is for ISO C.
%I
Substitute any of -iprefix (made from GCC_EXEC_PREFIX), -isysroot (made from TARGET_SYSTEM_ROOT), -isystem (made from COMPILER_PATH and -B options) and -imultilib as necessary.
%s
Current argument is the name of a library or startup file of some sort. Search for that file in a standard list of directories and substitute the full name found. The current working directory is included in the list of directories scanned.
%T
Current argument is the name of a linker script. Search for that file in the current list of directories to scan for libraries. If the file is located insert a --script option into the command line followed by the full path name found. If the file is not found then generate an error message. Note: the current working directory is not searched.
%estr
Print str as an error message. str is terminated by a newline. Use this when inconsistent options are detected.
%(name)
Substitute the contents of spec string name at this point.
%x{option}
Accumulate an option for ‘%X’.
%X
Output the accumulated linker options specified by -Wl or a ‘%x’ spec string.
%Y
Output the accumulated assembler options specified by -Wa.
%Z
Output the accumulated preprocessor options specified by -Wp.
%a
Process the asm spec. This is used to compute the switches to be passed to the assembler.
%A
Process the asm_final spec. This is a spec string for passing switches to an assembler post-processor, if such a program is needed.
%l
Process the link spec. This is the spec for computing the command line passed to the linker. Typically it will make use of the ‘%L %G %S %D and %E’ sequences.
%D
Dump out a -L option for each directory that GCC believes might contain startup files. If the target supports multilibs then the current multilib directory will be prepended to each of these paths.
%L
Process the lib spec. This is a spec string for deciding which libraries should be included on the command line to the linker.
%G
Process the libgcc spec. This is a spec string for deciding which GCC support library should be included on the command line to the linker.
%S
Process the startfile spec. This is a spec for deciding which object files should be the first ones passed to the linker. Typically this might be a file named crt0.o.
%E
Process the endfile spec. This is a spec string that specifies the last object files that will be passed to the linker.
%C
Process the cpp spec. This is used to construct the arguments to be passed to the C preprocessor.
%1
Process the cc1 spec. This is used to construct the options to be passed to the actual C compiler (‘cc1’).
%2
Process the cc1plus spec. This is used to construct the options to be passed to the actual C++ compiler (‘cc1plus’).
%*
Substitute the variable part of a matched option. See below. Note that each comma in the substituted string is replaced by a single space.
%<S
Remove all occurrences of -S from the command line. Note—this command is position dependent. ‘%’ commands in the spec string before this one will see -S, ‘%’ commands in the spec string after this one will not.
%:function(args)
Call the named function function, passing it args. args is first processed as a nested spec string, then split into an argument vector in the usual fashion. The function returns a string which is processed as if it had appeared literally as part of the current spec.

The following built-in spec functions are provided:

getenv
The getenv spec function takes two arguments: an environment variable name and a string. If the environment variable is not defined, a fatal error is issued. Otherwise, the return value is the value of the environment variable concatenated with the string. For example, if TOPDIR is defined as /path/to/top, then:
               %:getenv(TOPDIR /include)

expands to /path/to/top/include.

if-exists
The if-exists spec function takes one argument, an absolute pathname to a file. If the file exists, if-exists returns the pathname. Here is a small example of its usage:
               *startfile:
               crt0%O%s %:if-exists(crti%O%s) crtbegin%O%s

if-exists-else
The if-exists-else spec function is similar to the if-exists spec function, except that it takes two arguments. The first argument is an absolute pathname to a file. If the file exists, if-exists-else returns the pathname. If it does not exist, it returns the second argument. This way, if-exists-else can be used to select one file or another, based on the existence of the first. Here is a small example of its usage:
               *startfile:
               crt0%O%s %:if-exists(crti%O%s) \
               %:if-exists-else(crtbeginT%O%s crtbegin%O%s)

replace-outfile
The replace-outfile spec function takes two arguments. It looks for the first argument in the outfiles array and replaces it with the second argument. Here is a small example of its usage:
               %{fgnu-runtime:%:replace-outfile(-lobjc -lobjc-gnu)}

remove-outfile
The remove-outfile spec function takes one argument. It looks for the first argument in the outfiles array and removes it. Here is a small example its usage:
               %:remove-outfile(-lm)

pass-through-libs
The pass-through-libs spec function takes any number of arguments. It finds any -l options and any non-options ending in ".a" (which it assumes are the names of linker input library archive files) and returns a result containing all the found arguments each prepended by -plugin-opt=-pass-through= and joined by spaces. This list is intended to be passed to the LTO linker plugin.
               %:pass-through-libs(%G %L %G)

print-asm-header
The print-asm-header function takes no arguments and simply prints a banner like:
               Assembler options
               =================
               
               Use "-Wa,OPTION" to pass "OPTION" to the assembler.

It is used to separate compiler options from assembler options in the --target-help output.


%{S}
Substitutes the -S switch, if that switch was given to GCC. If that switch was not specified, this substitutes nothing. Note that the leading dash is omitted when specifying this option, and it is automatically inserted if the substitution is performed. Thus the spec string ‘%{foo}’ would match the command-line option -foo and would output the command-line option -foo.
%W{S}
Like %{S} but mark last argument supplied within as a file to be deleted on failure.
%{S*}
Substitutes all the switches specified to GCC whose names start with -S, but which also take an argument. This is used for switches like -o, -D, -I, etc. GCC considers -o foo as being one switch whose names starts with ‘o’. %{o*} would substitute this text, including the space. Thus two arguments would be generated.
%{S*&T*}
Like %{S*}, but preserve order of S and T options (the order of S and T in the spec is not significant). There can be any number of ampersand-separated variables; for each the wild card is optional. Useful for CPP as ‘%{D*&U*&A*}’.
%{S:X}
Substitutes X, if the ‘-S’ switch was given to GCC.
%{!S:X}
Substitutes X, if the ‘-S’ switch was not given to GCC.
%{S*:X}
Substitutes X if one or more switches whose names start with -S are specified to GCC. Normally X is substituted only once, no matter how many such switches appeared. However, if %* appears somewhere in X, then X will be substituted once for each matching switch, with the %* replaced by the part of that switch that matched the *.
%{.S:X}
Substitutes X, if processing a file with suffix S.
%{!.S:X}
Substitutes X, if not processing a file with suffix S.
%{,S:X}
Substitutes X, if processing a file for language S.
%{!,S:X}
Substitutes X, if not processing a file for language S.
%{S|P:X}
Substitutes X if either -S or -P was given to GCC. This may be combined with ‘!’, ‘.’, ‘,’, and * sequences as well, although they have a stronger binding than the ‘|’. If %* appears in X, all of the alternatives must be starred, and only the first matching alternative is substituted.

For example, a spec string like this:

          %{.c:-foo} %{!.c:-bar} %{.c|d:-baz} %{!.c|d:-boggle}

will output the following command-line options from the following input command-line options:

          fred.c        -foo -baz
          jim.d         -bar -boggle
          -d fred.c     -foo -baz -boggle
          -d jim.d      -bar -baz -boggle

%{S:X; T:Y; :D}
If S was given to GCC, substitutes X; else if T was given to GCC, substitutes Y; else substitutes D. There can be as many clauses as you need. This may be combined with ., ,, !, |, and * as needed.

The conditional text X in a %{S:X} or similar construct may contain other nested ‘%’ constructs or spaces, or even newlines. They are processed as usual, as described above. Trailing white space in X is ignored. White space may also appear anywhere on the left side of the colon in these constructs, except between . or * and the corresponding word.

The -O, -f, -m, and -W switches are handled specifically in these constructs. If another value of -O or the negated form of a -f, -m, or -W switch is found later in the command line, the earlier switch value is ignored, except with {S*} where S is just one letter, which passes all matching options.

The character ‘|’ at the beginning of the predicate text is used to indicate that a command should be piped to the following command, but only if -pipe is specified.

It is built into GCC which switches take arguments and which do not. (You might think it would be useful to generalize this to allow each compiler's spec to say which switches take arguments. But this cannot be done in a consistent fashion. GCC cannot even decide which input files have been specified without knowing which switches take arguments, and it must know which input files to compile in order to tell which compilers to run).

GCC also knows implicitly that arguments starting in -l are to be treated as compiler output files, and passed to the linker in their proper position among the other output files.


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3.16 Specifying Target Machine and Compiler Version

The usual way to run GCC is to run the executable called gcc, or machine-gcc when cross-compiling, or machine-gcc-version to run a version other than the one that was installed last.


Next: , Previous: Target Options, Up: Invoking GCC

3.17 Hardware Models and Configurations

Each target machine types can have its own special options, starting with ‘-m’, to choose among various hardware models or configurations—for example, 68010 vs 68020, floating coprocessor or none. A single installed version of the compiler can compile for any model or configuration, according to the options specified.

Some configurations of the compiler also support additional special options, usually for compatibility with other compilers on the same platform.


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3.17.1 Adapteva Epiphany Options

These ‘-m’ options are defined for Adapteva Epiphany:

-mhalf-reg-file
Don't allocate any register in the range r32...r63. That allows code to run on hardware variants that lack these registers.
-mprefer-short-insn-regs
Preferrentially allocate registers that allow short instruction generation. This can result in increasesd instruction count, so if this reduces or increases code size might vary from case to case.
-mbranch-cost=num
Set the cost of branches to roughly num “simple” instructions. This cost is only a heuristic and is not guaranteed to produce consistent results across releases.
-mcmove
Enable the generation of conditional moves.
-mnops=num
Emit num nops before every other generated instruction.
-mno-soft-cmpsf
For single-precision floating-point comparisons, emit an fsub instruction and test the flags. This is faster than a software comparison, but can get incorrect results in the presence of NaNs, or when two different small numbers are compared such that their difference is calculated as zero. The default is -msoft-cmpsf, which uses slower, but IEEE-compliant, software comparisons.
-mstack-offset=num
Set the offset between the top of the stack and the stack pointer. E.g., a value of 8 means that the eight bytes in the range sp+0...sp+7 can be used by leaf functions without stack allocation. Values other than ‘8’ or ‘16’ are untested and unlikely to work. Note also that this option changes the ABI, compiling a program with a different stack offset than the libraries have been compiled with will generally not work. This option can be useful if you want to evaluate if a different stack offset would give you better code, but to actually use a different stack offset to build working programs, it is recommended to configure the toolchain with the appropriate ‘--with-stack-offset=num’ option.
-mno-round-nearest
Make the scheduler assume that the rounding mode has been set to truncating. The default is -mround-nearest.
-mlong-calls
If not otherwise specified by an attribute, assume all calls might be beyond the offset range of the b / bl instructions, and therefore load the function address into a register before performing a (otherwise direct) call. This is the default.
-mshort-calls
If not otherwise specified by an attribute, assume all direct calls are in the range of the b / bl instructions, so use these instructions for direct calls. The default is -mlong-calls.
-msmall16
Assume addresses can be loaded as 16-bit unsigned values. This does not apply to function addresses for which -mlong-calls semantics are in effect.
-mfp-mode=mode
Set the prevailing mode of the floating-point unit. This determines the floating-point mode that is provided and expected at function call and return time. Making this mode match the mode you predominantly need at function start can make your programs smaller and faster by avoiding unnecessary mode switches.

mode can be set to one the following values:

caller
Any mode at function entry is valid, and retained or restored when the function returns, and when it calls other functions. This mode is useful for compiling libraries or other compilation units you might want to incorporate into different programs with different prevailing FPU modes, and the convenience of being able to use a single object file outweighs the size and speed overhead for any extra mode switching that might be needed, compared with what would be needed with a more specific choice of prevailing FPU mode.
truncate
This is the mode used for floating-point calculations with truncating (i.e. round towards zero) rounding mode. That includes conversion from floating point to integer.
round-nearest
This is the mode used for floating-point calculations with round-to-nearest-or-even rounding mode.
int
This is the mode used to perform integer calculations in the FPU, e.g. integer multiply, or integer multiply-and-accumulate.

The default is -mfp-mode=caller

-mnosplit-lohi

-mno-postinc

-mno-postmodify
Code generation tweaks that disable, respectively, splitting of 32-bit loads, generation of post-increment addresses, and generation of post-modify addresses. The defaults are msplit-lohi, -mpost-inc, and -mpost-modify.
-mnovect-double
Change the preferred SIMD mode to SImode. The default is -mvect-double, which uses DImode as preferred SIMD mode.
-max-vect-align=num
The maximum alignment for SIMD vector mode types. num may be 4 or 8. The default is 8. Note that this is an ABI change, even though many library function interfaces will be unaffected, if they don't use SIMD vector modes in places where they affect size and/or alignment of relevant types.
-msplit-vecmove-early
Split vector moves into single word moves before reload. In theory this could give better register allocation, but so far the reverse seems to be generally the case.
-m1reg-reg
Specify a register to hold the constant −1, which makes loading small negative constants and certain bitmasks faster. Allowable values for reg are r43 and r63, which specify to use that register as a fixed register, and none, which means that no register is used for this purpose. The default is -m1reg-none.


Next: , Up: Submodel Options

3.17.2 AArch64 Options

These options are defined for AArch64 implementations:

-mbig-endian
Generate big-endian code. This is the default when GCC is configured for an ‘aarch64_be-*-*’ target.
-mgeneral-regs-only
Generate code which uses only the general registers.
-mlittle-endian
Generate little-endian code. This is the default when GCC is configured for an ‘aarch64-*-*’ but not an ‘aarch64_be-*-*’ target.
-mcmodel=tiny
Generate code for the tiny code model. The program and its statically defined symbols must be within 1GB of each other. Pointers are 64 bits. Programs can be statically or dynamically linked. This model is not fully implemented and mostly treated as "small".
-mcmodel=small
Generate code for the small code model. The program and its statically defined symbols must be within 4GB of each other. Pointers are 64 bits. Programs can be statically or dynamically linked. This is the default code model.
-mcmodel=large
Generate code for the large code model. This makes no assumptions about addresses and sizes of sections. Pointers are 64 bits. Programs can be statically linked only.
-mstrict-align
Do not assume that unaligned memory references will be handled by the system.
-momit-leaf-frame-pointer
-mno-omit-leaf-frame-pointer
Omit or keep the frame pointer in leaf functions. The former behaviour is the default.
-mtls-dialect=desc
Use TLS descriptors as the thread-local storage mechanism for dynamic accesses of TLS variables. This is the default.
-mtls-dialect=traditional
Use traditional TLS as the thread-local storage mechanism for dynamic accesses of TLS variables.
-march=name
Specify the name of the target architecture, optionally suffixed by one or more feature modifiers. This option has the form -march=arch{+[no]feature}*, where the only value for arch is ‘armv8-a’. The possible values for feature are documented in the sub-section below.

Where conflicting feature modifiers are specified, the right-most feature is used.

GCC uses this name to determine what kind of instructions it can emit when generating assembly code. This option can be used in conjunction with or instead of the -mcpu= option.

-mcpu=name
Specify the name of the target processor, optionally suffixed by one or more feature modifiers. This option has the form -mcpu=cpu{+[no]feature}*, where the possible values for cpu are ‘generic’, ‘large’. The possible values for feature are documented in the sub-section below.

Where conflicting feature modifiers are specified, the right-most feature is used.

GCC uses this name to determine what kind of instructions it can emit when generating assembly code.

-mtune=name
Specify the name of the processor to tune the performance for. The code will be tuned as if the target processor were of the type specified in this option, but still using instructions compatible with the target processor specified by a -mcpu= option. This option cannot be suffixed by feature modifiers.
3.17.2.1 -march and -mcpu feature modifiers

Feature modifiers used with -march and -mcpu can be one the following:

crypto
Enable Crypto extension. This implies Advanced SIMD is enabled.
fp
Enable floating-point instructions.
simd
Enable Advanced SIMD instructions. This implies floating-point instructions are enabled. This is the default for all current possible values for options -march and -mcpu=.


Next: , Previous: Adapteva Epiphany Options, Up: Submodel Options

3.17.3 ARM Options

These ‘-m’ options are defined for Advanced RISC Machines (ARM) architectures:

-mabi=name
Generate code for the specified ABI. Permissible values are: ‘apcs-gnu’, ‘atpcs’, ‘aapcs’, ‘aapcs-linux’ and ‘iwmmxt’.
-mapcs-frame
Generate a stack frame that is compliant with the ARM Procedure Call Standard for all functions, even if this is not strictly necessary for correct execution of the code. Specifying -fomit-frame-pointer with this option will cause the stack frames not to be generated for leaf functions. The default is -mno-apcs-frame.
-mapcs
This is a synonym for -mapcs-frame.
-mthumb-interwork
Generate code that supports calling between the ARM and Thumb instruction sets. Without this option, on pre-v5 architectures, the two instruction sets cannot be reliably used inside one program. The default is -mno-thumb-interwork, since slightly larger code is generated when -mthumb-interwork is specified. In AAPCS configurations this option is meaningless.
-mno-sched-prolog
Prevent the reordering of instructions in the function prologue, or the merging of those instruction with the instructions in the function's body. This means that all functions will start with a recognizable set of instructions (or in fact one of a choice from a small set of different function prologues), and this information can be used to locate the start if functions inside an executable piece of code. The default is -msched-prolog.
-mfloat-abi=name
Specifies which floating-point ABI to use. Permissible values are: ‘soft’, ‘softfp’ and ‘hard’.

Specifying ‘soft’ causes GCC to generate output containing library calls for floating-point operations. ‘softfp’ allows the generation of code using hardware floating-point instructions, but still uses the soft-float calling conventions. ‘hard’ allows generation of floating-point instructions and uses FPU-specific calling conventions.

The default depends on the specific target configuration. Note that the hard-float and soft-float ABIs are not link-compatible; you must compile your entire program with the same ABI, and link with a compatible set of libraries.

-mlittle-endian
Generate code for a processor running in little-endian mode. This is the default for all standard configurations.
-mbig-endian
Generate code for a processor running in big-endian mode; the default is to compile code for a little-endian processor.
-mwords-little-endian
This option only applies when generating code for big-endian processors. Generate code for a little-endian word order but a big-endian byte order. That is, a byte order of the form ‘32107654’. Note: this option should only be used if you require compatibility with code for big-endian ARM processors generated by versions of the compiler prior to 2.8. This option is now deprecated.
-mcpu=name
This specifies the name of the target ARM processor. GCC uses this name to determine what kind of instructions it can emit when generating assembly code. Permissible names are: ‘arm2’, ‘arm250’, ‘arm3’, ‘arm6’, ‘arm60’, ‘arm600’, ‘arm610’, ‘arm620’, ‘arm7’, ‘arm7m’, ‘arm7d’, ‘arm7dm’, ‘arm7di’, ‘arm7dmi’, ‘arm70’, ‘arm700’, ‘arm700i’, ‘arm710’, ‘arm710c’, ‘arm7100’, ‘arm720’, ‘arm7500’, ‘arm7500fe’, ‘arm7tdmi’, ‘arm7tdmi-s’, ‘arm710t’, ‘arm720t’, ‘arm740t’, ‘strongarm’, ‘strongarm110’, ‘strongarm1100’, ‘strongarm1110’, ‘arm8’, ‘arm810’, ‘arm9’, ‘arm9e’, ‘arm920’, ‘arm920t’, ‘arm922t’, ‘arm946e-s’, ‘arm966e-s’, ‘arm968e-s’, ‘arm926ej-s’, ‘arm940t’, ‘arm9tdmi’, ‘arm10tdmi’, ‘arm1020t’, ‘arm1026ej-s’, ‘arm10e’, ‘arm1020e’, ‘arm1022e’, ‘arm1136j-s’, ‘arm1136jf-s’, ‘mpcore’, ‘mpcorenovfp’, ‘arm1156t2-s’, ‘arm1156t2f-s’, ‘arm1176jz-s’, ‘arm1176jzf-s’, ‘cortex-a5’, ‘cortex-a7’, ‘cortex-a8’, ‘cortex-a9’, ‘cortex-a15’, ‘cortex-r4’, ‘cortex-r4f’, ‘cortex-r5’, ‘cortex-m4’, ‘cortex-m3’, ‘cortex-m1’, ‘cortex-m0’, ‘xscale’, ‘iwmmxt’, ‘iwmmxt2’, ‘ep9312’, ‘fa526’, ‘fa626’, ‘fa606te’, ‘fa626te’, ‘fmp626’, ‘fa726te’.

-mcpu=generic-arch is also permissible, and is equivalent to -march=arch -mtune=generic-arch. See -mtune for more information.

-mcpu=native causes the compiler to auto-detect the CPU of the build computer. At present, this feature is only supported on Linux, and not all architectures are recognized. If the auto-detect is unsuccessful the option has no effect.

-mtune=name
This option is very similar to the -mcpu= option, except that instead of specifying the actual target processor type, and hence restricting which instructions can be used, it specifies that GCC should tune the performance of the code as if the target were of the type specified in this option, but still choosing the instructions that it will generate based on the CPU specified by a -mcpu= option. For some ARM implementations better performance can be obtained by using this option.

-mtune=generic-arch specifies that GCC should tune the performance for a blend of processors within architecture arch. The aim is to generate code that run well on the current most popular processors, balancing between optimizations that benefit some CPUs in the range, and avoiding performance pitfalls of other CPUs. The effects of this option may change in future GCC versions as CPU models come and go.

-mtune=native causes the compiler to auto-detect the CPU of the build computer. At present, this feature is only supported on Linux, and not all architectures are recognized. If the auto-detect is unsuccessful the option has no effect.

-march=name
This specifies the name of the target ARM architecture. GCC uses this name to determine what kind of instructions it can emit when generating assembly code. This option can be used in conjunction with or instead of the -mcpu= option. Permissible names are: ‘armv2’, ‘armv2a’, ‘armv3’, ‘armv3m’, ‘armv4’, ‘armv4t’, ‘armv5’, ‘armv5t’, ‘armv5e’, ‘armv5te’, ‘armv6’, ‘armv6j’, ‘armv6t2’, ‘armv6z’, ‘armv6zk’, ‘armv6-m’, ‘armv7’, ‘armv7-a’, ‘armv7-r’, ‘armv7-m’, ‘iwmmxt’, ‘iwmmxt2’, ‘ep9312’.

-march=native causes the compiler to auto-detect the architecture of the build computer. At present, this feature is only supported on Linux, and not all architectures are recognized. If the auto-detect is unsuccessful the option has no effect.

-mfpu=name
-mfpe=number
-mfp=number
This specifies what floating-point hardware (or hardware emulation) is available on the target. Permissible names are: ‘fpa’, ‘fpe2’, ‘fpe3’, ‘maverick’, ‘vfp’, ‘vfpv3’, ‘vfpv3-fp16’, ‘vfpv3-d16’, ‘vfpv3-d16-fp16’, ‘vfpv3xd’, ‘vfpv3xd-fp16’, ‘neon’, ‘neon-fp16’, ‘vfpv4’, ‘vfpv4-d16’, ‘fpv4-sp-d16’ and ‘neon-vfpv4’. -mfp and -mfpe are synonyms for -mfpu=‘fpenumber, for compatibility with older versions of GCC.

If -msoft-float is specified this specifies the format of floating-point values.

If the selected floating-point hardware includes the NEON extension (e.g. -mfpu=‘neon’), note that floating-point operations will not be used by GCC's auto-vectorization pass unless -funsafe-math-optimizations is also specified. This is because NEON hardware does not fully implement the IEEE 754 standard for floating-point arithmetic (in particular denormal values are treated as zero), so the use of NEON instructions may lead to a loss of precision.

-mfp16-format=name
Specify the format of the __fp16 half-precision floating-point type. Permissible names are ‘none’, ‘ieee’, and ‘alternative’; the default is ‘none’, in which case the __fp16 type is not defined. See Half-Precision, for more information.
-mstructure-size-boundary=n
The size of all structures and unions will be rounded up to a multiple of the number of bits set by this option. Permissible values are 8, 32 and 64. The default value varies for different toolchains. For the COFF targeted toolchain the default value is 8. A value of 64 is only allowed if the underlying ABI supports it.

Specifying the larger number can produce faster, more efficient code, but can also increase the size of the program. Different values are potentially incompatible. Code compiled with one value cannot necessarily expect to work with code or libraries compiled with another value, if they exchange information using structures or unions.

-mabort-on-noreturn
Generate a call to the function abort at the end of a noreturn function. It will be executed if the function tries to return.
-mlong-calls
-mno-long-calls
Tells the compiler to perform function calls by first loading the address of the function into a register and then performing a subroutine call on this register. This switch is needed if the target function will lie outside of the 64 megabyte addressing range of the offset based version of subroutine call instruction.

Even if this switch is enabled, not all function calls will be turned into long calls. The heuristic is that static functions, functions that have the ‘short-call’ attribute, functions that are inside the scope of a ‘#pragma no_long_calls’ directive and functions whose definitions have already been compiled within the current compilation unit, will not be turned into long calls. The exception to this rule is that weak function definitions, functions with the ‘long-call’ attribute or the ‘section’ attribute, and functions that are within the scope of a ‘#pragma long_calls’ directive, will always be turned into long calls.

This feature is not enabled by default. Specifying -mno-long-calls will restore the default behavior, as will placing the function calls within the scope of a ‘#pragma long_calls_off’ directive. Note these switches have no effect on how the compiler generates code to handle function calls via function pointers.

-msingle-pic-base
Treat the register used for PIC addressing as read-only, rather than loading it in the prologue for each function. The runtime system is responsible for initializing this register with an appropriate value before execution begins.
-mpic-register=reg
Specify the register to be used for PIC addressing. The default is R10 unless stack-checking is enabled, when R9 is used.
-mcirrus-fix-invalid-insns
Insert NOPs into the instruction stream to in order to work around problems with invalid Maverick instruction combinations. This option is only valid if the -mcpu=ep9312 option has been used to enable generation of instructions for the Cirrus Maverick floating-point co-processor. This option is not enabled by default, since the problem is only present in older Maverick implementations. The default can be re-enabled by use of the -mno-cirrus-fix-invalid-insns switch.
-mpoke-function-name
Write the name of each function into the text section, directly preceding the function prologue. The generated code is similar to this:
               t0
                   .ascii "arm_poke_function_name", 0
                   .align
               t1
                   .word 0xff000000 + (t1 - t0)
               arm_poke_function_name
                   mov     ip, sp
                   stmfd   sp!, {fp, ip, lr, pc}
                   sub     fp, ip, #4

When performing a stack backtrace, code can inspect the value of pc stored at fp + 0. If the trace function then looks at location pc - 12 and the top 8 bits are set, then we know that there is a function name embedded immediately preceding this location and has length ((pc[-3]) & 0xff000000).

-mthumb
-marm
Select between generating code that executes in ARM and Thumb states. The default for most configurations is to generate code that executes in ARM state, but the default can be changed by configuring GCC with the --with-mode=state configure option.
-mtpcs-frame
Generate a stack frame that is compliant with the Thumb Procedure Call Standard for all non-leaf functions. (A leaf function is one that does not call any other functions.) The default is -mno-tpcs-frame.
-mtpcs-leaf-frame
Generate a stack frame that is compliant with the Thumb Procedure Call Standard for all leaf functions. (A leaf function is one that does not call any other functions.) The default is -mno-apcs-leaf-frame.
-mcallee-super-interworking
Gives all externally visible functions in the file being compiled an ARM instruction set header which switches to Thumb mode before executing the rest of the function. This allows these functions to be called from non-interworking code. This option is not valid in AAPCS configurations because interworking is enabled by default.
-mcaller-super-interworking
Allows calls via function pointers (including virtual functions) to execute correctly regardless of whether the target code has been compiled for interworking or not. There is a small overhead in the cost of executing a function pointer if this option is enabled. This option is not valid in AAPCS configurations because interworking is enabled by default.
-mtp=name
Specify the access model for the thread local storage pointer. The valid models are soft, which generates calls to __aeabi_read_tp, cp15, which fetches the thread pointer from cp15 directly (supported in the arm6k architecture), and auto, which uses the best available method for the selected processor. The default setting is auto.
-mtls-dialect=dialect
Specify the dialect to use for accessing thread local storage. Two dialects are supported — gnu and gnu2. The gnu dialect selects the original GNU scheme for supporting local and global dynamic TLS models. The gnu2 dialect selects the GNU descriptor scheme, which provides better performance for shared libraries. The GNU descriptor scheme is compatible with the original scheme, but does require new assembler, linker and library support. Initial and local exec TLS models are unaffected by this option and always use the original scheme.
-mword-relocations
Only generate absolute relocations on word-sized values (i.e. R_ARM_ABS32). This is enabled by default on targets (uClinux, SymbianOS) where the runtime loader imposes this restriction, and when -fpic or -fPIC is specified.
-mfix-cortex-m3-ldrd
Some Cortex-M3 cores can cause data corruption when ldrd instructions with overlapping destination and base registers are used. This option avoids generating these instructions. This option is enabled by default when -mcpu=cortex-m3 is specified.
-munaligned-access
-mno-unaligned-access
Enables (or disables) reading and writing of 16- and 32- bit values from addresses that are not 16- or 32- bit aligned. By default unaligned access is disabled for all pre-ARMv6 and all ARMv6-M architectures, and enabled for all other architectures. If unaligned access is not enabled then words in packed data structures will be accessed a byte at a time.

The ARM attribute Tag_CPU_unaligned_access will be set in the generated object file to either true or false, depending upon the setting of this option. If unaligned access is enabled then the preprocessor symbol __ARM_FEATURE_UNALIGNED will also be defined.

-mneon-for-64bits
Enables using Neon to handle scalar 64-bits operations. This is disabled by default since the cost of moving data from core registers to Neon is high.


Next: , Previous: ARM Options, Up: Submodel Options

3.17.4 AVR Options

-mmcu=mcu
Specify Atmel AVR instruction set architectures (ISA) or MCU type.

The default for this option is avr2.

GCC supports the following AVR devices and ISAs:

avr2
“Classic” devices with up to 8 KiB of program memory.
mcu = attiny22, attiny26, at90c8534, at90s2313, at90s2323, at90s2333, at90s2343, at90s4414, at90s4433, at90s4434, at90s8515, at90s8535.
avr25
“Classic” devices with up to 8 KiB of program memory and with the MOVW instruction.
mcu = ata6289, attiny13, attiny13a, attiny2313, attiny2313a, attiny24, attiny24a, attiny25, attiny261, attiny261a, attiny43u, attiny4313, attiny44, attiny44a, attiny45, attiny461, attiny461a, attiny48, attiny84, attiny84a, attiny85, attiny861, attiny861a, attiny87, attiny88, at86rf401.
avr3
“Classic” devices with 16 KiB up to 64 KiB of program memory.
mcu = at43usb355, at76c711.
avr31
“Classic” devices with 128 KiB of program memory.
mcu = atmega103, at43usb320.
avr35
“Classic” devices with 16 KiB up to 64 KiB of program memory and with the MOVW instruction.
mcu = atmega16u2, atmega32u2, atmega8u2, attiny167, at90usb162, at90usb82.
avr4
“Enhanced” devices with up to 8 KiB of program memory.
mcu = atmega48, atmega48a, atmega48p, atmega8, atmega8hva, atmega8515, atmega8535, atmega88, atmega88a, atmega88p, atmega88pa, at90pwm1, at90pwm2, at90pwm2b, at90pwm3, at90pwm3b, at90pwm81.
avr5
“Enhanced” devices with 16 KiB up to 64 KiB of program memory.
mcu = atmega16, atmega16a, atmega16hva, atmega16hva2, atmega16hvb, atmega16m1, atmega16u4, atmega161, atmega162, atmega163, atmega164a, atmega164p, atmega165, atmega165a, atmega165p, atmega168, atmega168a, atmega168p, atmega169, atmega169a, atmega169p, atmega169pa, atmega32, atmega32c1, atmega32hvb, atmega32m1, atmega32u4, atmega32u6, atmega323, atmega324a, atmega324p, atmega324pa, atmega325, atmega325a, atmega325p, atmega3250, atmega3250a, atmega3250p, atmega328, atmega328p, atmega329, atmega329a, atmega329p, atmega329pa, atmega3290, atmega3290a, atmega3290p, atmega406, atmega64, atmega64c1, atmega64hve, atmega64m1, atmega640, atmega644, atmega644a, atmega644p, atmega644pa, atmega645, atmega645a, atmega645p, atmega6450, atmega6450a, atmega6450p, atmega649, atmega649a, atmega649p, atmega6490, at90can32, at90can64, at90pwm216, at90pwm316, at90scr100, at90usb646, at90usb647, at94k, m3000.
avr51
“Enhanced” devices with 128 KiB of program memory.
mcu = atmega128, atmega128rfa1, atmega1280, atmega1281, atmega1284p, at90can128, at90usb1286, at90usb1287.
avr6
“Enhanced” devices with 3-byte PC, i.e. with more than 128 KiB of program memory.
mcu = atmega2560, atmega2561.
avrxmega2
“XMEGA” devices with more than 8 KiB and up to 64 KiB of program memory.
mcu = atxmega16a4, atxmega16d4, atxmega16x1, atxmega32a4, atxmega32d4, atxmega32x1.
avrxmega4
“XMEGA” devices with more than 64 KiB and up to 128 KiB of program memory.
mcu = atxmega64a3, atxmega64d3.
avrxmega5
“XMEGA” devices with more than 64 KiB and up to 128 KiB of program memory and more than 64 KiB of RAM.
mcu = atxmega64a1, atxmega64a1u.
avrxmega6
“XMEGA” devices with more than 128 KiB of program memory.
mcu = atxmega128a3, atxmega128d3, atxmega192a3, atxmega192d3, atxmega256a3, atxmega256a3b, atxmega256a3bu, atxmega256d3.
avrxmega7
“XMEGA” devices with more than 128 KiB of program memory and more than 64 KiB of RAM.
mcu = atxmega128a1, atxmega128a1u.
avr1
This ISA is implemented by the minimal AVR core and supported for assembler only.
mcu = attiny11, attiny12, attiny15, attiny28, at90s1200.

-maccumulate-args
Accumulate outgoing function arguments and acquire/release the needed stack space for outgoing function arguments once in function prologue/epilogue. Without this option, outgoing arguments are pushed before calling a function and popped afterwards.

Popping the arguments after the function call can be expensive on AVR so that accumulating the stack space might lead to smaller executables because arguments need not to be removed from the stack after such a function call.

This option can lead to reduced code size for functions that perform several calls to functions that get their arguments on the stack like calls to printf-like functions.

-mbranch-cost=cost
Set the branch costs for conditional branch instructions to cost. Reasonable values for cost are small, non-negative integers. The default branch cost is 0.
-mcall-prologues
Functions prologues/epilogues are expanded as calls to appropriate subroutines. Code size is smaller.
-mint8
Assume int to be 8-bit integer. This affects the sizes of all types: a char is 1 byte, an int is 1 byte, a long is 2 bytes, and long long is 4 bytes. Please note that this option does not conform to the C standards, but it results in smaller code size.
-mno-interrupts
Generated code is not compatible with hardware interrupts. Code size is smaller.
-mrelax
Try to replace CALL resp. JMP instruction by the shorter RCALL resp. RJMP instruction if applicable. Setting -mrelax just adds the --relax option to the linker command line when the linker is called.

Jump relaxing is performed by the linker because jump offsets are not known before code is located. Therefore, the assembler code generated by the compiler is the same, but the instructions in the executable may differ from instructions in the assembler code.

Relaxing must be turned on if linker stubs are needed, see the section on EIND and linker stubs below.

-mshort-calls
This option has been deprecated and will be removed in GCC 4.8. See -mrelax for a replacement.

Use RCALL/RJMP instructions even on devices with 16 KiB or more of program memory, i.e. on devices that have the CALL and JMP instructions.

-msp8
Treat the stack pointer register as an 8-bit register, i.e. assume the high byte of the stack pointer is zero. In general, you don't need to set this option by hand.

This option is used internally by the compiler to select and build multilibs for architectures avr2 and avr25. These architectures mix devices with and without SPH. For any setting other than -mmcu=avr2 or -mmcu=avr25 the compiler driver will add or remove this option from the compiler proper's command line, because the compiler then knows if the device or architecture has an 8-bit stack pointer and thus no SPH register or not.

-mstrict-X
Use address register X in a way proposed by the hardware. This means that X is only used in indirect, post-increment or pre-decrement addressing.

Without this option, the X register may be used in the same way as Y or Z which then is emulated by additional instructions. For example, loading a value with X+const addressing with a small non-negative const < 64 to a register Rn is performed as

          adiw r26, const   ; X += const
          ld   Rn, X        ; Rn = *X
          sbiw r26, const   ; X -= const

-mtiny-stack
Only change the lower 8 bits of the stack pointer.
3.17.4.1 EIND and Devices with more than 128 Ki Bytes of Flash

Pointers in the implementation are 16 bits wide. The address of a function or label is represented as word address so that indirect jumps and calls can target any code address in the range of 64 Ki words.

In order to facilitate indirect jump on devices with more than 128 Ki bytes of program memory space, there is a special function register called EIND that serves as most significant part of the target address when EICALL or EIJMP instructions are used.

Indirect jumps and calls on these devices are handled as follows by the compiler and are subject to some limitations:

3.17.4.2 Handling of the RAMPD, RAMPX, RAMPY and RAMPZ Special Function Registers

Some AVR devices support memories larger than the 64 KiB range that can be accessed with 16-bit pointers. To access memory locations outside this 64 KiB range, the contentent of a RAMP register is used as high part of the address: The X, Y, Z address register is concatenated with the RAMPX, RAMPY, RAMPZ special function register, respectively, to get a wide address. Similarly, RAMPD is used together with direct addressing.

3.17.4.3 AVR Built-in Macros

GCC defines several built-in macros so that the user code can test for the presence or absence of features. Almost any of the following built-in macros are deduced from device capabilities and thus triggered by the -mmcu= command-line option.

For even more AVR-specific built-in macros see AVR Named Address Spaces and AVR Built-in Functions.

__AVR_ARCH__
Build-in macro that resolves to a decimal number that identifies the architecture and depends on the -mmcu=mcu option. Possible values are:

2, 25, 3, 31, 35, 4, 5, 51, 6, 102, 104, 105, 106, 107

for mcu=avr2, avr25, avr3, avr31, avr35, avr4, avr5, avr51, avr6, avrxmega2, avrxmega4, avrxmega5, avrxmega6, avrxmega7, respectively. If mcu specifies a device, this built-in macro is set accordingly. For example, with -mmcu=atmega8 the macro will be defined to 4.

__AVR_Device__
Setting -mmcu=device defines this built-in macro which reflects the device's name. For example, -mmcu=atmega8 defines the built-in macro __AVR_ATmega8__, -mmcu=attiny261a defines __AVR_ATtiny261A__, etc.

The built-in macros' names follow the scheme __AVR_Device__ where Device is the device name as from the AVR user manual. The difference between Device in the built-in macro and device in -mmcu=device is that the latter is always lowercase.

If device is not a device but only a core architecture like avr51, this macro will not be defined.

__AVR_XMEGA__
The device/architecture belongs to the XMEGA family of devices.
__AVR_HAVE_ELPM__
The device has the the ELPM instruction.
__AVR_HAVE_ELPMX__
The device has the ELPM Rn,Z and ELPM Rn,Z+ instructions.
__AVR_HAVE_MOVW__
The device has the MOVW instruction to perform 16-bit register-register moves.
__AVR_HAVE_LPMX__
The device has the LPM Rn,Z and LPM Rn,Z+ instructions.
__AVR_HAVE_MUL__
The device has a hardware multiplier.
__AVR_HAVE_JMP_CALL__
The device has the JMP and CALL instructions. This is the case for devices with at least 16 KiB of program memory and if -mshort-calls is not set.
__AVR_HAVE_EIJMP_EICALL__
__AVR_3_BYTE_PC__
The device has the EIJMP and EICALL instructions. This is the case for devices with more than 128 KiB of program memory. This also means that the program counter (PC) is 3 bytes wide.
__AVR_2_BYTE_PC__
The program counter (PC) is 2 bytes wide. This is the case for devices with up to 128 KiB of program memory.
__AVR_HAVE_8BIT_SP__
__AVR_HAVE_16BIT_SP__
The stack pointer (SP) register is treated as 8-bit respectively 16-bit register by the compiler. The definition of these macros is affected by -mtiny-stack.
__AVR_HAVE_SPH__
__AVR_SP8__
The device has the SPH (high part of stack pointer) special function register or has an 8-bit stack pointer, respectively. The definition of these macros is affected by -mmcu= and in the cases of -mmcu=avr2 and -mmcu=avr25 also by -msp8.
__AVR_HAVE_RAMPD__
__AVR_HAVE_RAMPX__
__AVR_HAVE_RAMPY__
__AVR_HAVE_RAMPZ__
The device has the RAMPD, RAMPX, RAMPY, RAMPZ special function register, respectively.
__NO_INTERRUPTS__
This macro reflects the -mno-interrupts command line option.
__AVR_ERRATA_SKIP__
__AVR_ERRATA_SKIP_JMP_CALL__
Some AVR devices (AT90S8515, ATmega103) must not skip 32-bit instructions because of a hardware erratum. Skip instructions are SBRS, SBRC, SBIS, SBIC and CPSE. The second macro is only defined if __AVR_HAVE_JMP_CALL__ is also set.
__AVR_SFR_OFFSET__=offset
Instructions that can address I/O special function registers directly like IN, OUT, SBI, etc. may use a different address as if addressed by an instruction to access RAM like LD or STS. This offset depends on the device architecture and has to be subtracted from the RAM address in order to get the respective I/O address.
__WITH_AVRLIBC__
The compiler is configured to be used together with AVR-Libc. See the --with-avrlibc configure option.


Next: , Previous: AVR Options, Up: Submodel Options

3.17.5 Blackfin Options

-mcpu=cpu[-sirevision]
Specifies the name of the target Blackfin processor. Currently, cpu can be one of ‘bf512’, ‘bf514’, ‘bf516’, ‘bf518’, ‘bf522’, ‘bf523’, ‘bf524’, ‘bf525’, ‘bf526’, ‘bf527’, ‘bf531’, ‘bf532’, ‘bf533’, ‘bf534’, ‘bf536’, ‘bf537’, ‘bf538’, ‘bf539’, ‘bf542’, ‘bf544’, ‘bf547’, ‘bf548’, ‘bf549’, ‘bf542m’, ‘bf544m’, ‘bf547m’, ‘bf548m’, ‘bf549m’, ‘bf561’, ‘bf592’. The optional sirevision specifies the silicon revision of the target Blackfin processor. Any workarounds available for the targeted silicon revision will be enabled. If sirevision is ‘none’, no workarounds are enabled. If sirevision is ‘any’, all workarounds for the targeted processor will be enabled. The __SILICON_REVISION__ macro is defined to two hexadecimal digits representing the major and minor numbers in the silicon revision. If sirevision is ‘none’, the __SILICON_REVISION__ is not defined. If sirevision is ‘any’, the __SILICON_REVISION__ is defined to be 0xffff. If this optional sirevision is not used, GCC assumes the latest known silicon revision of the targeted Blackfin processor.

Support for ‘bf561’ is incomplete. For ‘bf561’, Only the processor macro is defined. Without this option, ‘bf532’ is used as the processor by default. The corresponding predefined processor macros for cpu is to be defined. And for ‘bfin-elf’ toolchain, this causes the hardware BSP provided by libgloss to be linked in if -msim is not given.

-msim
Specifies that the program will be run on the simulator. This causes the simulator BSP provided by libgloss to be linked in. This option has effect only for ‘bfin-elf’ toolchain. Certain other options, such as -mid-shared-library and -mfdpic, imply -msim.
-momit-leaf-frame-pointer
Don't keep the frame pointer in a register for leaf functions. This avoids the instructions to save, set up and restore frame pointers and makes an extra register available in leaf functions. The option -fomit-frame-pointer removes the frame pointer for all functions, which might make debugging harder.
-mspecld-anomaly
When enabled, the compiler will ensure that the generated code does not contain speculative loads after jump instructions. If this option is used, __WORKAROUND_SPECULATIVE_LOADS is defined.
-mno-specld-anomaly
Don't generate extra code to prevent speculative loads from occurring.
-mcsync-anomaly
When enabled, the compiler will ensure that the generated code does not contain CSYNC or SSYNC instructions too soon after conditional branches. If this option is used, __WORKAROUND_SPECULATIVE_SYNCS is defined.
-mno-csync-anomaly
Don't generate extra code to prevent CSYNC or SSYNC instructions from occurring too soon after a conditional branch.
-mlow-64k
When enabled, the compiler is free to take advantage of the knowledge that the entire program fits into the low 64k of memory.
-mno-low-64k
Assume that the program is arbitrarily large. This is the default.
-mstack-check-l1
Do stack checking using information placed into L1 scratchpad memory by the uClinux kernel.
-mid-shared-library
Generate code that supports shared libraries via the library ID method. This allows for execute in place and shared libraries in an environment without virtual memory management. This option implies -fPIC. With a ‘bfin-elf’ target, this option implies -msim.
-mno-id-shared-library
Generate code that doesn't assume ID based shared libraries are being used. This is the default.
-mleaf-id-shared-library
Generate code that supports shared libraries via the library ID method, but assumes that this library or executable won't link against any other ID shared libraries. That allows the compiler to use faster code for jumps and calls.
-mno-leaf-id-shared-library
Do not assume that the code being compiled won't link against any ID shared libraries. Slower code will be generated for jump and call insns.
-mshared-library-id=n
Specified the identification number of the ID based shared library being compiled. Specifying a value of 0 will generate more compact code, specifying other values will force the allocation of that number to the current library but is no more space or time efficient than omitting this option.
-msep-data
Generate code that allows the data segment to be located in a different area of memory from the text segment. This allows for execute in place in an environment without virtual memory management by eliminating relocations against the text section.
-mno-sep-data
Generate code that assumes that the data segment follows the text segment. This is the default.
-mlong-calls
-mno-long-calls
Tells the compiler to perform function calls by first loading the address of the function into a register and then performing a subroutine call on this register. This switch is needed if the target function lies outside of the 24-bit addressing range of the offset-based version of subroutine call instruction.

This feature is not enabled by default. Specifying -mno-long-calls will restore the default behavior. Note these switches have no effect on how the compiler generates code to handle function calls via function pointers.

-mfast-fp
Link with the fast floating-point library. This library relaxes some of the IEEE floating-point standard's rules for checking inputs against Not-a-Number (NAN), in the interest of performance.
-minline-plt
Enable inlining of PLT entries in function calls to functions that are not known to bind locally. It has no effect without -mfdpic.
-mmulticore
Build standalone application for multicore Blackfin processor. Proper start files and link scripts will be used to support multicore. This option defines __BFIN_MULTICORE. It can only be used with -mcpu=bf561[-sirevision]. It can be used with -mcorea or -mcoreb. If it's used without -mcorea or -mcoreb, single application/dual core programming model is used. In this model, the main function of Core B should be named as coreb_main. If it's used with -mcorea or -mcoreb, one application per core programming model is used. If this option is not used, single core application programming model is used.
-mcorea
Build standalone application for Core A of BF561 when using one application per core programming model. Proper start files and link scripts will be used to support Core A. This option defines __BFIN_COREA. It must be used with -mmulticore.
-mcoreb
Build standalone application for Core B of BF561 when using one application per core programming model. Proper start files and link scripts will be used to support Core B. This option defines __BFIN_COREB. When this option is used, coreb_main should be used instead of main. It must be used with -mmulticore.
-msdram
Build standalone application for SDRAM. Proper start files and link scripts will be used to put the application into SDRAM. Loader should initialize SDRAM before loading the application into SDRAM. This option defines __BFIN_SDRAM.
-micplb
Assume that ICPLBs are enabled at run time. This has an effect on certain anomaly workarounds. For Linux targets, the default is to assume ICPLBs are enabled; for standalone applications the default is off.


Next: , Previous: Blackfin Options, Up: Submodel Options

3.17.6 C6X Options

-march=name
This specifies the name of the target architecture. GCC uses this name to determine what kind of instructions it can emit when generating assembly code. Permissible names are: ‘c62x’, ‘c64x’, ‘c64x+’, ‘c67x’, ‘c67x+’, ‘c674x’.
-mbig-endian
Generate code for a big-endian target.
-mlittle-endian
Generate code for a little-endian target. This is the default.
-msim
Choose startup files and linker script suitable for the simulator.
-msdata=default
Put small global and static data in the ‘.neardata’ section, which is pointed to by register B14. Put small uninitialized global and static data in the ‘.bss’ section, which is adjacent to the ‘.neardata’ section. Put small read-only data into the ‘.rodata’ section. The corresponding sections used for large pieces of data are ‘.fardata’, ‘.far’ and ‘.const’.
-msdata=all
Put all data, not just small objets, into the sections reserved for small data, and use addressing relative to the B14 register to access them.
-msdata=none
Make no use of the sections reserved for small data, and use absolute addresses to access all data. Put all initialized global and static data in the ‘.fardata’ section, and all uninitialized data in the ‘.far’ section. Put all constant data into the ‘.const’ section.


Next: , Previous: C6X Options, Up: Submodel Options

3.17.7 CRIS Options

These options are defined specifically for the CRIS ports.

-march=architecture-type
-mcpu=architecture-type
Generate code for the specified architecture. The choices for architecture-type are ‘v3’, ‘v8’ and ‘v10’ for respectively ETRAX 4, ETRAX 100, and ETRAX 100 LX. Default is ‘v0’ except for cris-axis-linux-gnu, where the default is ‘v10’.
-mtune=architecture-type
Tune to architecture-type everything applicable about the generated code, except for the ABI and the set of available instructions. The choices for architecture-type are the same as for -march=architecture-type.
-mmax-stack-frame=n
Warn when the stack frame of a function exceeds n bytes.
-metrax4
-metrax100
The options -metrax4 and -metrax100 are synonyms for -march=v3 and -march=v8 respectively.
-mmul-bug-workaround
-mno-mul-bug-workaround
Work around a bug in the muls and mulu instructions for CPU models where it applies. This option is active by default.
-mpdebug
Enable CRIS-specific verbose debug-related information in the assembly code. This option also has the effect to turn off the ‘#NO_APP’ formatted-code indicator to the assembler at the beginning of the assembly file.
-mcc-init
Do not use condition-code results from previous instruction; always emit compare and test instructions before use of condition codes.
-mno-side-effects
Do not emit instructions with side-effects in addressing modes other than post-increment.
-mstack-align
-mno-stack-align
-mdata-align
-mno-data-align
-mconst-align
-mno-const-align
These options (no-options) arranges (eliminate arrangements) for the stack-frame, individual data and constants to be aligned for the maximum single data access size for the chosen CPU model. The default is to arrange for 32-bit alignment. ABI details such as structure layout are not affected by these options.
-m32-bit
-m16-bit
-m8-bit
Similar to the stack- data- and const-align options above, these options arrange for stack-frame, writable data and constants to all be 32-bit, 16-bit or 8-bit aligned. The default is 32-bit alignment.
-mno-prologue-epilogue
-mprologue-epilogue
With -mno-prologue-epilogue, the normal function prologue and epilogue which set up the stack frame are omitted and no return instructions or return sequences are generated in the code. Use this option only together with visual inspection of the compiled code: no warnings or errors are generated when call-saved registers must be saved, or storage for local variable needs to be allocated.
-mno-gotplt
-mgotplt
With -fpic and -fPIC, don't generate (do generate) instruction sequences that load addresses for functions from the PLT part of the GOT rather than (traditional on other architectures) calls to the PLT. The default is -mgotplt.
-melf
Legacy no-op option only recognized with the cris-axis-elf and cris-axis-linux-gnu targets.
-mlinux
Legacy no-op option only recognized with the cris-axis-linux-gnu target.
-sim
This option, recognized for the cris-axis-elf arranges to link with input-output functions from a simulator library. Code, initialized data and zero-initialized data are allocated consecutively.
-sim2
Like -sim, but pass linker options to locate initialized data at 0x40000000 and zero-initialized data at 0x80000000.


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3.17.8 CR16 Options

These options are defined specifically for the CR16 ports.

-mmac
Enable the use of multiply-accumulate instructions. Disabled by default.
-mcr16cplus
-mcr16c
Generate code for CR16C or CR16C+ architecture. CR16C+ architecture is default.
-msim
Links the library libsim.a which is in compatible with simulator. Applicable to elf compiler only.
-mint32
Choose integer type as 32-bit wide.
-mbit-ops
Generates sbit/cbit instructions for bit manipulations.
-mdata-model=model
Choose a data model. The choices for model are ‘near’, ‘far’ or ‘medium’. ‘medium’ is default. However, ‘far’ is not valid when -mcr16c option is chosen as CR16C architecture does not support far data model.


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3.17.9 Darwin Options

These options are defined for all architectures running the Darwin operating system.

FSF GCC on Darwin does not create “fat” object files; it will create an object file for the single architecture that it was built to target. Apple's GCC on Darwin does create “fat” files if multiple -arch options are used; it does so by running the compiler or linker multiple times and joining the results together with lipo.

The subtype of the file created (like ‘ppc7400’ or ‘ppc970’ or ‘i686’) is determined by the flags that specify the ISA that GCC is targetting, like -mcpu or -march. The -force_cpusubtype_ALL option can be used to override this.

The Darwin tools vary in their behavior when presented with an ISA mismatch. The assembler, as, will only permit instructions to be used that are valid for the subtype of the file it is generating, so you cannot put 64-bit instructions in a ‘ppc750’ object file. The linker for shared libraries, /usr/bin/libtool, will fail and print an error if asked to create a shared library with a less restrictive subtype than its input files (for instance, trying to put a ‘ppc970’ object file in a ‘ppc7400’ library). The linker for executables, ld, will quietly give the executable the most restrictive subtype of any of its input files.

-Fdir
Add the framework directory dir to the head of the list of directories to be searched for header files. These directories are interleaved with those specified by -I options and are scanned in a left-to-right order.

A framework directory is a directory with frameworks in it. A framework is a directory with a ‘"Headers"’ and/or ‘"PrivateHeaders"’ directory contained directly in it that ends in ‘".framework"’. The name of a framework is the name of this directory excluding the ‘".framework"’. Headers associated with the framework are found in one of those two directories, with ‘"Headers"’ being searched first. A subframework is a framework directory that is in a framework's ‘"Frameworks"’ directory. Includes of subframework headers can only appear in a header of a framework that contains the subframework, or in a sibling subframework header. Two subframeworks are siblings if they occur in the same framework. A subframework should not have the same name as a framework, a warning will be issued if this is violated. Currently a subframework cannot have subframeworks, in the future, the mechanism may be extended to support this. The standard frameworks can be found in ‘"/System/Library/Frameworks"’ and ‘"/Library/Frameworks"’. An example include looks like #include <Framework/header.h>, where ‘Framework’ denotes the name of the framework and header.h is found in the ‘"PrivateHeaders"’ or ‘"Headers"’ directory.

-iframeworkdir
Like -F except the directory is a treated as a system directory. The main difference between this -iframework and -F is that with -iframework the compiler does not warn about constructs contained within header files found via dir. This option is valid only for the C family of languages.
-gused
Emit debugging information for symbols that are used. For STABS debugging format, this enables -feliminate-unused-debug-symbols. This is by default ON.
-gfull
Emit debugging information for all symbols and types.
-mmacosx-version-min=version
The earliest version of MacOS X that this executable will run on is version. Typical values of version include 10.1, 10.2, and 10.3.9.

If the compiler was built to use the system's headers by default, then the default for this option is the system version on which the compiler is running, otherwise the default is to make choices that are compatible with as many systems and code bases as possible.

-mkernel
Enable kernel development mode. The -mkernel option sets -static, -fno-common, -fno-cxa-atexit, -fno-exceptions, -fno-non-call-exceptions, -fapple-kext, -fno-weak and -fno-rtti where applicable. This mode also sets -mno-altivec, -msoft-float, -fno-builtin and -mlong-branch for PowerPC targets.
-mone-byte-bool
Override the defaults for ‘bool’ so that ‘sizeof(bool)==1’. By default ‘sizeof(bool)’ is ‘4’ when compiling for Darwin/PowerPC and ‘1’ when compiling for Darwin/x86, so this option has no effect on x86.

Warning: The -mone-byte-bool switch causes GCC to generate code that is not binary compatible with code generated without that switch. Using this switch may require recompiling all other modules in a program, including system libraries. Use this switch to conform to a non-default data model.

-mfix-and-continue
-ffix-and-continue
-findirect-data
Generate code suitable for fast turn around development. Needed to enable gdb to dynamically load .o files into already running programs. -findirect-data and -ffix-and-continue are provided for backwards compatibility.
-all_load
Loads all members of static archive libraries. See man ld(1) for more information.
-arch_errors_fatal
Cause the errors having to do with files that have the wrong architecture to be fatal.
-bind_at_load
Causes the output file to be marked such that the dynamic linker will bind all undefined references when the file is loaded or launched.
-bundle
Produce a Mach-o bundle format file. See man ld(1) for more information.
-bundle_loader executable
This option specifies the executable that will be loading the build output file being linked. See man ld(1) for more information.
-dynamiclib
When passed this option, GCC will produce a dynamic library instead of an executable when linking, using the Darwin libtool command.
-force_cpusubtype_ALL
This causes GCC's output file to have the ALL subtype, instead of one controlled by the -mcpu or -march option.
-allowable_client client_name
-client_name
-compatibility_version
-current_version
-dead_strip
-dependency-file
-dylib_file
-dylinker_install_name
-dynamic
-exported_symbols_list
-filelist
-flat_namespace
-force_flat_namespace
-headerpad_max_install_names
-image_base
-init
-install_name
-keep_private_externs
-multi_module
-multiply_defined
-multiply_defined_unused
-noall_load
-no_dead_strip_inits_and_terms
-nofixprebinding
-nomultidefs
-noprebind
-noseglinkedit
-pagezero_size
-prebind
-prebind_all_twolevel_modules
-private_bundle
-read_only_relocs
-sectalign
-sectobjectsymbols
-whyload
-seg1addr
-sectcreate
-sectobjectsymbols
-sectorder
-segaddr
-segs_read_only_addr
-segs_read_write_addr
-seg_addr_table
-seg_addr_table_filename
-seglinkedit
-segprot
-segs_read_only_addr
-segs_read_write_addr
-single_module
-static
-sub_library
-sub_umbrella
-twolevel_namespace
-umbrella
-undefined
-unexported_symbols_list
-weak_reference_mismatches
-whatsloaded
These options are passed to the Darwin linker. The Darwin linker man page describes them in detail.


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3.17.10 DEC Alpha Options

These ‘-m’ options are defined for the DEC Alpha implementations:

-mno-soft-float
-msoft-float
Use (do not use) the hardware floating-point instructions for floating-point operations. When -msoft-float is specified, functions in libgcc.a will be used to perform floating-point operations. Unless they are replaced by routines that emulate the floating-point operations, or compiled in such a way as to call such emulations routines, these routines will issue floating-point operations. If you are compiling for an Alpha without floating-point operations, you must ensure that the library is built so as not to call them.

Note that Alpha implementations without floating-point operations are required to have floating-point registers.

-mfp-reg
-mno-fp-regs
Generate code that uses (does not use) the floating-point register set. -mno-fp-regs implies -msoft-float. If the floating-point register set is not used, floating-point operands are passed in integer registers as if they were integers and floating-point results are passed in $0 instead of $f0. This is a non-standard calling sequence, so any function with a floating-point argument or return value called by code compiled with -mno-fp-regs must also be compiled with that option.

A typical use of this option is building a kernel that does not use, and hence need not save and restore, any floating-point registers.

-mieee
The Alpha architecture implements floating-point hardware optimized for maximum performance. It is mostly compliant with the IEEE floating-point standard. However, for full compliance, software assistance is required. This option generates code fully IEEE-compliant code except that the inexact-flag is not maintained (see below). If this option is turned on, the preprocessor macro _IEEE_FP is defined during compilation. The resulting code is less efficient but is able to correctly support denormalized numbers and exceptional IEEE values such as not-a-number and plus/minus infinity. Other Alpha compilers call this option -ieee_with_no_inexact.
-mieee-with-inexact
This is like -mieee except the generated code also maintains the IEEE inexact-flag. Turning on this option causes the generated code to implement fully-compliant IEEE math. In addition to _IEEE_FP, _IEEE_FP_EXACT is defined as a preprocessor macro. On some Alpha implementations the resulting code may execute significantly slower than the code generated by default. Since there is very little code that depends on the inexact-flag, you should normally not specify this option. Other Alpha compilers call this option -ieee_with_inexact.
-mfp-trap-mode=trap-mode
This option controls what floating-point related traps are enabled. Other Alpha compilers call this option -fptm trap-mode. The trap mode can be set to one of four values:
n
This is the default (normal) setting. The only traps that are enabled are the ones that cannot be disabled in software (e.g., division by zero trap).
u
In addition to the traps enabled by ‘n’, underflow traps are enabled as well.
su
Like ‘u’, but the instructions are marked to be safe for software completion (see Alpha architecture manual for details).
sui
Like ‘su’, but inexact traps are enabled as well.

-mfp-rounding-mode=rounding-mode
Selects the IEEE rounding mode. Other Alpha compilers call this option -fprm rounding-mode. The rounding-mode can be one of:
n
Normal IEEE rounding mode. Floating-point numbers are rounded towards the nearest machine number or towards the even machine number in case of a tie.
m
Round towards minus infinity.
c
Chopped rounding mode. Floating-point numbers are rounded towards zero.
d
Dynamic rounding mode. A field in the floating-point control register (fpcr, see Alpha architecture reference manual) controls the rounding mode in effect. The C library initializes this register for rounding towards plus infinity. Thus, unless your program modifies the fpcr, ‘d’ corresponds to round towards plus infinity.

-mtrap-precision=trap-precision
In the Alpha architecture, floating-point traps are imprecise. This means without software assistance it is impossible to recover from a floating trap and program execution normally needs to be terminated. GCC can generate code that can assist operating system trap handlers in determining the exact location that caused a floating-point trap. Depending on the requirements of an application, different levels of precisions can be selected:
p
Program precision. This option is the default and means a trap handler can only identify which program caused a floating-point exception.
f
Function precision. The trap handler can determine the function that caused a floating-point exception.
i
Instruction precision. The trap handler can determine the exact instruction that caused a floating-point exception.

Other Alpha compilers provide the equivalent options called -scope_safe and -resumption_safe.

-mieee-conformant
This option marks the generated code as IEEE conformant. You must not use this option unless you also specify -mtrap-precision=i and either -mfp-trap-mode=su or -mfp-trap-mode=sui. Its only effect is to emit the line ‘.eflag 48’ in the function prologue of the generated assembly file. Under DEC Unix, this has the effect that IEEE-conformant math library routines will be linked in.
-mbuild-constants
Normally GCC examines a 32- or 64-bit integer constant to see if it can construct it from smaller constants in two or three instructions. If it cannot, it will output the constant as a literal and generate code to load it from the data segment at run time.

Use this option to require GCC to construct all integer constants using code, even if it takes more instructions (the maximum is six).

You would typically use this option to build a shared library dynamic loader. Itself a shared library, it must relocate itself in memory before it can find the variables and constants in its own data segment.

-malpha-as
-mgas
Select whether to generate code to be assembled by the vendor-supplied assembler (-malpha-as) or by the GNU assembler -mgas.
-mbwx
-mno-bwx
-mcix
-mno-cix
-mfix
-mno-fix
-mmax
-mno-max
Indicate whether GCC should generate code to use the optional BWX, CIX, FIX and MAX instruction sets. The default is to use the instruction sets supported by the CPU type specified via -mcpu= option or that of the CPU on which GCC was built if none was specified.
-mfloat-vax
-mfloat-ieee
Generate code that uses (does not use) VAX F and G floating-point arithmetic instead of IEEE single and double precision.
-mexplicit-relocs
-mno-explicit-relocs
Older Alpha assemblers provided no way to generate symbol relocations except via assembler macros. Use of these macros does not allow optimal instruction scheduling. GNU binutils as of version 2.12 supports a new syntax that allows the compiler to explicitly mark which relocations should apply to which instructions. This option is mostly useful for debugging, as GCC detects the capabilities of the assembler when it is built and sets the default accordingly.
-msmall-data
-mlarge-data
When -mexplicit-relocs is in effect, static data is accessed via gp-relative relocations. When -msmall-data is used, objects 8 bytes long or smaller are placed in a small data area (the .sdata and .sbss sections) and are accessed via 16-bit relocations off of the $gp register. This limits the size of the small data area to 64KB, but allows the variables to be directly accessed via a single instruction.

The default is -mlarge-data. With this option the data area is limited to just below 2GB. Programs that require more than 2GB of data must use malloc or mmap to allocate the data in the heap instead of in the program's data segment.

When generating code for shared libraries, -fpic implies -msmall-data and -fPIC implies -mlarge-data.

-msmall-text
-mlarge-text
When -msmall-text is used, the compiler assumes that the code of the entire program (or shared library) fits in 4MB, and is thus reachable with a branch instruction. When -msmall-data is used, the compiler can assume that all local symbols share the same $gp value, and thus reduce the number of instructions required for a function call from 4 to 1.

The default is -mlarge-text.

-mcpu=cpu_type
Set the instruction set and instruction scheduling parameters for machine type cpu_type. You can specify either the ‘EV’ style name or the corresponding chip number. GCC supports scheduling parameters for the EV4, EV5 and EV6 family of processors and will choose the default values for the instruction set from the processor you specify. If you do not specify a processor type, GCC will default to the processor on which the compiler was built.

Supported values for cpu_type are

ev4
ev45
21064
Schedules as an EV4 and has no instruction set extensions.
ev5
21164
Schedules as an EV5 and has no instruction set extensions.
ev56
21164a
Schedules as an EV5 and supports the BWX extension.
pca56
21164pc
21164PC
Schedules as an EV5 and supports the BWX and MAX extensions.
ev6
21264
Schedules as an EV6 and supports the BWX, FIX, and MAX extensions.
ev67
21264a
Schedules as an EV6 and supports the BWX, CIX, FIX, and MAX extensions.

Native toolchains also support the value ‘native’, which selects the best architecture option for the host processor. -mcpu=native has no effect if GCC does not recognize the processor.

-mtune=cpu_type
Set only the instruction scheduling parameters for machine type cpu_type. The instruction set is not changed.

Native toolchains also support the value ‘native’, which selects the best architecture option for the host processor. -mtune=native has no effect if GCC does not recognize the processor.

-mmemory-latency=time
Sets the latency the scheduler should assume for typical memory references as seen by the application. This number is highly dependent on the memory access patterns used by the application and the size of the external cache on the machine.

Valid options for time are

number
A decimal number representing clock cycles.
L1
L2
L3
main
The compiler contains estimates of the number of clock cycles for “typical” EV4 & EV5 hardware for the Level 1, 2 & 3 caches (also called Dcache, Scache, and Bcache), as well as to main memory. Note that L3 is only valid for EV5.


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3.17.11 DEC Alpha/VMS Options

These ‘-m’ options are defined for the DEC Alpha/VMS implementations:

-mvms-return-codes
Return VMS condition codes from main. The default is to return POSIX style condition (e.g. error) codes.
-mdebug-main=prefix
Flag the first routine whose name starts with prefix as the main routine for the debugger.
-mmalloc64
Default to 64-bit memory allocation routines.


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3.17.12 FR30 Options

These options are defined specifically for the FR30 port.

-msmall-model
Use the small address space model. This can produce smaller code, but it does assume that all symbolic values and addresses will fit into a 20-bit range.
-mno-lsim
Assume that runtime support has been provided and so there is no need to include the simulator library (libsim.a) on the linker command line.


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3.17.13 FRV Options

-mgpr-32
Only use the first 32 general-purpose registers.
-mgpr-64
Use all 64 general-purpose registers.
-mfpr-32
Use only the first 32 floating-point registers.
-mfpr-64
Use all 64 floating-point registers.
-mhard-float
Use hardware instructions for floating-point operations.
-msoft-float
Use library routines for floating-point operations.
-malloc-cc
Dynamically allocate condition code registers.
-mfixed-cc
Do not try to dynamically allocate condition code registers, only use icc0 and fcc0.
-mdword
Change ABI to use double word insns.
-mno-dword
Do not use double word instructions.
-mdouble
Use floating-point double instructions.
-mno-double
Do not use floating-point double instructions.
-mmedia
Use media instructions.
-mno-media
Do not use media instructions.
-mmuladd
Use multiply and add/subtract instructions.
-mno-muladd
Do not use multiply and add/subtract instructions.
-mfdpic
Select the FDPIC ABI, which uses function descriptors to represent pointers to functions. Without any PIC/PIE-related options, it implies -fPIE. With -fpic or -fpie, it assumes GOT entries and small data are within a 12-bit range from the GOT base address; with -fPIC or -fPIE, GOT offsets are computed with 32 bits. With a ‘bfin-elf’ target, this option implies -msim.
-minline-plt
Enable inlining of PLT entries in function calls to functions that are not known to bind locally. It has no effect without -mfdpic. It's enabled by default if optimizing for speed and compiling for shared libraries (i.e., -fPIC or -fpic), or when an optimization option such as -O3 or above is present in the command line.
-mTLS
Assume a large TLS segment when generating thread-local code.
-mtls
Do not assume a large TLS segment when generating thread-local code.
-mgprel-ro
Enable the use of GPREL relocations in the FDPIC ABI for data that is known to be in read-only sections. It's enabled by default, except for -fpic or -fpie: even though it may help make the global offset table smaller, it trades 1 instruction for 4. With -fPIC or -fPIE, it trades 3 instructions for 4, one of which may be shared by multiple symbols, and it avoids the need for a GOT entry for the referenced symbol, so it's more likely to be a win. If it is not, -mno-gprel-ro can be used to disable it.
-multilib-library-pic
Link with the (library, not FD) pic libraries. It's implied by -mlibrary-pic, as well as by -fPIC and -fpic without -mfdpic. You should never have to use it explicitly.
-mlinked-fp
Follow the EABI requirement of always creating a frame pointer whenever a stack frame is allocated. This option is enabled by default and can be disabled with -mno-linked-fp.
-mlong-calls
Use indirect addressing to call functions outside the current compilation unit. This allows the functions to be placed anywhere within the 32-bit address space.
-malign-labels
Try to align labels to an 8-byte boundary by inserting nops into the previous packet. This option only has an effect when VLIW packing is enabled. It doesn't create new packets; it merely adds nops to existing ones.
-mlibrary-pic
Generate position-independent EABI code.
-macc-4
Use only the first four media accumulator registers.
-macc-8
Use all eight media accumulator registers.
-mpack
Pack VLIW instructions.
-mno-pack
Do not pack VLIW instructions.
-mno-eflags
Do not mark ABI switches in e_flags.
-mcond-move
Enable the use of conditional-move instructions (default).

This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be removed in a future version.

-mno-cond-move
Disable the use of conditional-move instructions.

This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be removed in a future version.

-mscc
Enable the use of conditional set instructions (default).

This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be removed in a future version.

-mno-scc
Disable the use of conditional set instructions.

This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be removed in a future version.

-mcond-exec
Enable the use of conditional execution (default).

This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be removed in a future version.

-mno-cond-exec
Disable the use of conditional execution.

This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be removed in a future version.

-mvliw-branch
Run a pass to pack branches into VLIW instructions (default).

This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be removed in a future version.

-mno-vliw-branch
Do not run a pass to pack branches into VLIW instructions.

This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be removed in a future version.

-mmulti-cond-exec
Enable optimization of && and || in conditional execution (default).

This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be removed in a future version.

-mno-multi-cond-exec
Disable optimization of && and || in conditional execution.

This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be removed in a future version.

-mnested-cond-exec
Enable nested conditional execution optimizations (default).

This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be removed in a future version.

-mno-nested-cond-exec
Disable nested conditional execution optimizations.

This switch is mainly for debugging the compiler and will likely be removed in a future version.

-moptimize-membar
This switch removes redundant membar instructions from the compiler generated code. It is enabled by default.
-mno-optimize-membar
This switch disables the automatic removal of redundant membar instructions from the generated code.
-mtomcat-stats
Cause gas to print out tomcat statistics.
-mcpu=cpu
Select the processor type for which to generate code. Possible values are ‘frv’, ‘fr550’, ‘tomcat’, ‘fr500’, ‘fr450’, ‘fr405’, ‘fr400’, ‘fr300’ and ‘simple’.


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3.17.14 GNU/Linux Options

These ‘-m’ options are defined for GNU/Linux targets:

-mglibc
Use the GNU C library. This is the default except on ‘*-*-linux-*uclibc*’ and ‘*-*-linux-*android*’ targets.
-muclibc
Use uClibc C library. This is the default on ‘*-*-linux-*uclibc*’ targets.
-mbionic
Use Bionic C library. This is the default on ‘*-*-linux-*android*’ targets.
-mandroid
Compile code compatible with Android platform. This is the default on ‘*-*-linux-*android*’ targets.

When compiling, this option enables -mbionic, -fPIC, -fno-exceptions and -fno-rtti by default. When linking, this option makes the GCC driver pass Android-specific options to the linker. Finally, this option causes the preprocessor macro __ANDROID__ to be defined.

-tno-android-cc
Disable compilation effects of -mandroid, i.e., do not enable -mbionic, -fPIC, -fno-exceptions and -fno-rtti by default.
-tno-android-ld
Disable linking effects of -mandroid, i.e., pass standard Linux linking options to the linker.


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3.17.15 H8/300 Options

These ‘-m’ options are defined for the H8/300 implementations:

-mrelax
Shorten some address references at link time, when possible; uses the linker option -relax. See ld and the H8/300, for a fuller description.
-mh
Generate code for the H8/300H.
-ms
Generate code for the H8S.
-mn
Generate code for the H8S and H8/300H in the normal mode. This switch must be used either with -mh or -ms.
-ms2600
Generate code for the H8S/2600. This switch must be used with -ms.
-mint32
Make int data 32 bits by default.
-malign-300
On the H8/300H and H8S, use the same alignment rules as for the H8/300. The default for the H8/300H and H8S is to align longs and floats on 4-byte boundaries. -malign-300 causes them to be aligned on 2-byte boundaries. This option has no effect on the H8/300.


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3.17.16 HPPA Options

These ‘-m’ options are defined for the HPPA family of computers:

-march=architecture-type
Generate code for the specified architecture. The choices for architecture-type are ‘1.0’ for PA 1.0, ‘1.1’ for PA 1.1, and ‘2.0’ for PA 2.0 processors. Refer to /usr/lib/sched.models on an HP-UX system to determine the proper architecture option for your machine. Code compiled for lower numbered architectures will run on higher numbered architectures, but not the other way around.
-mpa-risc-1-0
-mpa-risc-1-1
-mpa-risc-2-0
Synonyms for -march=1.0, -march=1.1, and -march=2.0 respectively.
-mbig-switch
Generate code suitable for big switch tables. Use this option only if the assembler/linker complain about out of range branches within a switch table.
-mjump-in-delay
Fill delay slots of function calls with unconditional jump instructions by modifying the return pointer for the function call to be the target of the conditional jump.
-mdisable-fpregs
Prevent floating-point registers from being used in any manner. This is necessary for compiling kernels that perform lazy context switching of floating-point registers. If you use this option and attempt to perform floating-point operations, the compiler aborts.
-mdisable-indexing
Prevent the compiler from using indexing address modes. This avoids some rather obscure problems when compiling MIG generated code under MACH.
-mno-space-regs
Generate code that assumes the target has no space registers. This allows GCC to generate faster indirect calls and use unscaled index address modes.

Such code is suitable for level 0 PA systems and kernels.

-mfast-indirect-calls
Generate code that assumes calls never cross space boundaries. This allows GCC to emit code that performs faster indirect calls.

This option will not work in the presence of shared libraries or nested functions.

-mfixed-range=register-range
Generate code treating the given register range as fixed registers. A fixed register is one that the register allocator can not use. This is useful when compiling kernel code. A register range is specified as two registers separated by a dash. Multiple register ranges can be specified separated by a comma.
-mlong-load-store
Generate 3-instruction load and store sequences as sometimes required by the HP-UX 10 linker. This is equivalent to the ‘+k’ option to the HP compilers.
-mportable-runtime
Use the portable calling conventions proposed by HP for ELF systems.
-mgas
Enable the use of assembler directives only GAS understands.
-mschedule=cpu-type
Schedule code according to the constraints for the machine type cpu-type. The choices for cpu-type are ‘700’ ‘7100’, ‘7100LC’, ‘7200’, ‘7300’ and ‘8000’. Refer to /usr/lib/sched.models on an HP-UX system to determine the proper scheduling option for your machine. The default scheduling is ‘8000’.
-mlinker-opt
Enable the optimization pass in the HP-UX linker. Note this makes symbolic debugging impossible. It also triggers a bug in the HP-UX 8 and HP-UX 9 linkers in which they give bogus error messages when linking some programs.
-msoft-float
Generate output containing library calls for floating point. Warning: the requisite libraries are not available for all HPPA targets. Normally the facilities of the machine's usual C compiler are used, but this cannot be done directly in cross-compilation. You must make your own arrangements to provide suitable library functions for cross-compilation.

-msoft-float changes the calling convention in the output file; therefore, it is only useful if you compile all of a program with this option. In particular, you need to compile libgcc.a, the library that comes with GCC, with -msoft-float in order for this to work.

-msio
Generate the predefine, _SIO, for server IO. The default is -mwsio. This generates the predefines, __hp9000s700, __hp9000s700__ and _WSIO, for workstation IO. These options are available under HP-UX and HI-UX.
-mgnu-ld
Use GNU ld specific options. This passes -shared to ld when building a shared library. It is the default when GCC is configured, explicitly or implicitly, with the GNU linker. This option does not have any affect on which ld is called, it only changes what parameters are passed to that ld. The ld that is called is determined by the --with-ld configure option, GCC's program search path, and finally by the user's PATH. The linker used by GCC can be printed using ‘which `gcc -print-prog-name=ld`’. This option is only available on the 64-bit HP-UX GCC, i.e. configured with ‘hppa*64*-*-hpux*’.
-mhp-ld
Use HP ld specific options. This passes -b to ld when building a shared library and passes +Accept TypeMismatch to ld on all links. It is the default when GCC is configured, explicitly or implicitly, with the HP linker. This option does not have any affect on which ld is called, it only changes what parameters are passed to that ld. The ld that is called is determined by the --with-ld configure option, GCC's program search path, and finally by the user's PATH. The linker used by GCC can be printed using ‘which `gcc -print-prog-name=ld`’. This option is only available on the 64-bit HP-UX GCC, i.e. configured with ‘hppa*64*-*-hpux*’.
-mlong-calls
Generate code that uses long call sequences. This ensures that a call is always able to reach linker generated stubs. The default is to generate long calls only when the distance from the call site to the beginning of the function or translation unit, as the case may be, exceeds a predefined limit set by the branch type being used. The limits for normal calls are 7,600,000 and 240,000 bytes, respectively for the PA 2.0 and PA 1.X architectures. Sibcalls are always limited at 240,000 bytes.

Distances are measured from the beginning of functions when using the -ffunction-sections option, or when using the -mgas and -mno-portable-runtime options together under HP-UX with the SOM linker.

It is normally not desirable to use this option as it will degrade performance. However, it may be useful in large applications, particularly when partial linking is used to build the application.

The types of long calls used depends on the capabilities of the assembler and linker, and the type of code being generated. The impact on systems that support long absolute calls, and long pic symbol-difference or pc-relative calls should be relatively small. However, an indirect call is used on 32-bit ELF systems in pic code and it is quite long.

-munix=unix-std
Generate compiler predefines and select a startfile for the specified UNIX standard. The choices for unix-std are ‘93’, ‘95’ and ‘98’. ‘93’ is supported on all HP-UX versions. ‘95’ is available on HP-UX 10.10 and later. ‘98’ is available on HP-UX 11.11 and later. The default values are ‘93’ for HP-UX 10.00, ‘95’ for HP-UX 10.10 though to 11.00, and ‘98’ for HP-UX 11.11 and later.

-munix=93 provides the same predefines as GCC 3.3 and 3.4. -munix=95 provides additional predefines for XOPEN_UNIX and _XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED, and the startfile unix95.o. -munix=98 provides additional predefines for _XOPEN_UNIX, _XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED, _INCLUDE__STDC_A1_SOURCE and _INCLUDE_XOPEN_SOURCE_500, and the startfile unix98.o.

It is important to note that this option changes the interfaces for various library routines. It also affects the operational behavior of the C library. Thus, extreme care is needed in using this option.

Library code that is intended to operate with more than one UNIX standard must test, set and restore the variable __xpg4_extended_mask as appropriate. Most GNU software doesn't provide this capability.

-nolibdld
Suppress the generation of link options to search libdld.sl when the -static option is specified on HP-UX 10 and later.
-static
The HP-UX implementation of setlocale in libc has a dependency on libdld.sl. There isn't an archive version of libdld.sl. Thus, when the -static option is specified, special link options are needed to resolve this dependency.

On HP-UX 10 and later, the GCC driver adds the necessary options to link with libdld.sl when the -static option is specified. This causes the resulting binary to be dynamic. On the 64-bit port, the linkers generate dynamic binaries by default in any case. The -nolibdld option can be used to prevent the GCC driver from adding these link options.

-threads
Add support for multithreading with the dce thread library under HP-UX. This option sets flags for both the preprocessor and linker.


Next: , Previous: HPPA Options, Up: Submodel Options

3.17.17 Intel 386 and AMD x86-64 Options

These ‘-m’ options are defined for the i386 and x86-64 family of computers:

-mtune=cpu-type
Tune to cpu-type everything applicable about the generated code, except for the ABI and the set of available instructions. The choices for cpu-type are:
generic
Produce code optimized for the most common IA32/AMD64/EM64T processors. If you know the CPU on which your code will run, then you should use the corresponding -mtune option instead of -mtune=generic. But, if you do not know exactly what CPU users of your application will have, then you should use this option.

As new processors are deployed in the marketplace, the behavior of this option will change. Therefore, if you upgrade to a newer version of GCC, the code generated option will change to reflect the processors that were most common when that version of GCC was released.

There is no -march=generic option because -march indicates the instruction set the compiler can use, and there is no generic instruction set applicable to all processors. In contrast, -mtune indicates the processor (or, in this case, collection of processors) for which the code is optimized.

native
This selects the CPU to tune for at compilation time by determining the processor type of the compiling machine. Using -mtune=native will produce code optimized for the local machine under the constraints of the selected instruction set. Using -march=native will enable all instruction subsets supported by the local machine (hence the result might not run on different machines).
i386
Original Intel's i386 CPU.
i486
Intel's i486 CPU. (No scheduling is implemented for this chip.)
i586, pentium
Intel Pentium CPU with no MMX support.
pentium-mmx
Intel PentiumMMX CPU based on Pentium core with MMX instruction set support.
pentiumpro
Intel PentiumPro CPU.
i686
Same as generic, but when used as march option, PentiumPro instruction set will be used, so the code will run on all i686 family chips.
pentium2
Intel Pentium2 CPU based on PentiumPro core with MMX instruction set support.
pentium3, pentium3m
Intel Pentium3 CPU based on PentiumPro core with MMX and SSE instruction set support.
pentium-m
Low power version of Intel Pentium3 CPU with MMX, SSE and SSE2 instruction set support. Used by Centrino notebooks.
pentium4, pentium4m
Intel Pentium4 CPU with MMX, SSE and SSE2 instruction set support.
prescott
Improved version of Intel Pentium4 CPU with MMX, SSE, SSE2 and SSE3 instruction set support.
nocona
Improved version of Intel Pentium4 CPU with 64-bit extensions, MMX, SSE, SSE2 and SSE3 instruction set support.
core2
Intel Core2 CPU with 64-bit extensions, MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3 and SSSE3 instruction set support.
corei7
Intel Core i7 CPU with 64-bit extensions, MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1 and SSE4.2 instruction set support.
corei7-avx
Intel Core i7 CPU with 64-bit extensions, MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, AES and PCLMUL instruction set support.
core-avx-i
Intel Core CPU with 64-bit extensions, MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AVX, AES, PCLMUL, FSGSBASE, RDRND and F16C instruction set support.
atom
Intel Atom CPU with 64-bit extensions, MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3 and SSSE3 instruction set support.
k6
AMD K6 CPU with MMX instruction set support.
k6-2, k6-3
Improved versions of AMD K6 CPU with MMX and 3DNow! instruction set support.
athlon, athlon-tbird
AMD Athlon CPU with MMX, 3dNOW!, enhanced 3DNow! and SSE prefetch instructions support.
athlon-4, athlon-xp, athlon-mp
Improved AMD Athlon CPU with MMX, 3DNow!, enhanced 3DNow! and full SSE instruction set support.
k8, opteron, athlon64, athlon-fx
AMD K8 core based CPUs with x86-64 instruction set support. (This supersets MMX, SSE, SSE2, 3DNow!, enhanced 3DNow! and 64-bit instruction set extensions.)
k8-sse3, opteron-sse3, athlon64-sse3
Improved versions of k8, opteron and athlon64 with SSE3 instruction set support.
amdfam10, barcelona
AMD Family 10h core based CPUs with x86-64 instruction set support. (This supersets MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSE4A, 3DNow!, enhanced 3DNow!, ABM and 64-bit instruction set extensions.)
bdver1
AMD Family 15h core based CPUs with x86-64 instruction set support. (This supersets FMA4, AVX, XOP, LWP, AES, PCL_MUL, CX16, MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSE4A, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, ABM and 64-bit instruction set extensions.)
bdver2
AMD Family 15h core based CPUs with x86-64 instruction set support. (This supersets BMI, TBM, F16C, FMA, AVX, XOP, LWP, AES, PCL_MUL, CX16, MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSE4A, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, ABM and 64-bit instruction set extensions.)
btver1
AMD Family 14h core based CPUs with x86-64 instruction set support. (This supersets MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4A, CX16, ABM and 64-bit instruction set extensions.)
winchip-c6
IDT Winchip C6 CPU, dealt in same way as i486 with additional MMX instruction set support.
winchip2
IDT Winchip2 CPU, dealt in same way as i486 with additional MMX and 3DNow! instruction set support.
c3
Via C3 CPU with MMX and 3DNow! instruction set support. (No scheduling is implemented for this chip.)
c3-2
Via C3-2 CPU with MMX and SSE instruction set support. (No scheduling is implemented for this chip.)
geode
Embedded AMD CPU with MMX and 3DNow! instruction set support.

While picking a specific cpu-type will schedule things appropriately for that particular chip, the compiler will not generate any code that does not run on the default machine type without the -march=cpu-type option being used. For example, if GCC is configured for i686-pc-linux-gnu then -mtune=pentium4 will generate code that is tuned for Pentium4 but will still run on i686 machines.

-march=cpu-type
Generate instructions for the machine type cpu-type. The choices for cpu-type are the same as for -mtune. Moreover, specifying -march=cpu-type implies -mtune=cpu-type.
-mcpu=cpu-type
A deprecated synonym for -mtune.
-mfpmath=unit
Generate floating-point arithmetic for selected unit unit. The choices for unit are:
387
Use the standard 387 floating-point coprocessor present on the majority of chips and emulated otherwise. Code compiled with this option runs almost everywhere. The temporary results are computed in 80-bit precision instead of the precision specified by the type, resulting in slightly different results compared to most of other chips. See -ffloat-store for more detailed description.

This is the default choice for i386 compiler.

sse
Use scalar floating-point instructions present in the SSE instruction set. This instruction set is supported by Pentium3 and newer chips, in the AMD line by Athlon-4, Athlon-xp and Athlon-mp chips. The earlier version of SSE instruction set supports only single-precision arithmetic, thus the double and extended-precision arithmetic are still done using 387. A later version, present only in Pentium4 and the future AMD x86-64 chips, supports double-precision arithmetic too.

For the i386 compiler, you need to use -march=cpu-type, -msse or -msse2 switches to enable SSE extensions and make this option effective. For the x86-64 compiler, these extensions are enabled by default.

The resulting code should be considerably faster in the majority of cases and avoid the numerical instability problems of 387 code, but may break some existing code that expects temporaries to be 80 bits.

This is the default choice for the x86-64 compiler.

sse,387
sse+387
both
Attempt to utilize both instruction sets at once. This effectively double the amount of available registers and on chips with separate execution units for 387 and SSE the execution resources too. Use this option with care, as it is still experimental, because the GCC register allocator does not model separate functional units well resulting in instable performance.

-masm=dialect
Output asm instructions using selected dialect. Supported choices are ‘intel’ or ‘att’ (the default one). Darwin does not support ‘intel’.
-mieee-fp
-mno-ieee-fp
Control whether or not the compiler uses IEEE floating-point comparisons. These handle correctly the case where the result of a comparison is unordered.
-msoft-float
Generate output containing library calls for floating point. Warning: the requisite libraries are not part of GCC. Normally the facilities of the machine's usual C compiler are used, but this can't be done directly in cross-compilation. You must make your own arrangements to provide suitable library functions for cross-compilation.

On machines where a function returns floating-point results in the 80387 register stack, some floating-point opcodes may be emitted even if -msoft-float is used.

-mno-fp-ret-in-387
Do not use the FPU registers for return values of functions.

The usual calling convention has functions return values of types float and double in an FPU register, even if there is no FPU. The idea is that the operating system should emulate an FPU.

The option -mno-fp-ret-in-387 causes such values to be returned in ordinary CPU registers instead.

-mno-fancy-math-387
Some 387 emulators do not support the sin, cos and sqrt instructions for the 387. Specify this option to avoid generating those instructions. This option is the default on FreeBSD, OpenBSD and NetBSD. This option is overridden when -march indicates that the target CPU will always have an FPU and so the instruction will not need emulation. As of revision 2.6.1, these instructions are not generated unless you also use the -funsafe-math-optimizations switch.
-malign-double
-mno-align-double
Control whether GCC aligns double, long double, and long long variables on a two-word boundary or a one-word boundary. Aligning double variables on a two-word boundary produces code that runs somewhat faster on a ‘Pentium’ at the expense of more memory.

On x86-64, -malign-double is enabled by default.

Warning: if you use the -malign-double switch, structures containing the above types will be aligned differently than the published application binary interface specifications for the 386 and will not be binary compatible with structures in code compiled without that switch.

-m96bit-long-double
-m128bit-long-double
These switches control the size of long double type. The i386 application binary interface specifies the size to be 96 bits, so -m96bit-long-double is the default in 32-bit mode.

Modern architectures (Pentium and newer) prefer long double to be aligned to an 8- or 16-byte boundary. In arrays or structures conforming to the ABI, this is not possible. So specifying -m128bit-long-double aligns long double to a 16-byte boundary by padding the long double with an additional 32-bit zero.

In the x86-64 compiler, -m128bit-long-double is the default choice as its ABI specifies that long double is to be aligned on 16-byte boundary.

Notice that neither of these options enable any extra precision over the x87 standard of 80 bits for a long double.

Warning: if you override the default value for your target ABI, the structures and arrays containing long double variables will change their size as well as function calling convention for function taking long double will be modified. Hence they will not be binary compatible with arrays or structures in code compiled without that switch.

-mlarge-data-threshold=number
When -mcmodel=medium is specified, the data greater than threshold are placed in large data section. This value must be the same across all object linked into the binary and defaults to 65535.
-mrtd
Use a different function-calling convention, in which functions that take a fixed number of arguments return with the ret num instruction, which pops their arguments while returning. This saves one instruction in the caller since there is no need to pop the arguments there.

You can specify that an individual function is called with this calling sequence with the function attribute ‘stdcall’. You can also override the -mrtd option by using the function attribute ‘cdecl’. See Function Attributes.

Warning: this calling convention is incompatible with the one normally used on Unix, so you cannot use it if you need to call libraries compiled with the Unix compiler.

Also, you must provide function prototypes for all functions that take variable numbers of arguments (including printf); otherwise incorrect code will be generated for calls to those functions.

In addition, seriously incorrect code will result if you call a function with too many arguments. (Normally, extra arguments are harmlessly ignored.)

-mregparm=num
Control how many registers are used to pass integer arguments. By default, no registers are used to pass arguments, and at most 3 registers can be used. You can control this behavior for a specific function by using the function attribute ‘regparm’. See Function Attributes.

Warning: if you use this switch, and num is nonzero, then you must build all modules with the same value, including any libraries. This includes the system libraries and startup modules.

-msseregparm
Use SSE register passing conventions for float and double arguments and return values. You can control this behavior for a specific function by using the function attribute ‘sseregparm’. See Function Attributes.

Warning: if you use this switch then you must build all modules with the same value, including any libraries. This includes the system libraries and startup modules.

-mvect8-ret-in-mem
Return 8-byte vectors in memory instead of MMX registers. This is the default on Solaris 8 and 9 and VxWorks to match the ABI of the Sun Studio compilers until version 12. Later compiler versions (starting with Studio 12 Update 1) follow the ABI used by other x86 targets, which is the default on Solaris 10 and later. Only use this option if you need to remain compatible with existing code produced by those previous compiler versions or older versions of GCC.
-mpc32
-mpc64
-mpc80
Set 80387 floating-point precision to 32, 64 or 80 bits. When -mpc32 is specified, the significands of results of floating-point operations are rounded to 24 bits (single precision); -mpc64 rounds the significands of results of floating-point operations to 53 bits (double precision) and -mpc80 rounds the significands of results of floating-point operations to 64 bits (extended double precision), which is the default. When this option is used, floating-point operations in higher precisions are not available to the programmer without setting the FPU control word explicitly.

Setting the rounding of floating-point operations to less than the default 80 bits can speed some programs by 2% or more. Note that some mathematical libraries assume that extended-precision (80-bit) floating-point operations are enabled by default; routines in such libraries could suffer significant loss of accuracy, typically through so-called "catastrophic cancellation", when this option is used to set the precision to less than extended precision.

-mstackrealign
Realign the stack at entry. On the Intel x86, the -mstackrealign option will generate an alternate prologue and epilogue that realigns the run-time stack if necessary. This supports mixing legacy codes that keep a 4-byte aligned stack with modern codes that keep a 16-byte stack for SSE compatibility. See also the attribute force_align_arg_pointer, applicable to individual functions.
-mpreferred-stack-boundary=num
Attempt to keep the stack boundary aligned to a 2 raised to num byte boundary. If -mpreferred-stack-boundary is not specified, the default is 4 (16 bytes or 128 bits).

Warning: When generating code for the x86-64 architecture with SSE extensions disabled, -mpreferred-stack-boundary=3 can be used to keep the stack boundary aligned to 8 byte boundary. You must build all modules with -mpreferred-stack-boundary=3, including any libraries. This includes the system libraries and startup modules.

-mincoming-stack-boundary=num
Assume the incoming stack is aligned to a 2 raised to num byte boundary. If -mincoming-stack-boundary is not specified, the one specified by -mpreferred-stack-boundary will be used.

On Pentium and PentiumPro, double and long double values should be aligned to an 8-byte boundary (see -malign-double) or suffer significant run time performance penalties. On Pentium III, the Streaming SIMD Extension (SSE) data type __m128 may not work properly if it is not 16-byte aligned.

To ensure proper alignment of this values on the stack, the stack boundary must be as aligned as that required by any value stored on the stack. Further, every function must be generated such that it keeps the stack aligned. Thus calling a function compiled with a higher preferred stack boundary from a function compiled with a lower preferred stack boundary will most likely misalign the stack. It is recommended that libraries that use callbacks always use the default setting.

This extra alignment does consume extra stack space, and generally increases code size. Code that is sensitive to stack space usage, such as embedded systems and operating system kernels, may want to reduce the preferred alignment to -mpreferred-stack-boundary=2.

-mmmx
-mno-mmx
-msse
-mno-sse
-msse2
-mno-sse2
-msse3
-mno-sse3
-mssse3
-mno-ssse3
-msse4.1
-mno-sse4.1
-msse4.2
-mno-sse4.2
-msse4
-mno-sse4
-mavx
-mno-avx
-mavx2
-mno-avx2
-maes
-mno-aes
-mpclmul
-mno-pclmul
-mfsgsbase
-mno-fsgsbase
-mrdrnd
-mno-rdrnd
-mf16c
-mno-f16c
-mfma
-mno-fma
-msse4a
-mno-sse4a
-mfma4
-mno-fma4
-mxop
-mno-xop
-mlwp
-mno-lwp
-m3dnow
-mno-3dnow
-mpopcnt
-mno-popcnt
-mabm
-mno-abm
-mbmi
-mbmi2
-mno-bmi
-mno-bmi2
-mlzcnt
-mno-lzcnt
-mtbm
-mno-tbm
These switches enable or disable the use of instructions in the MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, AVX, AVX2, AES, PCLMUL, FSGSBASE, RDRND, F16C, FMA, SSE4A, FMA4, XOP, LWP, ABM, BMI, BMI2, LZCNT or 3DNow! extended instruction sets. These extensions are also available as built-in functions: see X86 Built-in Functions, for details of the functions enabled and disabled by these switches.

To have SSE/SSE2 instructions generated automatically from floating-point code (as opposed to 387 instructions), see -mfpmath=sse.

GCC depresses SSEx instructions when -mavx is used. Instead, it generates new AVX instructions or AVX equivalence for all SSEx instructions when needed.

These options will enable GCC to use these extended instructions in generated code, even without -mfpmath=sse. Applications that perform run-time CPU detection must compile separate files for each supported architecture, using the appropriate flags. In particular, the file containing the CPU detection code should be compiled without these options.

-mcld
This option instructs GCC to emit a cld instruction in the prologue of functions that use string instructions. String instructions depend on the DF flag to select between autoincrement or autodecrement mode. While the ABI specifies the DF flag to be cleared on function entry, some operating systems violate this specification by not clearing the DF flag in their exception dispatchers. The exception handler can be invoked with the DF flag set, which leads to wrong direction mode when string instructions are used. This option can be enabled by default on 32-bit x86 targets by configuring GCC with the --enable-cld configure option. Generation of cld instructions can be suppressed with the -mno-cld compiler option in this case.
-mvzeroupper
This option instructs GCC to emit a vzeroupper instruction before a transfer of control flow out of the function to minimize AVX to SSE transition penalty as well as remove unnecessary zeroupper intrinsics.
-mprefer-avx128
This option instructs GCC to use 128-bit AVX instructions instead of 256-bit AVX instructions in the auto-vectorizer.
-mcx16
This option will enable GCC to use CMPXCHG16B instruction in generated code. CMPXCHG16B allows for atomic operations on 128-bit double quadword (or oword) data types. This is useful for high resolution counters that could be updated by multiple processors (or cores). This instruction is generated as part of atomic built-in functions: see __sync Builtins or __atomic Builtins for details.
-msahf
This option will enable GCC to use SAHF instruction in generated 64-bit code. Early Intel CPUs with Intel 64 lacked LAHF and SAHF instructions supported by AMD64 until introduction of Pentium 4 G1 step in December 2005. LAHF and SAHF are load and store instructions, respectively, for certain status flags. In 64-bit mode, SAHF instruction is used to optimize fmod, drem or remainder built-in functions: see Other Builtins for details.
-mmovbe
This option will enable GCC to use movbe instruction to implement __builtin_bswap32 and __builtin_bswap64.
-mcrc32
This option will enable built-in functions, __builtin_ia32_crc32qi, __builtin_ia32_crc32hi. __builtin_ia32_crc32si and __builtin_ia32_crc32di to generate the crc32 machine instruction.
-mrecip
This option will enable GCC to use RCPSS and RSQRTSS instructions (and their vectorized variants RCPPS and RSQRTPS) with an additional Newton-Raphson step to increase precision instead of DIVSS and SQRTSS (and their vectorized variants) for single-precision floating-point arguments. These instructions are generated only when -funsafe-math-optimizations is enabled together with -finite-math-only and -fno-trapping-math. Note that while the throughput of the sequence is higher than the throughput of the non-reciprocal instruction, the precision of the sequence can be decreased by up to 2 ulp (i.e. the inverse of 1.0 equals 0.99999994).

Note that GCC implements 1.0f/sqrtf(x) in terms of RSQRTSS (or RSQRTPS) already with -ffast-math (or the above option combination), and doesn't need -mrecip.

Also note that GCC emits the above sequence with additional Newton-Raphson step for vectorized single-float division and vectorized sqrtf(x) already with -ffast-math (or the above option combination), and doesn't need -mrecip.

-mrecip=opt
This option allows to control which reciprocal estimate instructions may be used. opt is a comma separated list of options, which may be preceded by a ! to invert the option: all: enable all estimate instructions, default: enable the default instructions, equivalent to -mrecip, none: disable all estimate instructions, equivalent to -mno-recip, div: enable the approximation for scalar division, vec-div: enable the approximation for vectorized division, sqrt: enable the approximation for scalar square root, vec-sqrt: enable the approximation for vectorized square root.

So for example, -mrecip=all,!sqrt would enable all of the reciprocal approximations, except for square root.

-mveclibabi=type
Specifies the ABI type to use for vectorizing intrinsics using an external library. Supported types are svml for the Intel short vector math library and acml for the AMD math core library style of interfacing. GCC will currently emit calls to vmldExp2, vmldLn2, vmldLog102, vmldLog102, vmldPow2, vmldTanh2, vmldTan2, vmldAtan2, vmldAtanh2, vmldCbrt2, vmldSinh2, vmldSin2, vmldAsinh2, vmldAsin2, vmldCosh2, vmldCos2, vmldAcosh2, vmldAcos2, vmlsExp4, vmlsLn4, vmlsLog104, vmlsLog104, vmlsPow4, vmlsTanh4, vmlsTan4, vmlsAtan4, vmlsAtanh4, vmlsCbrt4, vmlsSinh4, vmlsSin4, vmlsAsinh4, vmlsAsin4, vmlsCosh4, vmlsCos4, vmlsAcosh4 and vmlsAcos4 for corresponding function type when -mveclibabi=svml is used and __vrd2_sin, __vrd2_cos, __vrd2_exp, __vrd2_log, __vrd2_log2, __vrd2_log10, __vrs4_sinf, __vrs4_cosf, __vrs4_expf, __vrs4_logf, __vrs4_log2f, __vrs4_log10f and __vrs4_powf for corresponding function type when -mveclibabi=acml is used. Both -ftree-vectorize and -funsafe-math-optimizations have to be enabled. A SVML or ACML ABI compatible library will have to be specified at link time.
-mabi=name
Generate code for the specified calling convention. Permissible values are: ‘sysv’ for the ABI used on GNU/Linux and other systems and ‘ms’ for the Microsoft ABI. The default is to use the Microsoft ABI when targeting Windows. On all other systems, the default is the SYSV ABI. You can control this behavior for a specific function by using the function attribute ‘ms_abi’/‘sysv_abi’. See Function Attributes.
-mtls-dialect=type
Generate code to access thread-local storage using the ‘gnu’ or ‘gnu2’ conventions. ‘gnu’ is the conservative default; ‘gnu2’ is more efficient, but it may add compile- and run-time requirements that cannot be satisfied on all systems.
-mpush-args
-mno-push-args
Use PUSH operations to store outgoing parameters. This method is shorter and usually equally fast as method using SUB/MOV operations and is enabled by default. In some cases disabling it may improve performance because of improved scheduling and reduced dependencies.
-maccumulate-outgoing-args
If enabled, the maximum amount of space required for outgoing arguments will be computed in the function prologue. This is faster on most modern CPUs because of reduced dependencies, improved scheduling and reduced stack usage when preferred stack boundary is not equal to 2. The drawback is a notable increase in code size. This switch implies -mno-push-args.
-mthreads
Support thread-safe exception handling on ‘Mingw32’. Code that relies on thread-safe exception handling must compile and link all code with the -mthreads option. When compiling, -mthreads defines -D_MT; when linking, it links in a special thread helper library -lmingwthrd which cleans up per thread exception handling data.
-mno-align-stringops
Do not align destination of inlined string operations. This switch reduces code size and improves performance in case the destination is already aligned, but GCC doesn't know about it.
-minline-all-stringops
By default GCC inlines string operations only when the destination is known to be aligned to least a 4-byte boundary. This enables more inlining, increase code size, but may improve performance of code that depends on fast memcpy, strlen and memset for short lengths.
-minline-stringops-dynamically
For string operations of unknown size, use run-time checks with inline code for small blocks and a library call for large blocks.
-mstringop-strategy=alg
Overwrite internal decision heuristic about particular algorithm to inline string operation with. The allowed values are rep_byte, rep_4byte, rep_8byte for expanding using i386 rep prefix of specified size, byte_loop, loop, unrolled_loop for expanding inline loop, libcall for always expanding library call.
-momit-leaf-frame-pointer
Don't keep the frame pointer in a register for leaf functions. This avoids the instructions to save, set up and restore frame pointers and makes an extra register available in leaf functions. The option -fomit-frame-pointer removes the frame pointer for all functions, which might make debugging harder.
-mtls-direct-seg-refs
-mno-tls-direct-seg-refs
Controls whether TLS variables may be accessed with offsets from the TLS segment register (%gs for 32-bit, %fs for 64-bit), or whether the thread base pointer must be added. Whether or not this is legal depends on the operating system, and whether it maps the segment to cover the entire TLS area.

For systems that use GNU libc, the default is on.

-msse2avx
-mno-sse2avx
Specify that the assembler should encode SSE instructions with VEX prefix. The option -mavx turns this on by default.
-mfentry
-mno-fentry
If profiling is active -pg put the profiling counter call before prologue. Note: On x86 architectures the attribute ms_hook_prologue isn't possible at the moment for -mfentry and -pg.
-m8bit-idiv
-mno-8bit-idiv
On some processors, like Intel Atom, 8-bit unsigned integer divide is much faster than 32-bit/64-bit integer divide. This option generates a run-time check. If both dividend and divisor are within range of 0 to 255, 8-bit unsigned integer divide is used instead of 32-bit/64-bit integer divide.
-mavx256-split-unaligned-load
-mavx256-split-unaligned-store
Split 32-byte AVX unaligned load and store.

These ‘-m’ switches are supported in addition to the above on AMD x86-64 processors in 64-bit environments.

-m32
-m64
-mx32
Generate code for a 32-bit or 64-bit environment. The -m32 option sets int, long and pointer to 32 bits and generates code that runs on any i386 system. The -m64 option sets int to 32 bits and long and pointer to 64 bits and generates code for AMD's x86-64 architecture. The -mx32 option sets int, long and pointer to 32 bits and generates code for AMD's x86-64 architecture. For darwin only the -m64 option turns off the -fno-pic and -mdynamic-no-pic options.
-mno-red-zone
Do not use a so called red zone for x86-64 code. The red zone is mandated by the x86-64 ABI, it is a 128-byte area beyond the location of the stack pointer that will not be modified by signal or interrupt handlers and therefore can be used for temporary data without adjusting the stack pointer. The flag -mno-red-zone disables this red zone.
-mcmodel=small
Generate code for the small code model: the program and its symbols must be linked in the lower 2 GB of the address space. Pointers are 64 bits. Programs can be statically or dynamically linked. This is the default code model.
-mcmodel=kernel
Generate code for the kernel code model. The kernel runs in the negative 2 GB of the address space. This model has to be used for Linux kernel code.
-mcmodel=medium
Generate code for the medium model: The program is linked in the lower 2 GB of the address space. Small symbols are also placed there. Symbols with sizes larger than -mlarge-data-threshold are put into large data or bss sections and can be located above 2GB. Programs can be statically or dynamically linked.
-mcmodel=large
Generate code for the large model: This model makes no assumptions about addresses and sizes of sections.
-maddress-mode=long
Generate code for long address mode. This is only supported for 64-bit and x32 environments. It is the default address mode for 64-bit environments.
-maddress-mode=short
Generate code for short address mode. This is only supported for 32-bit and x32 environments. It is the default address mode for 32-bit and x32 environments.


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3.17.18 i386 and x86-64 Windows Options

These additional options are available for Windows targets:

-mconsole
This option is available for Cygwin and MinGW targets. It specifies that a console application is to be generated, by instructing the linker to set the PE header subsystem type required for console applications. This is the default behavior for Cygwin and MinGW targets.
-mdll
This option is available for Cygwin and MinGW targets. It specifies that a DLL - a dynamic link library - is to be generated, enabling the selection of the required runtime startup object and entry point.
-mnop-fun-dllimport
This option is available for Cygwin and MinGW targets. It specifies that the dllimport attribute should be ignored.
-mthread
This option is available for MinGW targets. It specifies that MinGW-specific thread support is to be used.
-municode
This option is available for mingw-w64 targets. It specifies that the UNICODE macro is getting pre-defined and that the unicode capable runtime startup code is chosen.
-mwin32
This option is available for Cygwin and MinGW targets. It specifies that the typical Windows pre-defined macros are to be set in the pre-processor, but does not influence the choice of runtime library/startup code.
-mwindows
This option is available for Cygwin and MinGW targets. It specifies that a GUI application is to be generated by instructing the linker to set the PE header subsystem type appropriately.
-fno-set-stack-executable
This option is available for MinGW targets. It specifies that the executable flag for stack used by nested functions isn't set. This is necessary for binaries running in kernel mode of Windows, as there the user32 API, which is used to set executable privileges, isn't available.
-mpe-aligned-commons
This option is available for Cygwin and MinGW targets. It specifies that the GNU extension to the PE file format that permits the correct alignment of COMMON variables should be used when generating code. It will be enabled by default if GCC detects that the target assembler found during configuration supports the feature.

See also under i386 and x86-64 Options for standard options.


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3.17.19 IA-64 Options

These are the ‘-m’ options defined for the Intel IA-64 architecture.

-mbig-endian
Generate code for a big-endian target. This is the default for HP-UX.
-mlittle-endian
Generate code for a little-endian target. This is the default for AIX5 and GNU/Linux.
-mgnu-as
-mno-gnu-as
Generate (or don't) code for the GNU assembler. This is the default.
-mgnu-ld
-mno-gnu-ld
Generate (or don't) code for the GNU linker. This is the default.
-mno-pic
Generate code that does not use a global pointer register. The result is not position independent code, and violates the IA-64 ABI.
-mvolatile-asm-stop
-mno-volatile-asm-stop
Generate (or don't) a stop bit immediately before and after volatile asm statements.
-mregister-names
-mno-register-names
Generate (or don't) ‘in’, ‘loc’, and ‘out’ register names for the stacked registers. This may make assembler output more readable.
-mno-sdata
-msdata
Disable (or enable) optimizations that use the small data section. This may be useful for working around optimizer bugs.
-mconstant-gp
Generate code that uses a single constant global pointer value. This is useful when compiling kernel code.
-mauto-pic
Generate code that is self-relocatable. This implies -mconstant-gp. This is useful when compiling firmware code.
-minline-float-divide-min-latency
Generate code for inline divides of floating-point values using the minimum latency algorithm.
-minline-float-divide-max-throughput
Generate code for inline divides of floating-point values using the maximum throughput algorithm.
-mno-inline-float-divide
Do not generate inline code for divides of floating-point values.
-minline-int-divide-min-latency
Generate code for inline divides of integer values using the minimum latency algorithm.
-minline-int-divide-max-throughput
Generate code for inline divides of integer values using the maximum throughput algorithm.
-mno-inline-int-divide
Do not generate inline code for divides of integer values.
-minline-sqrt-min-latency
Generate code for inline square roots using the minimum latency algorithm.
-minline-sqrt-max-throughput
Generate code for inline square roots using the maximum throughput algorithm.
-mno-inline-sqrt
Do not generate inline code for sqrt.
-mfused-madd
-mno-fused-madd
Do (don't) generate code that uses the fused multiply/add or multiply/subtract instructions. The default is to use these instructions.
-mno-dwarf2-asm
-mdwarf2-asm
Don't (or do) generate assembler code for the DWARF2 line number debugging info. This may be useful when not using the GNU assembler.
-mearly-stop-bits
-mno-early-stop-bits
Allow stop bits to be placed earlier than immediately preceding the instruction that triggered the stop bit. This can improve instruction scheduling, but does not always do so.
-mfixed-range=register-range
Generate code treating the given register range as fixed registers. A fixed register is one that the register allocator can not use. This is useful when compiling kernel code. A register range is specified as two registers separated by a dash. Multiple register ranges can be specified separated by a comma.
-mtls-size=tls-size
Specify bit size of immediate TLS offsets. Valid values are 14, 22, and 64.
-mtune=cpu-type
Tune the instruction scheduling for a particular CPU, Valid values are itanium, itanium1, merced, itanium2, and mckinley.
-milp32
-mlp64
Generate code for a 32-bit or 64-bit environment. The 32-bit environment sets int, long and pointer to 32 bits. The 64-bit environment sets int to 32 bits and long and pointer to 64 bits. These are HP-UX specific flags.
-mno-sched-br-data-spec
-msched-br-data-spec
(Dis/En)able data speculative scheduling before reload. This will result in generation of the ld.a instructions and the corresponding check instructions (ld.c / chk.a). The default is 'disable'.
-msched-ar-data-spec
-mno-sched-ar-data-spec
(En/Dis)able data speculative scheduling after reload. This will result in generation of the ld.a instructions and the corresponding check instructions (ld.c / chk.a). The default is 'enable'.
-mno-sched-control-spec
-msched-control-spec
(Dis/En)able control speculative scheduling. This feature is available only during region scheduling (i.e. before reload). This will result in generation of the ld.s instructions and the corresponding check instructions chk.s . The default is 'disable'.
-msched-br-in-data-spec
-mno-sched-br-in-data-spec
(En/Dis)able speculative scheduling of the instructions that are dependent on the data speculative loads before reload. This is effective only with -msched-br-data-spec enabled. The default is 'enable'.
-msched-ar-in-data-spec
-mno-sched-ar-in-data-spec
(En/Dis)able speculative scheduling of the instructions that are dependent on the data speculative loads after reload. This is effective only with -msched-ar-data-spec enabled. The default is 'enable'.
-msched-in-control-spec
-mno-sched-in-control-spec
(En/Dis)able speculative scheduling of the instructions that are dependent on the control speculative loads. This is effective only with -msched-control-spec enabled. The default is 'enable'.
-mno-sched-prefer-non-data-spec-insns
-msched-prefer-non-data-spec-insns
If enabled, data speculative instructions will be chosen for schedule only if there are no other choices at the moment. This will make the use of the data speculation much more conservative. The default is 'disable'.
-mno-sched-prefer-non-control-spec-insns
-msched-prefer-non-control-spec-insns
If enabled, control speculative instructions will be chosen for schedule only if there are no other choices at the moment. This will make the use of the control speculation much more conservative. The default is 'disable'.
-mno-sched-count-spec-in-critical-path
-msched-count-spec-in-critical-path
If enabled, speculative dependencies will be considered during computation of the instructions priorities. This will make the use of the speculation a bit more conservative. The default is 'disable'.
-msched-spec-ldc
Use a simple data speculation check. This option is on by default.
-msched-control-spec-ldc
Use a simple check for control speculation. This option is on by default.
-msched-stop-bits-after-every-cycle
Place a stop bit after every cycle when scheduling. This option is on by default.
-msched-fp-mem-deps-zero-cost
Assume that floating-point stores and loads are not likely to cause a conflict when placed into the same instruction group. This option is disabled by default.
-msel-sched-dont-check-control-spec
Generate checks for control speculation in selective scheduling. This flag is disabled by default.
-msched-max-memory-insns=max-insns
Limit on the number of memory insns per instruction group, giving lower priority to subsequent memory insns attempting to schedule in the same instruction group. Frequently useful to prevent cache bank conflicts. The default value is 1.
-msched-max-memory-insns-hard-limit
Disallow more than `msched-max-memory-insns' in instruction group. Otherwise, limit is `soft' meaning that we would prefer non-memory operations when limit is reached but may still schedule memory operations.


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3.17.20 IA-64/VMS Options

These ‘-m’ options are defined for the IA-64/VMS implementations:

-mvms-return-codes
Return VMS condition codes from main. The default is to return POSIX style condition (e.g. error) codes.
-mdebug-main=prefix
Flag the first routine whose name starts with prefix as the main routine for the debugger.
-mmalloc64
Default to 64-bit memory allocation routines.


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3.17.21 LM32 Options

These -m options are defined for the Lattice Mico32 architecture:

-mbarrel-shift-enabled
Enable barrel-shift instructions.
-mdivide-enabled
Enable divide and modulus instructions.
-mmultiply-enabled
Enable multiply instructions.
-msign-extend-enabled
Enable sign extend instructions.
-muser-enabled
Enable user-defined instructions.


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3.17.22 M32C Options

-mcpu=name
Select the CPU for which code is generated. name may be one of ‘r8c’ for the R8C/Tiny series, ‘m16c’ for the M16C (up to /60) series, ‘m32cm’ for the M16C/80 series, or ‘m32c’ for the M32C/80 series.
-msim
Specifies that the program will be run on the simulator. This causes an alternate runtime library to be linked in which supports, for example, file I/O. You must not use this option when generating programs that will run on real hardware; you must provide your own runtime library for whatever I/O functions are needed.
-memregs=number
Specifies the number of memory-based pseudo-registers GCC will use during code generation. These pseudo-registers will be used like real registers, so there is a tradeoff between GCC's ability to fit the code into available registers, and the performance penalty of using memory instead of registers. Note that all modules in a program must be compiled with the same value for this option. Because of that, you must not use this option with the default runtime libraries gcc builds.


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3.17.23 M32R/D Options

These -m options are defined for Renesas M32R/D architectures:

-m32r2
Generate code for the M32R/2.
-m32rx
Generate code for the M32R/X.
-m32r
Generate code for the M32R. This is the default.
-mmodel=small
Assume all objects live in the lower 16MB of memory (so that their addresses can be loaded with the ld24 instruction), and assume all subroutines are reachable with the bl instruction. This is the default.

The addressability of a particular object can be set with the model attribute.

-mmodel=medium
Assume objects may be anywhere in the 32-bit address space (the compiler will generate seth/add3 instructions to load their addresses), and assume all subroutines are reachable with the bl instruction.
-mmodel=large
Assume objects may be anywhere in the 32-bit address space (the compiler will generate seth/add3 instructions to load their addresses), and assume subroutines may not be reachable with the bl instruction (the compiler will generate the much slower seth/add3/jl instruction sequence).
-msdata=none
Disable use of the small data area. Variables will be put into one of ‘.data’, ‘bss’, or ‘.rodata’ (unless the section attribute has been specified). This is the default.

The small data area consists of sections ‘.sdata’ and ‘.sbss’. Objects may be explicitly put in the small data area with the section attribute using one of these sections.

-msdata=sdata
Put small global and static data in the small data area, but do not generate special code to reference them.
-msdata=use
Put small global and static data in the small data area, and generate special instructions to reference them.
-G num
Put global and static objects less than or equal to num bytes into the small data or bss sections instead of the normal data or bss sections. The default value of num is 8. The -msdata option must be set to one of ‘sdata’ or ‘use’ for this option to have any effect.

All modules should be compiled with the same -G num value. Compiling with different values of num may or may not work; if it doesn't the linker will give an error message—incorrect code will not be generated.

-mdebug
Makes the M32R specific code in the compiler display some statistics that might help in debugging programs.
-malign-loops
Align all loops to a 32-byte boundary.
-mno-align-loops
Do not enforce a 32-byte alignment for loops. This is the default.
-missue-rate=number
Issue number instructions per cycle. number can only be 1 or 2.
-mbranch-cost=number
number can only be 1 or 2. If it is 1 then branches will be preferred over conditional code, if it is 2, then the opposite will apply.
-mflush-trap=number
Specifies the trap number to use to flush the cache. The default is 12. Valid numbers are between 0 and 15 inclusive.
-mno-flush-trap
Specifies that the cache cannot be flushed by using a trap.
-mflush-func=name
Specifies the name of the operating system function to call to flush the cache. The default is _flush_cache, but a function call will only be used if a trap is not available.
-mno-flush-func
Indicates that there is no OS function for flushing the cache.


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3.17.24 M680x0 Options

These are the ‘-m’ options defined for M680x0 and ColdFire processors. The default settings depend on which architecture was selected when the compiler was configured; the defaults for the most common choices are given below.

-march=arch
Generate code for a specific M680x0 or ColdFire instruction set architecture. Permissible values of arch for M680x0 architectures are: ‘68000’, ‘68010’, ‘68020’, ‘68030’, ‘68040’, ‘68060’ and ‘cpu32’. ColdFire architectures are selected according to Freescale's ISA classification and the permissible values are: ‘isaa’, ‘isaaplus’, ‘isab’ and ‘isac’.

gcc defines a macro ‘__mcfarch__’ whenever it is generating code for a ColdFire target. The arch in this macro is one of the -march arguments given above.

When used together, -march and -mtune select code that runs on a family of similar processors but that is optimized for a particular microarchitecture.

-mcpu=cpu
Generate code for a specific M680x0 or ColdFire processor. The M680x0 cpus are: ‘68000’, ‘68010’, ‘68020’, ‘68030’, ‘68040’, ‘68060’, ‘68302’, ‘68332’ and ‘cpu32’. The ColdFire cpus are given by the table below, which also classifies the CPUs into families:

Family -mcpu’ arguments
5151’ ‘51ac’ ‘51cn’ ‘51em’ ‘51qe
52065202’ ‘5204’ ‘5206
5206e5206e
52085207’ ‘5208
5211a5210a’ ‘5211a
52135211’ ‘5212’ ‘5213
52165214’ ‘5216
5223552230’ ‘52231’ ‘52232’ ‘52233’ ‘52234’ ‘52235
52255224’ ‘5225
5225952252’ ‘52254’ ‘52255’ ‘52256’ ‘52258’ ‘52259
52355232’ ‘5233’ ‘5234’ ‘5235’ ‘523x
52495249
52505250
52715270’ ‘5271
52725272
52755274’ ‘5275
52825280’ ‘5281’ ‘5282’ ‘528x
5301753011’ ‘53012’ ‘53013’ ‘53014’ ‘53015’ ‘53016’ ‘53017
53075307
53295327’ ‘5328’ ‘5329’ ‘532x
53735372’ ‘5373’ ‘537x
54075407
54755470’ ‘5471’ ‘5472’ ‘5473’ ‘5474’ ‘5475’ ‘547x’ ‘5480’ ‘5481’ ‘5482’ ‘5483’ ‘5484’ ‘5485

-mcpu=cpu overrides -march=arch if arch is compatible with cpu. Other combinations of -mcpu and -march are rejected.

gcc defines the macro ‘__mcf_cpu_cpu’ when ColdFire target cpu is selected. It also defines ‘__mcf_family_family’, where the value of family is given by the table above.

-mtune=tune
Tune the code for a particular microarchitecture, within the constraints set by -march and -mcpu. The M680x0 microarchitectures are: ‘68000’, ‘68010’, ‘68020’, ‘68030’, ‘68040’, ‘68060’ and ‘cpu32’. The ColdFire microarchitectures are: ‘cfv1’, ‘cfv2’, ‘cfv3’, ‘cfv4’ and ‘cfv4e’.

You can also use -mtune=68020-40 for code that needs to run relatively well on 68020, 68030 and 68040 targets. -mtune=68020-60 is similar but includes 68060 targets as well. These two options select the same tuning decisions as -m68020-40 and -m68020-60 respectively.

gcc defines the macros ‘__mcarch’ and ‘__mcarch__’ when tuning for 680x0 architecture arch. It also defines ‘mcarch’ unless either -ansi or a non-GNU -std option is used. If gcc is tuning for a range of architectures, as selected by -mtune=68020-40 or -mtune=68020-60, it defines the macros for every architecture in the range.

gcc also defines the macro ‘__muarch__’ when tuning for ColdFire microarchitecture uarch, where uarch is one of the arguments given above.

-m68000
-mc68000
Generate output for a 68000. This is the default when the compiler is configured for 68000-based systems. It is equivalent to -march=68000.

Use this option for microcontrollers with a 68000 or EC000 core, including the 68008, 68302, 68306, 68307, 68322, 68328 and 68356.

-m68010
Generate output for a 68010. This is the default when the compiler is configured for 68010-based systems. It is equivalent to -march=68010.
-m68020
-mc68020
Generate output for a 68020. This is the default when the compiler is configured for 68020-based systems. It is equivalent to -march=68020.
-m68030
Generate output for a 68030. This is the default when the compiler is configured for 68030-based systems. It is equivalent to -march=68030.
-m68040
Generate output for a 68040. This is the default when the compiler is configured for 68040-based systems. It is equivalent to -march=68040.

This option inhibits the use of 68881/68882 instructions that have to be emulated by software on the 68040. Use this option if your 68040 does not have code to emulate those instructions.

-m68060
Generate output for a 68060. This is the default when the compiler is configured for 68060-based systems. It is equivalent to -march=68060.

This option inhibits the use of 68020 and 68881/68882 instructions that have to be emulated by software on the 68060. Use this option if your 68060 does not have code to emulate those instructions.

-mcpu32
Generate output for a CPU32. This is the default when the compiler is configured for CPU32-based systems. It is equivalent to -march=cpu32.

Use this option for microcontrollers with a CPU32 or CPU32+ core, including the 68330, 68331, 68332, 68333, 68334, 68336, 68340, 68341, 68349 and 68360.

-m5200
Generate output for a 520X ColdFire CPU. This is the default when the compiler is configured for 520X-based systems. It is equivalent to -mcpu=5206, and is now deprecated in favor of that option.

Use this option for microcontroller with a 5200 core, including the MCF5202, MCF5203, MCF5204 and MCF5206.

-m5206e
Generate output for a 5206e ColdFire CPU. The option is now deprecated in favor of the equivalent -mcpu=5206e.
-m528x
Generate output for a member of the ColdFire 528X family. The option is now deprecated in favor of the equivalent -mcpu=528x.
-m5307
Generate output for a ColdFire 5307 CPU. The option is now deprecated in favor of the equivalent -mcpu=5307.
-m5407
Generate output for a ColdFire 5407 CPU. The option is now deprecated in favor of the equivalent -mcpu=5407.
-mcfv4e
Generate output for a ColdFire V4e family CPU (e.g. 547x/548x). This includes use of hardware floating-point instructions. The option is equivalent to -mcpu=547x, and is now deprecated in favor of that option.
-m68020-40
Generate output for a 68040, without using any of the new instructions. This results in code that can run relatively efficiently on either a 68020/68881 or a 68030 or a 68040. The generated code does use the 68881 instructions that are emulated on the 68040.

The option is equivalent to -march=68020 -mtune=68020-40.

-m68020-60
Generate output for a 68060, without using any of the new instructions. This results in code that can run relatively efficiently on either a 68020/68881 or a 68030 or a 68040. The generated code does use the 68881 instructions that are emulated on the 68060.

The option is equivalent to -march=68020 -mtune=68020-60.

-mhard-float
-m68881
Generate floating-point instructions. This is the default for 68020 and above, and for ColdFire devices that have an FPU. It defines the macro ‘__HAVE_68881__’ on M680x0 targets and ‘__mcffpu__’ on ColdFire targets.
-msoft-float
Do not generate floating-point instructions; use library calls instead. This is the default for 68000, 68010, and 68832 targets. It is also the default for ColdFire devices that have no FPU.
-mdiv
-mno-div
Generate (do not generate) ColdFire hardware divide and remainder instructions. If -march is used without -mcpu, the default is “on” for ColdFire architectures and “off” for M680x0 architectures. Otherwise, the default is taken from the target CPU (either the default CPU, or the one specified by -mcpu). For example, the default is “off” for -mcpu=5206 and “on” for -mcpu=5206e.

gcc defines the macro ‘__mcfhwdiv__’ when this option is enabled.

-mshort
Consider type int to be 16 bits wide, like short int. Additionally, parameters passed on the stack are also aligned to a 16-bit boundary even on targets whose API mandates promotion to 32-bit.
-mno-short
Do not consider type int to be 16 bits wide. This is the default.
-mnobitfield
-mno-bitfield
Do not use the bit-field instructions. The -m68000, -mcpu32 and -m5200 options imply -mnobitfield.
-mbitfield
Do use the bit-field instructions. The -m68020 option implies -mbitfield. This is the default if you use a configuration designed for a 68020.
-mrtd
Use a different function-calling convention, in which functions that take a fixed number of arguments return with the rtd instruction, which pops their arguments while returning. This saves one instruction in the caller since there is no need to pop the arguments there.

This calling convention is incompatible with the one normally used on Unix, so you cannot use it if you need to call libraries compiled with the Unix compiler.

Also, you must provide function prototypes for all functions that take variable numbers of arguments (including printf); otherwise incorrect code will be generated for calls to those functions.

In addition, seriously incorrect code will result if you call a function with too many arguments. (Normally, extra arguments are harmlessly ignored.)

The rtd instruction is supported by the 68010, 68020, 68030, 68040, 68060 and CPU32 processors, but not by the 68000 or 5200.

-mno-rtd
Do not use the calling conventions selected by -mrtd. This is the default.
-malign-int
-mno-align-int
Control whether GCC aligns int, long, long long, float, double, and long double variables on a 32-bit boundary (-malign-int) or a 16-bit boundary (-mno-align-int). Aligning variables on 32-bit boundaries produces code that runs somewhat faster on processors with 32-bit busses at the expense of more memory.

Warning: if you use the -malign-int switch, GCC will align structures containing the above types differently than most published application binary interface specifications for the m68k.

-mpcrel
Use the pc-relative addressing mode of the 68000 directly, instead of using a global offset table. At present, this option implies -fpic, allowing at most a 16-bit offset for pc-relative addressing. -fPIC is not presently supported with -mpcrel, though this could be supported for 68020 and higher processors.
-mno-strict-align
-mstrict-align
Do not (do) assume that unaligned memory references will be handled by the system.
-msep-data
Generate code that allows the data segment to be located in a different area of memory from the text segment. This allows for execute in place in an environment without virtual memory management. This option implies -fPIC.
-mno-sep-data
Generate code that assumes that the data segment follows the text segment. This is the default.
-mid-shared-library
Generate code that supports shared libraries via the library ID method. This allows for execute in place and shared libraries in an environment without virtual memory management. This option implies -fPIC.
-mno-id-shared-library
Generate code that doesn't assume ID based shared libraries are being used. This is the default.
-mshared-library-id=n
Specified the identification number of the ID based shared library being compiled. Specifying a value of 0 will generate more compact code, specifying other values will force the allocation of that number to the current library but is no more space or time efficient than omitting this option.
-mxgot
-mno-xgot
When generating position-independent code for ColdFire, generate code that works if the GOT has more than 8192 entries. This code is larger and slower than code generated without this option. On M680x0 processors, this option is not needed; -fPIC suffices.

GCC normally uses a single instruction to load values from the GOT. While this is relatively efficient, it only works if the GOT is smaller than about 64k. Anything larger causes the linker to report an error such as:

          relocation truncated to fit: R_68K_GOT16O foobar

If this happens, you should recompile your code with -mxgot. It should then work with very large GOTs. However, code generated with -mxgot is less efficient, since it takes 4 instructions to fetch the value of a global symbol.

Note that some linkers, including newer versions of the GNU linker, can create multiple GOTs and sort GOT entries. If you have such a linker, you should only need to use -mxgot when compiling a single object file that accesses more than 8192 GOT entries. Very few do.

These options have no effect unless GCC is generating position-independent code.


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3.17.25 MCore Options

These are the ‘-m’ options defined for the Motorola M*Core processors.

-mhardlit
-mno-hardlit
Inline constants into the code stream if it can be done in two instructions or less.
-mdiv
-mno-div
Use the divide instruction. (Enabled by default).
-mrelax-immediate
-mno-relax-immediate
Allow arbitrary sized immediates in bit operations.
-mwide-bitfields
-mno-wide-bitfields
Always treat bit-fields as int-sized.
-m4byte-functions
-mno-4byte-functions
Force all functions to be aligned to a 4-byte boundary.
-mcallgraph-data
-mno-callgraph-data
Emit callgraph information.
-mslow-bytes
-mno-slow-bytes
Prefer word access when reading byte quantities.
-mlittle-endian
-mbig-endian
Generate code for a little-endian target.
-m210
-m340
Generate code for the 210 processor.
-mno-lsim
Assume that runtime support has been provided and so omit the simulator library (libsim.a) from the linker command line.
-mstack-increment=size
Set the maximum amount for a single stack increment operation. Large values can increase the speed of programs that contain functions that need a large amount of stack space, but they can also trigger a segmentation fault if the stack is extended too much. The default value is 0x1000.


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3.17.26 MeP Options

-mabsdiff
Enables the abs instruction, which is the absolute difference between two registers.
-mall-opts
Enables all the optional instructions - average, multiply, divide, bit operations, leading zero, absolute difference, min/max, clip, and saturation.
-maverage
Enables the ave instruction, which computes the average of two registers.
-mbased=n
Variables of size n bytes or smaller will be placed in the .based section by default. Based variables use the $tp register as a base register, and there is a 128-byte limit to the .based section.
-mbitops
Enables the bit operation instructions - bit test (btstm), set (bsetm), clear (bclrm), invert (bnotm), and test-and-set (tas).
-mc=name
Selects which section constant data will be placed in. name may be tiny, near, or far.
-mclip
Enables the clip instruction. Note that -mclip is not useful unless you also provide -mminmax.
-mconfig=name
Selects one of the build-in core configurations. Each MeP chip has one or more modules in it; each module has a core CPU and a variety of coprocessors, optional instructions, and peripherals. The MeP-Integrator tool, not part of GCC, provides these configurations through this option; using this option is the same as using all the corresponding command-line options. The default configuration is default.
-mcop
Enables the coprocessor instructions. By default, this is a 32-bit coprocessor. Note that the coprocessor is normally enabled via the -mconfig= option.
-mcop32
Enables the 32-bit coprocessor's instructions.
-mcop64
Enables the 64-bit coprocessor's instructions.
-mivc2
Enables IVC2 scheduling. IVC2 is a 64-bit VLIW coprocessor.
-mdc
Causes constant variables to be placed in the .near section.
-mdiv
Enables the div and divu instructions.
-meb
Generate big-endian code.
-mel
Generate little-endian code.
-mio-volatile
Tells the compiler that any variable marked with the io attribute is to be considered volatile.
-ml
Causes variables to be assigned to the .far section by default.
-mleadz
Enables the leadz (leading zero) instruction.
-mm
Causes variables to be assigned to the .near section by default.
-mminmax
Enables the min and max instructions.
-mmult
Enables the multiplication and multiply-accumulate instructions.
-mno-opts
Disables all the optional instructions enabled by -mall-opts.
-mrepeat
Enables the repeat and erepeat instructions, used for low-overhead looping.
-ms
Causes all variables to default to the .tiny section. Note that there is a 65536-byte limit to this section. Accesses to these variables use the %gp base register.
-msatur
Enables the saturation instructions. Note that the compiler does not currently generate these itself, but this option is included for compatibility with other tools, like as.
-msdram
Link the SDRAM-based runtime instead of the default ROM-based runtime.
-msim
Link the simulator runtime libraries.
-msimnovec
Link the simulator runtime libraries, excluding built-in support for reset and exception vectors and tables.
-mtf
Causes all functions to default to the .far section. Without this option, functions default to the .near section.
-mtiny=n
Variables that are n bytes or smaller will be allocated to the .tiny section. These variables use the $gp base register. The default for this option is 4, but note that there's a 65536-byte limit to the .tiny section.


Next: , Previous: MeP Options, Up: Submodel Options

3.17.27 MicroBlaze Options

-msoft-float
Use software emulation for floating point (default).
-mhard-float
Use hardware floating-point instructions.
-mmemcpy
Do not optimize block moves, use memcpy.
-mno-clearbss
This option is deprecated. Use -fno-zero-initialized-in-bss instead.
-mcpu=cpu-type
Use features of and schedule code for given CPU. Supported values are in the format ‘vX.YY.Z’, where X is a major version, YY is the minor version, and Z is compatibility code. Example values are ‘v3.00.a’, ‘v4.00.b’, ‘v5.00.a’, ‘v5.00.b’, ‘v5.00.b’, ‘v6.00.a’.
-mxl-soft-mul
Use software multiply emulation (default).
-mxl-soft-div
Use software emulation for divides (default).
-mxl-barrel-shift
Use the hardware barrel shifter.
-mxl-pattern-compare
Use pattern compare instructions.
-msmall-divides
Use table lookup optimization for small signed integer divisions.
-mxl-stack-check
This option is deprecated. Use -fstack-check instead.
-mxl-gp-opt
Use GP relative sdata/sbss sections.
-mxl-multiply-high
Use multiply high instructions for high part of 32x32 multiply.
-mxl-float-convert
Use hardware floating-point conversion instructions.
-mxl-float-sqrt
Use hardware floating-point square root instruction.
-mxl-mode-app-model
Select application model app-model. Valid models are
executable
normal executable (default), uses startup code crt0.o.
xmdstub
for use with Xilinx Microprocessor Debugger (XMD) based software intrusive debug agent called xmdstub. This uses startup file crt1.o and sets the start address of the program to be 0x800.
bootstrap
for applications that are loaded using a bootloader. This model uses startup file crt2.o which does not contain a processor reset vector handler. This is suitable for transferring control on a processor reset to the bootloader rather than the application.
novectors
for applications that do not require any of the MicroBlaze vectors. This option may be useful for applications running within a monitoring application. This model uses crt3.o as a startup file.

Option -xl-mode-app-model is a deprecated alias for -mxl-mode-app-model.


Next: , Previous: MicroBlaze Options, Up: Submodel Options

3.17.28 MIPS Options

-EB
Generate big-endian code.
-EL
Generate little-endian code. This is the default for ‘mips*el-*-*’ configurations.
-march=arch
Generate code that will run on arch, which can be the name of a generic MIPS ISA, or the name of a particular processor. The ISA names are: ‘mips1’, ‘mips2’, ‘mips3’, ‘mips4’, ‘mips32’, ‘mips32r2’, ‘mips64’ and ‘mips64r2’. The processor names are: ‘4kc’, ‘4km’, ‘4kp’, ‘4ksc’, ‘4kec’, ‘4kem’, ‘4kep’, ‘4ksd’, ‘5kc’, ‘5kf’, ‘20kc’, ‘24kc’, ‘24kf2_1’, ‘24kf1_1’, ‘24kec’, ‘24kef2_1’, ‘24kef1_1’, ‘34kc’, ‘34kf2_1’, ‘34kf1_1’, ‘74kc’, ‘74kf2_1’, ‘74kf1_1’, ‘74kf3_2’, ‘1004kc’, ‘1004kf2_1’, ‘1004kf1_1’, ‘loongson2e’, ‘loongson2f’, ‘loongson3a’, ‘m4k’, ‘octeon’, ‘octeon+’, ‘octeon2’, ‘orion’, ‘r2000’, ‘r3000’, ‘r3900’, ‘r4000’, ‘r4400’, ‘r4600’, ‘r4650’, ‘r6000’, ‘r8000’, ‘rm7000’, ‘rm9000’, ‘r10000’, ‘r12000’, ‘r14000’, ‘r16000’, ‘sb1’, ‘sr71000’, ‘vr4100’, ‘vr4111’, ‘vr4120’, ‘vr4130’, ‘vr4300’, ‘vr5000’, ‘vr5400’, ‘vr5500’ and ‘xlr’. The special value ‘from-abi’ selects the most compatible architecture for the selected ABI (that is, ‘mips1’ for 32-bit ABIs and ‘mips3’ for 64-bit ABIs).

Native Linux/GNU and IRIX toolchains also support the value ‘native’, which selects the best architecture option for the host processor. -march=native has no effect if GCC does not recognize the processor.

In processor names, a final ‘000’ can be abbreviated as ‘k’ (for example, ‘-march=r2k’). Prefixes are optional, and ‘vr’ may be written ‘r’.

Names of the form ‘nf2_1’ refer to processors with FPUs clocked at half the rate of the core, names of the form ‘nf1_1’ refer to processors with FPUs clocked at the same rate as the core, and names of the form ‘nf3_2’ refer to processors with FPUs clocked a ratio of 3:2 with respect to the core. For compatibility reasons, ‘nf’ is accepted as a synonym for ‘nf2_1’ while ‘nx’ and ‘bfx’ are accepted as synonyms for ‘nf1_1’.

GCC defines two macros based on the value of this option. The first is ‘_MIPS_ARCH’, which gives the name of target architecture, as a string. The second has the form ‘_MIPS_ARCH_foo’, where foo is the capitalized value of ‘_MIPS_ARCH’. For example, ‘-march=r2000’ will set ‘_MIPS_ARCH’ to ‘"r2000"’ and define the macro ‘_MIPS_ARCH_R2000’.

Note that the ‘_MIPS_ARCH’ macro uses the processor names given above. In other words, it will have the full prefix and will not abbreviate ‘000’ as ‘k’. In the case of ‘from-abi’, the macro names the resolved architecture (either ‘"mips1"’ or ‘"mips3"’). It names the default architecture when no -march option is given.

-mtune=arch
Optimize for arch. Among other things, this option controls the way instructions are scheduled, and the perceived cost of arithmetic operations. The list of arch values is the same as for -march.

When this option is not used, GCC will optimize for the processor specified by -march. By using -march and -mtune together, it is possible to generate code that will run on a family of processors, but optimize the code for one particular member of that family.

-mtune’ defines the macros ‘_MIPS_TUNE’ and ‘_MIPS_TUNE_foo’, which work in the same way as the ‘-march’ ones described above.

-mips1
Equivalent to ‘-march=mips1’.
-mips2
Equivalent to ‘-march=mips2’.
-mips3
Equivalent to ‘-march=mips3’.
-mips4
Equivalent to ‘-march=mips4’.
-mips32
Equivalent to ‘-march=mips32’.
-mips32r2
Equivalent to ‘-march=mips32r2’.
-mips64
Equivalent to ‘-march=mips64’.
-mips64r2
Equivalent to ‘-march=mips64r2’.
-mips16
-mno-mips16
Generate (do not generate) MIPS16 code. If GCC is targetting a MIPS32 or MIPS64 architecture, it will make use of the MIPS16e ASE.

MIPS16 code generation can also be controlled on a per-function basis by means of mips16 and nomips16 attributes. See Function Attributes, for more information.

-mflip-mips16
Generate MIPS16 code on alternating functions. This option is provided for regression testing of mixed MIPS16/non-MIPS16 code generation, and is not intended for ordinary use in compiling user code.
-minterlink-mips16
-mno-interlink-mips16
Require (do not require) that non-MIPS16 code be link-compatible with MIPS16 code.

For example, non-MIPS16 code cannot jump directly to MIPS16 code; it must either use a call or an indirect jump. -minterlink-mips16 therefore disables direct jumps unless GCC knows that the target of the jump is not MIPS16.

-mabi=32
-mabi=o64
-mabi=n32
-mabi=64
-mabi=eabi
Generate code for the given ABI.

Note that the EABI has a 32-bit and a 64-bit variant. GCC normally generates 64-bit code when you select a 64-bit architecture, but you can use -mgp32 to get 32-bit code instead.

For information about the O64 ABI, see http://gcc.gnu.org/projects/mipso64-abi.html.

GCC supports a variant of the o32 ABI in which floating-point registers are 64 rather than 32 bits wide. You can select this combination with -mabi=32 -mfp64. This ABI relies on the ‘mthc1’ and ‘mfhc1’ instructions and is therefore only supported for MIPS32R2 processors.

The register assignments for arguments and return values remain the same, but each scalar value is passed in a single 64-bit register rather than a pair of 32-bit registers. For example, scalar floating-point values are returned in ‘$f0’ only, not a ‘$f0’/‘$f1’ pair. The set of call-saved registers also remains the same, but all 64 bits are saved.

-mabicalls
-mno-abicalls
Generate (do not generate) code that is suitable for SVR4-style dynamic objects. -mabicalls is the default for SVR4-based systems.
-mshared
-mno-shared
Generate (do not generate) code that is fully position-independent, and that can therefore be linked into shared libraries. This option only affects -mabicalls.

All -mabicalls code has traditionally been position-independent, regardless of options like -fPIC and -fpic. However, as an extension, the GNU toolchain allows executables to use absolute accesses for locally-binding symbols. It can also use shorter GP initialization sequences and generate direct calls to locally-defined functions. This mode is selected by -mno-shared.

-mno-shared depends on binutils 2.16 or higher and generates objects that can only be linked by the GNU linker. However, the option does not affect the ABI of the final executable; it only affects the ABI of relocatable objects. Using -mno-shared will generally make executables both smaller and quicker.

-mshared is the default.

-mplt
-mno-plt
Assume (do not assume) that the static and dynamic linkers support PLTs and copy relocations. This option only affects ‘-mno-shared -mabicalls’. For the n64 ABI, this option has no effect without ‘-msym32’.

You can make -mplt the default by configuring GCC with --with-mips-plt. The default is -mno-plt otherwise.

-mxgot
-mno-xgot
Lift (do not lift) the usual restrictions on the size of the global offset table.

GCC normally uses a single instruction to load values from the GOT. While this is relatively efficient, it will only work if the GOT is smaller than about 64k. Anything larger will cause the linker to report an error such as:

          relocation truncated to fit: R_MIPS_GOT16 foobar

If this happens, you should recompile your code with -mxgot. It should then work with very large GOTs, although it will also be less efficient, since it will take three instructions to fetch the value of a global symbol.

Note that some linkers can create multiple GOTs. If you have such a linker, you should only need to use -mxgot when a single object file accesses more than 64k's worth of GOT entries. Very few do.

These options have no effect unless GCC is generating position independent code.

-mgp32
Assume that general-purpose registers are 32 bits wide.
-mgp64
Assume that general-purpose registers are 64 bits wide.
-mfp32
Assume that floating-point registers are 32 bits wide.
-mfp64
Assume that floating-point registers are 64 bits wide.
-mhard-float
Use floating-point coprocessor instructions.
-msoft-float
Do not use floating-point coprocessor instructions. Implement floating-point calculations using library calls instead.
-msingle-float
Assume that the floating-point coprocessor only supports single-precision operations.
-mdouble-float
Assume that the floating-point coprocessor supports double-precision operations. This is the default.
-mllsc
-mno-llsc
Use (do not use) ‘ll’, ‘sc’, and ‘sync’ instructions to implement atomic memory built-in functions. When neither option is specified, GCC will use the instructions if the target architecture supports them.

-mllsc is useful if the runtime environment can emulate the instructions and -mno-llsc can be useful when compiling for nonstandard ISAs. You can make either option the default by configuring GCC with --with-llsc and --without-llsc respectively. --with-llsc is the default for some configurations; see the installation documentation for details.

-mdsp
-mno-dsp
Use (do not use) revision 1 of the MIPS DSP ASE. See MIPS DSP Built-in Functions. This option defines the preprocessor macro ‘__mips_dsp’. It also defines ‘__mips_dsp_rev’ to 1.
-mdspr2
-mno-dspr2
Use (do not use) revision 2 of the MIPS DSP ASE. See MIPS DSP Built-in Functions. This option defines the preprocessor macros ‘__mips_dsp’ and ‘__mips_dspr2’. It also defines ‘__mips_dsp_rev’ to 2.
-msmartmips
-mno-smartmips
Use (do not use) the MIPS SmartMIPS ASE.
-mpaired-single
-mno-paired-single
Use (do not use) paired-single floating-point instructions. See MIPS Paired-Single Support. This option requires hardware floating-point support to be enabled.
-mdmx
-mno-mdmx
Use (do not use) MIPS Digital Media Extension instructions. This option can only be used when generating 64-bit code and requires hardware floating-point support to be enabled.
-mips3d
-mno-mips3d
Use (do not use) the MIPS-3D ASE. See MIPS-3D Built-in Functions. The option -mips3d implies -mpaired-single.
-mmt
-mno-mt
Use (do not use) MT Multithreading instructions.
-mlong64
Force long types to be 64 bits wide. See -mlong32 for an explanation of the default and the way that the pointer size is determined.
-mlong32
Force long, int, and pointer types to be 32 bits wide.

The default size of ints, longs and pointers depends on the ABI. All the supported ABIs use 32-bit ints. The n64 ABI uses 64-bit longs, as does the 64-bit EABI; the others use 32-bit longs. Pointers are the same size as longs, or the same size as integer registers, whichever is smaller.

-msym32
-mno-sym32
Assume (do not assume) that all symbols have 32-bit values, regardless of the selected ABI. This option is useful in combination with -mabi=64 and -mno-abicalls because it allows GCC to generate shorter and faster references to symbolic addresses.
-G num
Put definitions of externally-visible data in a small data section if that data is no bigger than num bytes. GCC can then access the data more efficiently; see -mgpopt for details.

The default -G option depends on the configuration.

-mlocal-sdata
-mno-local-sdata
Extend (do not extend) the -G behavior to local data too, such as to static variables in C. -mlocal-sdata is the default for all configurations.

If the linker complains that an application is using too much small data, you might want to try rebuilding the less performance-critical parts with -mno-local-sdata. You might also want to build large libraries with -mno-local-sdata, so that the libraries leave more room for the main program.

-mextern-sdata
-mno-extern-sdata
Assume (do not assume) that externally-defined data will be in a small data section if that data is within the -G limit. -mextern-sdata is the default for all configurations.

If you compile a module Mod with -mextern-sdata -G num -mgpopt, and Mod references a variable Var that is no bigger than num bytes, you must make sure that Var is placed in a small data section. If Var is defined by another module, you must either compile that module with a high-enough -G setting or attach a section attribute to Var's definition. If Var is common, you must link the application with a high-enough -G setting.

The easiest way of satisfying these restrictions is to compile and link every module with the same -G option. However, you may wish to build a library that supports several different small data limits. You can do this by compiling the library with the highest supported -G setting and additionally using -mno-extern-sdata to stop the library from making assumptions about externally-defined data.

-mgpopt
-mno-gpopt
Use (do not use) GP-relative accesses for symbols that are known to be in a small data section; see -G, -mlocal-sdata and -mextern-sdata. -mgpopt is the default for all configurations.

-mno-gpopt is useful for cases where the $gp register might not hold the value of _gp. For example, if the code is part of a library that might be used in a boot monitor, programs that call boot monitor routines will pass an unknown value in $gp. (In such situations, the boot monitor itself would usually be compiled with -G0.)

-mno-gpopt implies -mno-local-sdata and -mno-extern-sdata.

-membedded-data
-mno-embedded-data
Allocate variables to the read-only data section first if possible, then next in the small data section if possible, otherwise in data. This gives slightly slower code than the default, but reduces the amount of RAM required when executing, and thus may be preferred for some embedded systems.
-muninit-const-in-rodata
-mno-uninit-const-in-rodata
Put uninitialized const variables in the read-only data section. This option is only meaningful in conjunction with -membedded-data.
-mcode-readable=setting
Specify whether GCC may generate code that reads from executable sections. There are three possible settings:
-mcode-readable=yes
Instructions may freely access executable sections. This is the default setting.
-mcode-readable=pcrel
MIPS16 PC-relative load instructions can access executable sections, but other instructions must not do so. This option is useful on 4KSc and 4KSd processors when the code TLBs have the Read Inhibit bit set. It is also useful on processors that can be configured to have a dual instruction/data SRAM interface and that, like the M4K, automatically redirect PC-relative loads to the instruction RAM.
-mcode-readable=no
Instructions must not access executable sections. This option can be useful on targets that are configured to have a dual instruction/data SRAM interface but that (unlike the M4K) do not automatically redirect PC-relative loads to the instruction RAM.

-msplit-addresses
-mno-split-addresses
Enable (disable) use of the %hi() and %lo() assembler relocation operators. This option has been superseded by -mexplicit-relocs but is retained for backwards compatibility.
-mexplicit-relocs
-mno-explicit-relocs
Use (do not use) assembler relocation operators when dealing with symbolic addresses. The alternative, selected by -mno-explicit-relocs, is to use assembler macros instead.

-mexplicit-relocs is the default if GCC was configured to use an assembler that supports relocation operators.

-mcheck-zero-division
-mno-check-zero-division
Trap (do not trap) on integer division by zero.

The default is -mcheck-zero-division.

-mdivide-traps
-mdivide-breaks
MIPS systems check for division by zero by generating either a conditional trap or a break instruction. Using traps results in smaller code, but is only supported on MIPS II and later. Also, some versions of the Linux kernel have a bug that prevents trap from generating the proper signal (SIGFPE). Use -mdivide-traps to allow conditional traps on architectures that support them and -mdivide-breaks to force the use of breaks.

The default is usually -mdivide-traps, but this can be overridden at configure time using --with-divide=breaks. Divide-by-zero checks can be completely disabled using -mno-check-zero-division.

-mmemcpy
-mno-memcpy
Force (do not force) the use of memcpy() for non-trivial block moves. The default is -mno-memcpy, which allows GCC to inline most constant-sized copies.
-mlong-calls
-mno-long-calls
Disable (do not disable) use of the jal instruction. Calling functions using jal is more efficient but requires the caller and callee to be in the same 256 megabyte segment.

This option has no effect on abicalls code. The default is -mno-long-calls.

-mmad
-mno-mad
Enable (disable) use of the mad, madu and mul instructions, as provided by the R4650 ISA.
-mfused-madd
-mno-fused-madd
Enable (disable) use of the floating-point multiply-accumulate instructions, when they are available. The default is -mfused-madd.

When multiply-accumulate instructions are used, the intermediate product is calculated to infinite precision and is not subject to the FCSR Flush to Zero bit. This may be undesirable in some circumstances.

-nocpp
Tell the MIPS assembler to not run its preprocessor over user assembler files (with a ‘.s’ suffix) when assembling them.
-mfix-24k
-mno-fix-24k
Work around the 24K E48 (lost data on stores during refill) errata. The workarounds are implemented by the assembler rather than by GCC.
-mfix-r4000
-mno-fix-r4000
Work around certain R4000 CPU errata:
-mfix-r4400
-mno-fix-r4400
Work around certain R4400 CPU errata:
-mfix-r10000
-mno-fix-r10000
Work around certain R10000 errata:

This option can only be used if the target architecture supports branch-likely instructions. -mfix-r10000 is the default when -march=r10000 is used; -mno-fix-r10000 is the default otherwise.

-mfix-vr4120
-mno-fix-vr4120
Work around certain VR4120 errata: The workarounds for the division errata rely on special functions in libgcc.a. At present, these functions are only provided by the mips64vr*-elf configurations.

Other VR4120 errata require a nop to be inserted between certain pairs of instructions. These errata are handled by the assembler, not by GCC itself.

-mfix-vr4130
Work around the VR4130 mflo/mfhi errata. The workarounds are implemented by the assembler rather than by GCC, although GCC will avoid using mflo and mfhi if the VR4130 macc, macchi, dmacc and dmacchi instructions are available instead.
-mfix-sb1
-mno-fix-sb1
Work around certain SB-1 CPU core errata. (This flag currently works around the SB-1 revision 2 “F1” and “F2” floating-point errata.)
-mr10k-cache-barrier=setting
Specify whether GCC should insert cache barriers to avoid the side-effects of speculation on R10K processors.

In common with many processors, the R10K tries to predict the outcome of a conditional branch and speculatively executes instructions from the “taken” branch. It later aborts these instructions if the predicted outcome was wrong. However, on the R10K, even aborted instructions can have side effects.

This problem only affects kernel stores and, depending on the system, kernel loads. As an example, a speculatively-executed store may load the target memory into cache and mark the cache line as dirty, even if the store itself is later aborted. If a DMA operation writes to the same area of memory before the “dirty” line is flushed, the cached data will overwrite the DMA-ed data. See the R10K processor manual for a full description, including other potential problems.

One workaround is to insert cache barrier instructions before every memory access that might be speculatively executed and that might have side effects even if aborted. -mr10k-cache-barrier=setting controls GCC's implementation of this workaround. It assumes that aborted accesses to any byte in the following regions will not have side effects:

  1. the memory occupied by the current function's stack frame;
  2. the memory occupied by an incoming stack argument;
  3. the memory occupied by an object with a link-time-constant address.

It is the kernel's responsibility to ensure that speculative accesses to these regions are indeed safe.

If the input program contains a function declaration such as:

          void foo (void);

then the implementation of foo must allow j foo and jal foo to be executed speculatively. GCC honors this restriction for functions it compiles itself. It expects non-GCC functions (such as hand-written assembly code) to do the same.

The option has three forms:

-mr10k-cache-barrier=load-store
Insert a cache barrier before a load or store that might be speculatively executed and that might have side effects even if aborted.
-mr10k-cache-barrier=store
Insert a cache barrier before a store that might be speculatively executed and that might have side effects even if aborted.
-mr10k-cache-barrier=none
Disable the insertion of cache barriers. This is the default setting.

-mflush-func=func
-mno-flush-func
Specifies the function to call to flush the I and D caches, or to not call any such function. If called, the function must take the same arguments as the common _flush_func(), that is, the address of the memory range for which the cache is being flushed, the size of the memory range, and the number 3 (to flush both caches). The default depends on the target GCC was configured for, but commonly is either ‘_flush_func’ or ‘__cpu_flush’.
mbranch-cost=num
Set the cost of branches to roughly num “simple” instructions. This cost is only a heuristic and is not guaranteed to produce consistent results across releases. A zero cost redundantly selects the default, which is based on the -mtune setting.
-mbranch-likely
-mno-branch-likely
Enable or disable use of Branch Likely instructions, regardless of the default for the selected architecture. By default, Branch Likely instructions may be generated if they are supported by the selected architecture. An exception is for the MIPS32 and MIPS64 architectures and processors that implement those architectures; for those, Branch Likely instructions will not be generated by default because the MIPS32 and MIPS64 architectures specifically deprecate their use.
-mfp-exceptions
-mno-fp-exceptions
Specifies whether FP exceptions are enabled. This affects how we schedule FP instructions for some processors. The default is that FP exceptions are enabled.

For instance, on the SB-1, if FP exceptions are disabled, and we are emitting 64-bit code, then we can use both FP pipes. Otherwise, we can only use one FP pipe.

-mvr4130-align
-mno-vr4130-align
The VR4130 pipeline is two-way superscalar, but can only issue two instructions together if the first one is 8-byte aligned. When this option is enabled, GCC will align pairs of instructions that it thinks should execute in parallel.

This option only has an effect when optimizing for the VR4130. It normally makes code faster, but at the expense of making it bigger. It is enabled by default at optimization level -O3.

-msynci
-mno-synci
Enable (disable) generation of synci instructions on architectures that support it. The synci instructions (if enabled) will be generated when __builtin___clear_cache() is compiled.

This option defaults to -mno-synci, but the default can be overridden by configuring with --with-synci.

When compiling code for single processor systems, it is generally safe to use synci. However, on many multi-core (SMP) systems, it will not invalidate the instruction caches on all cores and may lead to undefined behavior.

-mrelax-pic-calls
-mno-relax-pic-calls
Try to turn PIC calls that are normally dispatched via register $25 into direct calls. This is only possible if the linker can resolve the destination at link-time and if the destination is within range for a direct call.

-mrelax-pic-calls is the default if GCC was configured to use an assembler and a linker that supports the .reloc assembly directive and -mexplicit-relocs is in effect. With -mno-explicit-relocs, this optimization can be performed by the assembler and the linker alone without help from the compiler.

-mmcount-ra-address
-mno-mcount-ra-address
Emit (do not emit) code that allows _mcount to modify the calling function's return address. When enabled, this option extends the usual _mcount interface with a new ra-address parameter, which has type intptr_t * and is passed in register $12. _mcount can then modify the return address by doing both of the following:

The default is -mno-mcount-ra-address.


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3.17.29 MMIX Options

These options are defined for the MMIX:

-mlibfuncs
-mno-libfuncs
Specify that intrinsic library functions are being compiled, passing all values in registers, no matter the size.
-mepsilon
-mno-epsilon
Generate floating-point comparison instructions that compare with respect to the rE epsilon register.
-mabi=mmixware
-mabi=gnu
Generate code that passes function parameters and return values that (in the called function) are seen as registers $0 and up, as opposed to the GNU ABI which uses global registers $231 and up.
-mzero-extend
-mno-zero-extend
When reading data from memory in sizes shorter than 64 bits, use (do not use) zero-extending load instructions by default, rather than sign-extending ones.
-mknuthdiv
-mno-knuthdiv
Make the result of a division yielding a remainder have the same sign as the divisor. With the default, -mno-knuthdiv, the sign of the remainder follows the sign of the dividend. Both methods are arithmetically valid, the latter being almost exclusively used.
-mtoplevel-symbols
-mno-toplevel-symbols
Prepend (do not prepend) a ‘:’ to all global symbols, so the assembly code can be used with the PREFIX assembly directive.
-melf
Generate an executable in the ELF format, rather than the default ‘mmo’ format used by the mmix simulator.
-mbranch-predict
-mno-branch-predict
Use (do not use) the probable-branch instructions, when static branch prediction indicates a probable branch.
-mbase-addresses
-mno-base-addresses
Generate (do not generate) code that uses base addresses. Using a base address automatically generates a request (handled by the assembler and the linker) for a constant to be set up in a global register. The register is used for one or more base address requests within the range 0 to 255 from the value held in the register. The generally leads to short and fast code, but the number of different data items that can be addressed is limited. This means that a program that uses lots of static data may require -mno-base-addresses.
-msingle-exit
-mno-single-exit
Force (do not force) generated code to have a single exit point in each function.


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3.17.30 MN10300 Options

These -m options are defined for Matsushita MN10300 architectures:

-mmult-bug
Generate code to avoid bugs in the multiply instructions for the MN10300 processors. This is the default.
-mno-mult-bug
Do not generate code to avoid bugs in the multiply instructions for the MN10300 processors.
-mam33
Generate code using features specific to the AM33 processor.
-mno-am33
Do not generate code using features specific to the AM33 processor. This is the default.
-mam33-2
Generate code using features specific to the AM33/2.0 processor.
-mam34
Generate code using features specific to the AM34 processor.
-mtune=cpu-type
Use the timing characteristics of the indicated CPU type when scheduling instructions. This does not change the targeted processor type. The CPU type must be one of ‘mn10300’, ‘am33’, ‘am33-2’ or ‘am34’.
-mreturn-pointer-on-d0
When generating a function that returns a pointer, return the pointer in both a0 and d0. Otherwise, the pointer is returned only in a0, and attempts to call such functions without a prototype would result in errors. Note that this option is on by default; use -mno-return-pointer-on-d0 to disable it.
-mno-crt0
Do not link in the C run-time initialization object file.
-mrelax
Indicate to the linker that it should perform a relaxation optimization pass to shorten branches, calls and absolute memory addresses. This option only has an effect when used on the command line for the final link step.

This option makes symbolic debugging impossible.

-mliw
Allow the compiler to generate Long Instruction Word instructions if the target is the ‘AM33’ or later. This is the default. This option defines the preprocessor macro ‘__LIW__’.
-mnoliw
Do not allow the compiler to generate Long Instruction Word instructions. This option defines the preprocessor macro ‘__NO_LIW__’.
-msetlb
Allow the compiler to generate the SETLB and Lcc instructions if the target is the ‘AM33’ or later. This is the default. This option defines the preprocessor macro ‘__SETLB__’.
-mnosetlb
Do not allow the compiler to generate SETLB or Lcc instructions. This option defines the preprocessor macro ‘__NO_SETLB__’.


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3.17.31 PDP-11 Options

These options are defined for the PDP-11:

-mfpu
Use hardware FPP floating point. This is the default. (FIS floating point on the PDP-11/40 is not supported.)
-msoft-float
Do not use hardware floating point.
-mac0
Return floating-point results in ac0 (fr0 in Unix assembler syntax).
-mno-ac0
Return floating-point results in memory. This is the default.
-m40
Generate code for a PDP-11/40.
-m45
Generate code for a PDP-11/45. This is the default.
-m10
Generate code for a PDP-11/10.
-mbcopy-builtin
Use inline movmemhi patterns for copying memory. This is the default.
-mbcopy
Do not use inline movmemhi patterns for copying memory.
-mint16
-mno-int32
Use 16-bit int. This is the default.
-mint32
-mno-int16
Use 32-bit int.
-mfloat64
-mno-float32
Use 64-bit float. This is the default.
-mfloat32
-mno-float64
Use 32-bit float.
-mabshi
Use abshi2 pattern. This is the default.
-mno-abshi
Do not use abshi2 pattern.
-mbranch-expensive
Pretend that branches are expensive. This is for experimenting with code generation only.
-mbranch-cheap
Do not pretend that branches are expensive. This is the default.
-munix-asm
Use Unix assembler syntax. This is the default when configured for ‘pdp11-*-bsd’.
-mdec-asm
Use DEC assembler syntax. This is the default when configured for any PDP-11 target other than ‘pdp11-*-bsd’.


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3.17.32 picoChip Options

These ‘-m’ options are defined for picoChip implementations:

-mae=ae_type
Set the instruction set, register set, and instruction scheduling parameters for array element type ae_type. Supported values for ae_type are ‘ANY’, ‘MUL’, and ‘MAC’.

-mae=ANY selects a completely generic AE type. Code generated with this option will run on any of the other AE types. The code will not be as efficient as it would be if compiled for a specific AE type, and some types of operation (e.g., multiplication) will not work properly on all types of AE.

-mae=MUL selects a MUL AE type. This is the most useful AE type for compiled code, and is the default.

-mae=MAC selects a DSP-style MAC AE. Code compiled with this option may suffer from poor performance of byte (char) manipulation, since the DSP AE does not provide hardware support for byte load/stores.

-msymbol-as-address
Enable the compiler to directly use a symbol name as an address in a load/store instruction, without first loading it into a register. Typically, the use of this option will generate larger programs, which run faster than when the option isn't used. However, the results vary from program to program, so it is left as a user option, rather than being permanently enabled.
-mno-inefficient-warnings
Disables warnings about the generation of inefficient code. These warnings can be generated, for example, when compiling code that performs byte-level memory operations on the MAC AE type. The MAC AE has no hardware support for byte-level memory operations, so all byte load/stores must be synthesized from word load/store operations. This is inefficient and a warning will be generated indicating to the programmer that they should rewrite the code to avoid byte operations, or to target an AE type that has the necessary hardware support. This option enables the warning to be turned off.


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3.17.33 PowerPC Options

These are listed under See RS/6000 and PowerPC Options.


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3.17.34 RL78 Options

-msim
Links in additional target libraries to support operation within a simulator.
-mmul=none
-mmul=g13
-mmul=rl78
Specifies the type of hardware multiplication support to be used. The default is none, which uses software multiplication functions. The g13 option is for the hardware multiply/divide peripheral only on the RL78/G13 targets. The rl78 option is for the standard hardware multiplication defined in the RL78 software manual.


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3.17.35 IBM RS/6000 and PowerPC Options

These ‘-m’ options are defined for the IBM RS/6000 and PowerPC:

-mpower
-mno-power
-mpower2
-mno-power2
-mpowerpc
-mno-powerpc
-mpowerpc-gpopt
-mno-powerpc-gpopt
-mpowerpc-gfxopt
-mno-powerpc-gfxopt
-mpowerpc64
-mno-powerpc64
-mmfcrf
-mno-mfcrf
-mpopcntb
-mno-popcntb
-mpopcntd
-mno-popcntd
-mfprnd
-mno-fprnd
-mcmpb
-mno-cmpb
-mmfpgpr
-mno-mfpgpr
-mhard-dfp
-mno-hard-dfp
GCC supports two related instruction set architectures for the RS/6000 and PowerPC. The POWER instruction set are those instructions supported by the ‘rios’ chip set used in the original RS/6000 systems and the PowerPC instruction set is the architecture of the Freescale MPC5xx, MPC6xx, MPC8xx microprocessors, and the IBM 4xx, 6xx, and follow-on microprocessors.

Neither architecture is a subset of the other. However there is a large common subset of instructions supported by both. An MQ register is included in processors supporting the POWER architecture.

You use these options to specify which instructions are available on the processor you are using. The default value of these options is determined when configuring GCC. Specifying the -mcpu=cpu_type overrides the specification of these options. We recommend you use the -mcpu=cpu_type option rather than the options listed above.

The -mpower option allows GCC to generate instructions that are found only in the POWER architecture and to use the MQ register. Specifying -mpower2 implies -power and also allows GCC to generate instructions that are present in the POWER2 architecture but not the original POWER architecture.

The -mpowerpc option allows GCC to generate instructions that are found only in the 32-bit subset of the PowerPC architecture. Specifying -mpowerpc-gpopt implies -mpowerpc and also allows GCC to use the optional PowerPC architecture instructions in the General Purpose group, including floating-point square root. Specifying -mpowerpc-gfxopt implies -mpowerpc and also allows GCC to use the optional PowerPC architecture instructions in the Graphics group, including floating-point select.

The -mmfcrf option allows GCC to generate the move from condition register field instruction implemented on the POWER4 processor and other processors that support the PowerPC V2.01 architecture. The -mpopcntb option allows GCC to generate the popcount and double-precision FP reciprocal estimate instruction implemented on the POWER5 processor and other processors that support the PowerPC V2.02 architecture. The -mpopcntd option allows GCC to generate the popcount instruction implemented on the POWER7 processor and other processors that support the PowerPC V2.06 architecture. The -mfprnd option allows GCC to generate the FP round to integer instructions implemented on the POWER5+ processor and other processors that support the PowerPC V2.03 architecture. The -mcmpb option allows GCC to generate the compare bytes instruction implemented on the POWER6 processor and other processors that support the PowerPC V2.05 architecture. The -mmfpgpr option allows GCC to generate the FP move to/from general-purpose register instructions implemented on the POWER6X processor and other processors that support the extended PowerPC V2.05 architecture. The -mhard-dfp option allows GCC to generate the decimal floating-point instructions implemented on some POWER processors.

The -mpowerpc64 option allows GCC to generate the additional 64-bit instructions that are found in the full PowerPC64 architecture and to treat GPRs as 64-bit, doubleword quantities. GCC defaults to -mno-powerpc64.

If you specify both -mno-power and -mno-powerpc, GCC will use only the instructions in the common subset of both architectures plus some special AIX common-mode calls, and will not use the MQ register. Specifying both -mpower and -mpowerpc permits GCC to use any instruction from either architecture and to allow use of the MQ register; specify this for the Motorola MPC601.

-mnew-mnemonics
-mold-mnemonics
Select which mnemonics to use in the generated assembler code. With -mnew-mnemonics, GCC uses the assembler mnemonics defined for the PowerPC architecture. With -mold-mnemonics it uses the assembler mnemonics defined for the POWER architecture. Instructions defined in only one architecture have only one mnemonic; GCC uses that mnemonic irrespective of which of these options is specified.

GCC defaults to the mnemonics appropriate for the architecture in use. Specifying -mcpu=cpu_type sometimes overrides the value of these option. Unless you are building a cross-compiler, you should normally not specify either -mnew-mnemonics or -mold-mnemonics, but should instead accept the default.

-mcpu=cpu_type
Set architecture type, register usage, choice of mnemonics, and instruction scheduling parameters for machine type cpu_type. Supported values for cpu_type are ‘401’, ‘403’, ‘405’, ‘405fp’, ‘440’, ‘440fp’, ‘464’, ‘464fp’, ‘476’, ‘476fp’, ‘505’, ‘601’, ‘602’, ‘603’, ‘603e’, ‘604’, ‘604e’, ‘620’, ‘630’, ‘740’, ‘7400’, ‘7450’, ‘750’, ‘801’, ‘821’, ‘823’, ‘860’, ‘970’, ‘8540’, ‘a2’, ‘e300c2’, ‘e300c3’, ‘e500mc’, ‘e500mc64’, ‘ec603e’, ‘G3’, ‘G4’, ‘G5’, ‘titan’, ‘power’, ‘power2’, ‘power3’, ‘power4’, ‘power5’, ‘power5+’, ‘power6’, ‘power6x’, ‘power7’, ‘common’, ‘powerpc’, ‘powerpc64’, ‘rios’, ‘rios1’, ‘rios2’, ‘rsc’, and ‘rs64’.

-mcpu=common selects a completely generic processor. Code generated under this option will run on any POWER or PowerPC processor. GCC will use only the instructions in the common subset of both architectures, and will not use the MQ register. GCC assumes a generic processor model for scheduling purposes.

-mcpu=power, -mcpu=power2, -mcpu=powerpc, and -mcpu=powerpc64 specify generic POWER, POWER2, pure 32-bit PowerPC (i.e., not MPC601), and 64-bit PowerPC architecture machine types, with an appropriate, generic processor model assumed for scheduling purposes.

The other options specify a specific processor. Code generated under those options will run best on that processor, and may not run at all on others.

The -mcpu options automatically enable or disable the following options:

          -maltivec  -mfprnd  -mhard-float  -mmfcrf  -mmultiple 
          -mnew-mnemonics  -mpopcntb -mpopcntd  -mpower  -mpower2  -mpowerpc64 
          -mpowerpc-gpopt  -mpowerpc-gfxopt  -msingle-float -mdouble-float 
          -msimple-fpu -mstring  -mmulhw  -mdlmzb  -mmfpgpr -mvsx

The particular options set for any particular CPU will vary between compiler versions, depending on what setting seems to produce optimal code for that CPU; it doesn't necessarily reflect the actual hardware's capabilities. If you wish to set an individual option to a particular value, you may specify it after the -mcpu option, like ‘-mcpu=970 -mno-altivec’.

On AIX, the -maltivec and -mpowerpc64 options are not enabled or disabled by the -mcpu option at present because AIX does not have full support for these options. You may still enable or disable them individually if you're sure it'll work in your environment.

-mtune=cpu_type
Set the instruction scheduling parameters for machine type cpu_type, but do not set the architecture type, register usage, or choice of mnemonics, as -mcpu=cpu_type would. The same values for cpu_type are used for -mtune as for -mcpu. If both are specified, the code generated will use the architecture, registers, and mnemonics set by -mcpu, but the scheduling parameters set by -mtune.
-mcmodel=small
Generate PowerPC64 code for the small model: The TOC is limited to 64k.
-mcmodel=medium
Generate PowerPC64 code for the medium model: The TOC and other static data may be up to a total of 4G in size.
-mcmodel=large
Generate PowerPC64 code for the large model: The TOC may be up to 4G in size. Other data and code is only limited by the 64-bit address space.
-maltivec
-mno-altivec
Generate code that uses (does not use) AltiVec instructions, and also enable the use of built-in functions that allow more direct access to the AltiVec instruction set. You may also need to set -mabi=altivec to adjust the current ABI with AltiVec ABI enhancements.
-mvrsave
-mno-vrsave
Generate VRSAVE instructions when generating AltiVec code.
-mgen-cell-microcode
Generate Cell microcode instructions
-mwarn-cell-microcode
Warning when a Cell microcode instruction is going to emitted. An example of a Cell microcode instruction is a variable shift.
-msecure-plt
Generate code that allows ld and ld.so to build executables and shared libraries with non-exec .plt and .got sections. This is a PowerPC 32-bit SYSV ABI option.
-mbss-plt
Generate code that uses a BSS .plt section that ld.so fills in, and requires .plt and .got sections that are both writable and executable. This is a PowerPC 32-bit SYSV ABI option.
-misel
-mno-isel
This switch enables or disables the generation of ISEL instructions.
-misel=yes/no
This switch has been deprecated. Use -misel and -mno-isel instead.
-mspe
-mno-spe
This switch enables or disables the generation of SPE simd instructions.
-mpaired
-mno-paired
This switch enables or disables the generation of PAIRED simd instructions.
-mspe=yes/no
This option has been deprecated. Use -mspe and -mno-spe instead.
-mvsx
-mno-vsx
Generate code that uses (does not use) vector/scalar (VSX) instructions, and also enable the use of built-in functions that allow more direct access to the VSX instruction set.
-mfloat-gprs=yes/single/double/no
-mfloat-gprs
This switch enables or disables the generation of floating-point operations on the general-purpose registers for architectures that support it.

The argument yes or single enables the use of single-precision floating-point operations.

The argument double enables the use of single and double-precision floating-point operations.

The argument no disables floating-point operations on the general-purpose registers.

This option is currently only available on the MPC854x.

-m32
-m64
Generate code for 32-bit or 64-bit environments of Darwin and SVR4 targets (including GNU/Linux). The 32-bit environment sets int, long and pointer to 32 bits and generates code that runs on any PowerPC variant. The 64-bit environment sets int to 32 bits and long and pointer to 64 bits, and generates code for PowerPC64, as for -mpowerpc64.
-mfull-toc
-mno-fp-in-toc
-mno-sum-in-toc
-mminimal-toc
Modify generation of the TOC (Table Of Contents), which is created for every executable file. The -mfull-toc option is selected by default. In that case, GCC will allocate at least one TOC entry for each unique non-automatic variable reference in your program. GCC will also place floating-point constants in the TOC. However, only 16,384 entries are available in the TOC.

If you receive a linker error message that saying you have overflowed the available TOC space, you can reduce the amount of TOC space used with the -mno-fp-in-toc and -mno-sum-in-toc options. -mno-fp-in-toc prevents GCC from putting floating-point constants in the TOC and -mno-sum-in-toc forces GCC to generate code to calculate the sum of an address and a constant at run time instead of putting that sum into the TOC. You may specify one or both of these options. Each causes GCC to produce very slightly slower and larger code at the expense of conserving TOC space.

If you still run out of space in the TOC even when you specify both of these options, specify -mminimal-toc instead. This option causes GCC to make only one TOC entry for every file. When you specify this option, GCC will produce code that is slower and larger but which uses extremely little TOC space. You may wish to use this option only on files that contain less frequently executed code.

-maix64
-maix32
Enable 64-bit AIX ABI and calling convention: 64-bit pointers, 64-bit long type, and the infrastructure needed to support them. Specifying -maix64 implies -mpowerpc64 and -mpowerpc, while -maix32 disables the 64-bit ABI and implies -mno-powerpc64. GCC defaults to -maix32.
-mxl-compat
-mno-xl-compat
Produce code that conforms more closely to IBM XL compiler semantics when using AIX-compatible ABI. Pass floating-point arguments to prototyped functions beyond the register save area (RSA) on the stack in addition to argument FPRs. Do not assume that most significant double in 128-bit long double value is properly rounded when comparing values and converting to double. Use XL symbol names for long double support routines.

The AIX calling convention was extended but not initially documented to handle an obscure K&R C case of calling a function that takes the address of its arguments with fewer arguments than declared. IBM XL compilers access floating-point arguments that do not fit in the RSA from the stack when a subroutine is compiled without optimization. Because always storing floating-point arguments on the stack is inefficient and rarely needed, this option is not enabled by default and only is necessary when calling subroutines compiled by IBM XL compilers without optimization.

-mpe
Support IBM RS/6000 SP Parallel Environment (PE). Link an application written to use message passing with special startup code to enable the application to run. The system must have PE installed in the standard location (/usr/lpp/ppe.poe/), or the specs file must be overridden with the -specs= option to specify the appropriate directory location. The Parallel Environment does not support threads, so the -mpe option and the -pthread option are incompatible.
-malign-natural
-malign-power
On AIX, 32-bit Darwin, and 64-bit PowerPC GNU/Linux, the option -malign-natural overrides the ABI-defined alignment of larger types, such as floating-point doubles, on their natural size-based boundary. The option -malign-power instructs GCC to follow the ABI-specified alignment rules. GCC defaults to the standard alignment defined in the ABI.

On 64-bit Darwin, natural alignment is the default, and -malign-power is not supported.

-msoft-float
-mhard-float
Generate code that does not use (uses) the floating-point register set. Software floating-point emulation is provided if you use the -msoft-float option, and pass the option to GCC when linking.
-msingle-float
-mdouble-float
Generate code for single- or double-precision floating-point operations. -mdouble-float implies -msingle-float.
-msimple-fpu
Do not generate sqrt and div instructions for hardware floating-point unit.
-mfpu
Specify type of floating-point unit. Valid values are sp_lite (equivalent to -msingle-float -msimple-fpu), dp_lite (equivalent to -mdouble-float -msimple-fpu), sp_full (equivalent to -msingle-float), and dp_full (equivalent to -mdouble-float).
-mxilinx-fpu
Perform optimizations for the floating-point unit on Xilinx PPC 405/440.
-mmultiple
-mno-multiple
Generate code that uses (does not use) the load multiple word instructions and the store multiple word instructions. These instructions are generated by default on POWER systems, and not generated on PowerPC systems. Do not use -mmultiple on little-endian PowerPC systems, since those instructions do not work when the processor is in little-endian mode. The exceptions are PPC740 and PPC750 which permit these instructions in little-endian mode.
-mstring
-mno-string
Generate code that uses (does not use) the load string instructions and the store string word instructions to save multiple registers and do small block moves. These instructions are generated by default on POWER systems, and not generated on PowerPC systems. Do not use -mstring on little-endian PowerPC systems, since those instructions do not work when the processor is in little-endian mode. The exceptions are PPC740 and PPC750 which permit these instructions in little-endian mode.
-mupdate
-mno-update
Generate code that uses (does not use) the load or store instructions that update the base register to the address of the calculated memory location. These instructions are generated by default. If you use -mno-update, there is a small window between the time that the stack pointer is updated and the address of the previous frame is stored, which means code that walks the stack frame across interrupts or signals may get corrupted data.
-mavoid-indexed-addresses
-mno-avoid-indexed-addresses
Generate code that tries to avoid (not avoid) the use of indexed load or store instructions. These instructions can incur a performance penalty on Power6 processors in certain situations, such as when stepping through large arrays that cross a 16M boundary. This option is enabled by default when targetting Power6 and disabled otherwise.
-mfused-madd
-mno-fused-madd
Generate code that uses (does not use) the floating-point multiply and accumulate instructions. These instructions are generated by default if hardware floating point is used. The machine-dependent -mfused-madd option is now mapped to the machine-independent -ffp-contract=fast option, and -mno-fused-madd is mapped to -ffp-contract=off.
-mmulhw
-mno-mulhw
Generate code that uses (does not use) the half-word multiply and multiply-accumulate instructions on the IBM 405, 440, 464 and 476 processors. These instructions are generated by default when targetting those processors.
-mdlmzb
-mno-dlmzb
Generate code that uses (does not use) the string-search ‘dlmzb’ instruction on the IBM 405, 440, 464 and 476 processors. This instruction is generated by default when targetting those processors.
-mno-bit-align
-mbit-align
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems do not (do) force structures and unions that contain bit-fields to be aligned to the base type of the bit-field.

For example, by default a structure containing nothing but 8 unsigned bit-fields of length 1 is aligned to a 4-byte boundary and has a size of 4 bytes. By using -mno-bit-align, the structure is aligned to a 1-byte boundary and is 1 byte in size.

-mno-strict-align
-mstrict-align
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems do not (do) assume that unaligned memory references will be handled by the system.
-mrelocatable
-mno-relocatable
Generate code that allows (does not allow) a static executable to be relocated to a different address at run time. A simple embedded PowerPC system loader should relocate the entire contents of .got2 and 4-byte locations listed in the .fixup section, a table of 32-bit addresses generated by this option. For this to work, all objects linked together must be compiled with -mrelocatable or -mrelocatable-lib. -mrelocatable code aligns the stack to an 8-byte boundary.
-mrelocatable-lib
-mno-relocatable-lib
Like -mrelocatable, -mrelocatable-lib generates a .fixup section to allow static executables to be relocated at run time, but -mrelocatable-lib does not use the smaller stack alignment of -mrelocatable. Objects compiled with -mrelocatable-lib may be linked with objects compiled with any combination of the -mrelocatable options.
-mno-toc
-mtoc
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems do not (do) assume that register 2 contains a pointer to a global area pointing to the addresses used in the program.
-mlittle
-mlittle-endian
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems compile code for the processor in little-endian mode. The -mlittle-endian option is the same as -mlittle.
-mbig
-mbig-endian
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems compile code for the processor in big-endian mode. The -mbig-endian option is the same as -mbig.
-mdynamic-no-pic
On Darwin and Mac OS X systems, compile code so that it is not relocatable, but that its external references are relocatable. The resulting code is suitable for applications, but not shared libraries.
-msingle-pic-base
Treat the register used for PIC addressing as read-only, rather than loading it in the prologue for each function. The runtime system is responsible for initializing this register with an appropriate value before execution begins.
-mprioritize-restricted-insns=priority
This option controls the priority that is assigned to dispatch-slot restricted instructions during the second scheduling pass. The argument priority takes the value 0/1/2 to assign no/highest/second-highest priority to dispatch slot restricted instructions.
-msched-costly-dep=dependence_type
This option controls which dependences are considered costly by the target during instruction scheduling. The argument dependence_type takes one of the following values: no: no dependence is costly, all: all dependences are costly, true_store_to_load: a true dependence from store to load is costly, store_to_load: any dependence from store to load is costly, number: any dependence for which latency >= number is costly.
-minsert-sched-nops=scheme
This option controls which nop insertion scheme will be used during the second scheduling pass. The argument scheme takes one of the following values: no: Don't insert nops. pad: Pad with nops any dispatch group that has vacant issue slots, according to the scheduler's grouping. regroup_exact: Insert nops to force costly dependent insns into separate groups. Insert exactly as many nops as needed to force an insn to a new group, according to the estimated processor grouping. number: Insert nops to force costly dependent insns into separate groups. Insert number nops to force an insn to a new group.
-mcall-sysv
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems compile code using calling conventions that adheres to the March 1995 draft of the System V Application Binary Interface, PowerPC processor supplement. This is the default unless you configured GCC using ‘powerpc-*-eabiaix’.
-mcall-sysv-eabi
-mcall-eabi
Specify both -mcall-sysv and -meabi options.
-mcall-sysv-noeabi
Specify both -mcall-sysv and -mno-eabi options.
-mcall-aixdesc
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems compile code for the AIX operating system.
-mcall-linux
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems compile code for the Linux-based GNU system.
-mcall-freebsd
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems compile code for the FreeBSD operating system.
-mcall-netbsd
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems compile code for the NetBSD operating system.
-mcall-openbsd
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems compile code for the OpenBSD operating system.
-maix-struct-return
Return all structures in memory (as specified by the AIX ABI).
-msvr4-struct-return
Return structures smaller than 8 bytes in registers (as specified by the SVR4 ABI).
-mabi=abi-type
Extend the current ABI with a particular extension, or remove such extension. Valid values are altivec, no-altivec, spe, no-spe, ibmlongdouble, ieeelongdouble.
-mabi=spe
Extend the current ABI with SPE ABI extensions. This does not change the default ABI, instead it adds the SPE ABI extensions to the current ABI.
-mabi=no-spe
Disable Booke SPE ABI extensions for the current ABI.
-mabi=ibmlongdouble
Change the current ABI to use IBM extended-precision long double. This is a PowerPC 32-bit SYSV ABI option.
-mabi=ieeelongdouble
Change the current ABI to use IEEE extended-precision long double. This is a PowerPC 32-bit Linux ABI option.
-mprototype
-mno-prototype
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems assume that all calls to variable argument functions are properly prototyped. Otherwise, the compiler must insert an instruction before every non prototyped call to set or clear bit 6 of the condition code register (CR) to indicate whether floating-point values were passed in the floating-point registers in case the function takes variable arguments. With -mprototype, only calls to prototyped variable argument functions will set or clear the bit.
-msim
On embedded PowerPC systems, assume that the startup module is called sim-crt0.o and that the standard C libraries are libsim.a and libc.a. This is the default for ‘powerpc-*-eabisim’ configurations.
-mmvme
On embedded PowerPC systems, assume that the startup module is called crt0.o and the standard C libraries are libmvme.a and libc.a.
-mads
On embedded PowerPC systems, assume that the startup module is called crt0.o and the standard C libraries are libads.a and libc.a.
-myellowknife
On embedded PowerPC systems, assume that the startup module is called crt0.o and the standard C libraries are libyk.a and libc.a.
-mvxworks
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems, specify that you are compiling for a VxWorks system.
-memb
On embedded PowerPC systems, set the PPC_EMB bit in the ELF flags header to indicate that ‘eabi’ extended relocations are used.
-meabi
-mno-eabi
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems do (do not) adhere to the Embedded Applications Binary Interface (eabi) which is a set of modifications to the System V.4 specifications. Selecting -meabi means that the stack is aligned to an 8-byte boundary, a function __eabi is called to from main to set up the eabi environment, and the -msdata option can use both r2 and r13 to point to two separate small data areas. Selecting -mno-eabi means that the stack is aligned to a 16-byte boundary, do not call an initialization function from main, and the -msdata option will only use r13 to point to a single small data area. The -meabi option is on by default if you configured GCC using one of the ‘powerpc*-*-eabi*’ options.
-msdata=eabi
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems, put small initialized const global and static data in the ‘.sdata2’ section, which is pointed to by register r2. Put small initialized non-const global and static data in the ‘.sdata’ section, which is pointed to by register r13. Put small uninitialized global and static data in the ‘.sbss’ section, which is adjacent to the ‘.sdata’ section. The -msdata=eabi option is incompatible with the -mrelocatable option. The -msdata=eabi option also sets the -memb option.
-msdata=sysv
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems, put small global and static data in the ‘.sdata’ section, which is pointed to by register r13. Put small uninitialized global and static data in the ‘.sbss’ section, which is adjacent to the ‘.sdata’ section. The -msdata=sysv option is incompatible with the -mrelocatable option.
-msdata=default
-msdata
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems, if -meabi is used, compile code the same as -msdata=eabi, otherwise compile code the same as -msdata=sysv.
-msdata=data
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems, put small global data in the ‘.sdata’ section. Put small uninitialized global data in the ‘.sbss’ section. Do not use register r13 to address small data however. This is the default behavior unless other -msdata options are used.
-msdata=none
-mno-sdata
On embedded PowerPC systems, put all initialized global and static data in the ‘.data’ section, and all uninitialized data in the ‘.bss’ section.
-mblock-move-inline-limit=num
Inline all block moves (such as calls to memcpy or structure copies) less than or equal to num bytes. The minimum value for num is 32 bytes on 32-bit targets and 64 bytes on 64-bit targets. The default value is target-specific.
-G num
On embedded PowerPC systems, put global and static items less than or equal to num bytes into the small data or bss sections instead of the normal data or bss section. By default, num is 8. The -G num switch is also passed to the linker. All modules should be compiled with the same -G num value.
-mregnames
-mno-regnames
On System V.4 and embedded PowerPC systems do (do not) emit register names in the assembly language output using symbolic forms.
-mlongcall
-mno-longcall
By default assume that all calls are far away so that a longer more expensive calling sequence is required. This is required for calls further than 32 megabytes (33,554,432 bytes) from the current location. A short call will be generated if the compiler knows the call cannot be that far away. This setting can be overridden by the shortcall function attribute, or by #pragma longcall(0).

Some linkers are capable of detecting out-of-range calls and generating glue code on the fly. On these systems, long calls are unnecessary and generate slower code. As of this writing, the AIX linker can do this, as can the GNU linker for PowerPC/64. It is planned to add this feature to the GNU linker for 32-bit PowerPC systems as well.

On Darwin/PPC systems, #pragma longcall will generate “jbsr callee, L42”, plus a “branch island” (glue code). The two target addresses represent the callee and the “branch island”. The Darwin/PPC linker will prefer the first address and generate a “bl callee” if the PPC “bl” instruction will reach the callee directly; otherwise, the linker will generate “bl L42” to call the “branch island”. The “branch island” is appended to the body of the calling function; it computes the full 32-bit address of the callee and jumps to it.

On Mach-O (Darwin) systems, this option directs the compiler emit to the glue for every direct call, and the Darwin linker decides whether to use or discard it.

In the future, we may cause GCC to ignore all longcall specifications when the linker is known to generate glue.

-mtls-markers
-mno-tls-markers
Mark (do not mark) calls to __tls_get_addr with a relocation specifying the function argument. The relocation allows ld to reliably associate function call with argument setup instructions for TLS optimization, which in turn allows gcc to better schedule the sequence.
-pthread
Adds support for multithreading with the pthreads library. This option sets flags for both the preprocessor and linker.
-mrecip
-mno-recip
This option will enable GCC to use the reciprocal estimate and reciprocal square root estimate instructions with additional Newton-Raphson steps to increase precision instead of doing a divide or square root and divide for floating-point arguments. You should use the -ffast-math option when using -mrecip (or at least -funsafe-math-optimizations, -finite-math-only, -freciprocal-math and -fno-trapping-math). Note that while the throughput of the sequence is generally higher than the throughput of the non-reciprocal instruction, the precision of the sequence can be decreased by up to 2 ulp (i.e. the inverse of 1.0 equals 0.99999994) for reciprocal square roots.
-mrecip=opt
This option allows to control which reciprocal estimate instructions may be used. opt is a comma separated list of options, which may be preceded by a ! to invert the option: all: enable all estimate instructions, default: enable the default instructions, equivalent to -mrecip, none: disable all estimate instructions, equivalent to -mno-recip; div: enable the reciprocal approximation instructions for both single and double precision; divf: enable the single-precision reciprocal approximation instructions; divd: enable the double-precision reciprocal approximation instructions; rsqrt: enable the reciprocal square root approximation instructions for both single and double precision; rsqrtf: enable the single-precision reciprocal square root approximation instructions; rsqrtd: enable the double-precision reciprocal square root approximation instructions;

So for example, -mrecip=all,!rsqrtd would enable the all of the reciprocal estimate instructions, except for the FRSQRTE, XSRSQRTEDP, and XVRSQRTEDP instructions which handle the double-precision reciprocal square root calculations.

-mrecip-precision
-mno-recip-precision
Assume (do not assume) that the reciprocal estimate instructions provide higher-precision estimates than is mandated by the PowerPC ABI. Selecting -mcpu=power6 or -mcpu=power7 automatically selects -mrecip-precision. The double-precision square root estimate instructions are not generated by default on low-precision machines, since they do not provide an estimate that converges after three steps.
-mveclibabi=type
Specifies the ABI type to use for vectorizing intrinsics using an external library. The only type supported at present is mass, which specifies to use IBM's Mathematical Acceleration Subsystem (MASS) libraries for vectorizing intrinsics using external libraries. GCC will currently emit calls to acosd2, acosf4, acoshd2, acoshf4, asind2, asinf4, asinhd2, asinhf4, atan2d2, atan2f4, atand2, atanf4, atanhd2, atanhf4, cbrtd2, cbrtf4, cosd2, cosf4, coshd2, coshf4, erfcd2, erfcf4, erfd2, erff4, exp2d2, exp2f4, expd2, expf4, expm1d2, expm1f4, hypotd2, hypotf4, lgammad2, lgammaf4, log10d2, log10f4, log1pd2, log1pf4, log2d2, log2f4, logd2, logf4, powd2, powf4, sind2, sinf4, sinhd2, sinhf4, sqrtd2, sqrtf4, tand2, tanf4, tanhd2, and tanhf4 when generating code for power7. Both -ftree-vectorize and -funsafe-math-optimizations have to be enabled. The MASS libraries will have to be specified at link time.
-mfriz
-mno-friz
Generate (do not generate) the friz instruction when the -funsafe-math-optimizations option is used to optimize rounding of floating-point values to 64-bit integer and back to floating point. The friz instruction does not return the same value if the floating-point number is too large to fit in an integer.
-mpointers-to-nested-functions
-mno-pointers-to-nested-functions
Generate (do not generate) code to load up the static chain register (r11) when calling through a pointer on AIX and 64-bit Linux systems where a function pointer points to a 3-word descriptor giving the function address, TOC value to be loaded in register r2, and static chain value to be loaded in register r11. The -mpointers-to-nested-functions is on by default. You will not be able to call through pointers to nested functions or pointers to functions compiled in other languages that use the static chain if you use the -mno-pointers-to-nested-functions.
-msave-toc-indirect
-mno-save-toc-indirect
Generate (do not generate) code to save the TOC value in the reserved stack location in the function prologue if the function calls through a pointer on AIX and 64-bit Linux systems. If the TOC value is not saved in the prologue, it is saved just before the call through the pointer. The -mno-save-toc-indirect option is the default.


Next: , Previous: RS/6000 and PowerPC Options, Up: Submodel Options

3.17.36 RX Options

These command-line options are defined for RX targets:

-m64bit-doubles
-m32bit-doubles
Make the double data type be 64 bits (-m64bit-doubles) or 32 bits (-m32bit-doubles) in size. The default is -m32bit-doubles. Note RX floating-point hardware only works on 32-bit values, which is why the default is -m32bit-doubles.
-fpu
-nofpu
Enables (-fpu) or disables (-nofpu) the use of RX floating-point hardware. The default is enabled for the RX600 series and disabled for the RX200 series.

Floating-point instructions will only be generated for 32-bit floating-point values however, so if the -m64bit-doubles option is in use then the FPU hardware will not be used for doubles.

Note If the -fpu option is enabled then -funsafe-math-optimizations is also enabled automatically. This is because the RX FPU instructions are themselves unsafe.

-mcpu=name
Selects the type of RX CPU to be targeted. Currently three types are supported, the generic RX600 and RX200 series hardware and the specific RX610 CPU. The default is RX600.

The only difference between RX600 and RX610 is that the RX610 does not support the MVTIPL instruction.

The RX200 series does not have a hardware floating-point unit and so -nofpu is enabled by default when this type is selected.

-mbig-endian-data
-mlittle-endian-data
Store data (but not code) in the big-endian format. The default is -mlittle-endian-data, i.e. to store data in the little-endian format.
-msmall-data-limit=N
Specifies the maximum size in bytes of global and static variables which can be placed into the small data area. Using the small data area can lead to smaller and faster code, but the size of area is limited and it is up to the programmer to ensure that the area does not overflow. Also when the small data area is used one of the RX's registers (usually r13) is reserved for use pointing to this area, so it is no longer available for use by the compiler. This could result in slower and/or larger code if variables which once could have been held in the reserved register are now pushed onto the stack.

Note, common variables (variables that have not been initialized) and constants are not placed into the small data area as they are assigned to other sections in the output executable.

The default value is zero, which disables this feature. Note, this feature is not enabled by default with higher optimization levels (-O2 etc) because of the potentially detrimental effects of reserving a register. It is up to the programmer to experiment and discover whether this feature is of benefit to their program. See the description of the -mpid option for a description of how the actual register to hold the small data area pointer is chosen.

-msim
-mno-sim
Use the simulator runtime. The default is to use the libgloss board specific runtime.
-mas100-syntax
-mno-as100-syntax
When generating assembler output use a syntax that is compatible with Renesas's AS100 assembler. This syntax can also be handled by the GAS assembler but it has some restrictions so generating it is not the default option.
-mmax-constant-size=N
Specifies the maximum size, in bytes, of a constant that can be used as an operand in a RX instruction. Although the RX instruction set does allow constants of up to 4 bytes in length to be used in instructions, a longer value equates to a longer instruction. Thus in some circumstances it can be beneficial to restrict the size of constants that are used in instructions. Constants that are too big are instead placed into a constant pool and referenced via register indirection.

The value N can be between 0 and 4. A value of 0 (the default) or 4 means that constants of any size are allowed.

-mrelax
Enable linker relaxation. Linker relaxation is a process whereby the linker will attempt to reduce the size of a program by finding shorter versions of various instructions. Disabled by default.
-mint-register=N
Specify the number of registers to reserve for fast interrupt handler functions. The value N can be between 0 and 4. A value of 1 means that register r13 will be reserved for the exclusive use of fast interrupt handlers. A value of 2 reserves r13 and r12. A value of 3 reserves r13, r12